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The basal action of the ability accumulation is to catechumen the blazon of electrical power accessible at the bank atrium to the blazon the computer dent can use. The ability accumulation in a accepted desktop arrangement is advised to catechumen either 115-volt (nominal) 60Hz AC (alternating current) or 230v (nominal) 50Hz AC power into 3.3v, 5v, and 12v DC (direct current) power. Some ability food require you to about-face amid the two ascribe ranges, admitting others auto-switch.

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Usually, the agenda cyberbanking apparatus and circuits in the system (motherboard, adapter cards, and deejay drive argumentation boards) use the 3.3v or 5v power, and the motors (disk drive motors and any fans) use the 12v power. Table 3.1 lists these accessories and their ability consumptions.

Voltage

Devices Powered

3.3v

Chipsets, DIMMs, PCI/AGP cards, assorted chips

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5v

Disk drive logic, SIMMs, PCI/AGP cards, ISA cards, voltage regulators, miscellaneous chips

12v

Motors, voltage regulators (high output)

The ability accumulation charge bear a good, abiding accumulation of DC power so that the arrangement can accomplish properly. Accessories that run on voltages added than these charge be powered by onboard voltage regulators. For example, RIMMs run on 2.5v that is supplied by an onboard regulator, and processors are supplied by a voltage regulator bore (VRM) that commonly is congenital into the motherboard as well.

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NOTE

When Intel began absolution processors that appropriate a 3.3v ability source, power food that supplied the added achievement voltage were not yet available. As a result, motherboard manufacturers began abacus voltage regulators to their boards, which adapted 5v accepted to 3.3v for the processor. Back added chips began application 3.3v as well, Intel created the ATX power accumulation specification, which supplied 3.3v to the motherboard. Dual In-line Memory Modules (DIMMs) additionally run on 3.3v as supplied by the ability supply. You would anticipate that accepting 3.3v absolute from the ability accumulation would accept eliminated the charge for onboard voltage regulators, but by that time, processors began running on a advanced array of voltages lower than 3.3v. Motherboard manufacturers then included adjustable regulator circuits alleged Voltage Regulator Modules (VRMs) to lath the broadly capricious processor voltage requirements.

If you attending at a blueprint area for a archetypal PC ability supply, you can see that the accumulation generates not alone 3.3v, 5v, and 12v, but additionally –5v and –12v. The absolute voltages acutely ability aggregate in the system (logic and motors), so what are the abrogating voltages acclimated for? The acknowledgment is, not much! Some of the ability accumulation designs, such as the baby anatomy agency (SFX) design, no best accommodate the –5v achievement for that reason. The alone reason it has remained in best ability accumulation designs is that –5v is appropriate on the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus for abounding backward-compatibility.

Although –5v and –12v are supplied to the motherboard via the power supply connectors, the motherboard commonly uses alone the 3.3v, 5v, and 12v. The –5v is artlessly baffled to the ISA bus on pin B5 so any ISA cards can use it. Today, though, not abounding do. However, as an example, the analog data separator circuits begin in earlier billowing controllers do use –5v.

The motherboard argumentation commonly doesn’t use –12v either; however, it might be acclimated in some lath designs for consecutive anchorage or LAN circuits.

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NOTE

The bulk placed on the –12v achievement by an dent LAN adapter is very small. For example, the dent 10/100 Ethernet adapter in the Intel D815EEAL motherboard uses alone 10mA of 12v and 10mA of –12v (0.01 amps each) to operate.

Although earlier consecutive anchorage circuits acclimated /–12v outputs, today best run on alone 3.3v or 5v.

The capital action of the 12v ability is to run deejay drive motors as able-bodied as the higher-output processor voltage regulators in some of the newer boards. Usually, a ample bulk of 12v accepted is accessible from the ability supply, especially in those advised for systems with a ample cardinal of drive accolade (such as in a belfry configuration). Besides deejay drive motors and newer CPU voltage regulators, the 12v accumulation is acclimated by any cooling admirers in the system—which, of course, should consistently be running. A distinct cooling fan can draw amid 100mA and 250mA (0.1–0.25 amps); however, best newer admirers use the lower 100mA figure. Note that although best admirers in desktop systems run on 12v, carriageable systems can use admirers that run on 5v, or alike 3.3v.

Most systems with newer motherboard anatomy factors, such as the ATX, micro-ATX, or NLX, accommodate accession appropriate signal. This feature, alleged PS_ON, can be used to about-face the ability accumulation (and appropriately the system) on or off via software. It is sometimes accepted as the soft-power feature. PS_ON is best axiomatic back you use it with an operating system, such as Windows 9x, that supports the Advanced Power Management (APM) or Advanced Agreement and Ability Interface (ACPI) specification. Back you baddest the Shut Bottomward the Computer advantage from the Start menu, Windows automatically turns off the computer afterwards it completes the OS shutdown sequence. A arrangement afterwards this affection alone displays a bulletin that it’s safe to shut bottomward the computer.

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In accession to bartering electrical ability to run the system, the ability supply also ensures that the arrangement does not run unless the ability supplied is sufficient to accomplish the arrangement properly. In added words, the ability supply actually prevents the computer from starting up or operating until all the power supply voltages are aural the able ranges.

The ability accumulation completes centralized checks and tests afore acceptance the system to start. If the tests are successful, the ability accumulation sends a special signal to the motherboard, alleged Power_Good. This arresting charge be continuously present for the arrangement to run. Therefore, back the AC voltage dips and the power supply cannot advance outputs aural adjustment tolerance, the Power_Good signal is aloof (goes low) and armament the arrangement to reset. The arrangement will not restart until the Power_Good arresting returns.

The Power_Good arresting (sometimes alleged Power_OK or PWR_OK) is a 5v (nominal) alive aerial arresting (with aberration from 2.4v through 6.0v generally being advised acceptable) that is supplied to the motherboard back the power supply has anesthetized its centralized cocky tests and the achievement voltages have stabilized. This commonly takes abode anywhere from 100ms to 500ms (0.1–0.5 seconds) afterwards you about-face on the ability accumulation switch. The ability accumulation afresh sends the Power_Good arresting to the motherboard, area the processor timer dent that controls the displace band to the processor receives it.

In the absence of Power_Good, the timer dent holds the displace band on the processor, which prevents the arrangement from alive beneath bad or ambiguous power conditions. Back the timer dent receives the Power_Good signal, it releases the reset, and the processor begins active whatever cipher is at abode FFFF:0000 (usually the ROM BIOS).

If the ability accumulation cannot advance able outputs (such as back a brownout occurs), the Power_Good arresting is withdrawn, and the processor is automatically reset. Back the ability achievement allotment to its able levels, the ability supply regenerates the Power_Good arresting and the arrangement afresh begins operation (as if you had aloof powered on). By abandoning Power_Good afore the achievement voltages fall out of regulation, the arrangement never sees the bad ability because it is stopped bound (reset) rather than actuality accustomed to accomplish application ambiguous or improper ability levels, which can account anamnesis adequation errors and other problems.

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NOTE

You can use the Power_Good affection as a adjustment of implementing a displace switch for the PC. The Power_Good band is active to the alarm architect circuit, which controls the alarm and displace curve to the microprocessor. Back you arena the Power_Good band with a switch, the timer dent and accompanying dent displace the processor. The aftereffect is a abounding accouterments displace of the system. Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 6th Edition, which is amid on this book’s CD, contains instructions for authoritative and installing a displace switch.

On pre-ATX systems, the Power_Good affiliation is fabricated via adapter P8-1 (P8 Pin 1) from the ability accumulation to the motherboard. ATX and afterwards systems use pin 8 of the 20-pin connector, which is commonly a gray wire.

A well-designed ability accumulation delays the accession of the Power_Good signal until all the voltages balance afterwards you about-face on the system. Badly designed power supplies, which are begin in abounding bargain systems, generally do not adjournment the Power_Good arresting appropriately and accredit the processor to alpha too soon. (The normal Power_Good adjournment is 0.1–0.5 seconds.) Abnormal Power_Good timing also causes CMOS anamnesis bribery in some systems.

NOTE

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If you acquisition that a arrangement consistently fails to cossack up appropriately the first time you about-face on the switch, but that it after boots up if you columnist the reset or Ctrl Alt Delete balmy cossack command, you acceptable accept a botheration with the Power_Good timing. You should install a new, higher-quality ability accumulation and see whether that solves the problem.

Some cheaper ability food do not accept able Power_Good dent and might just tie any 5v band to that signal. Some motherboards are added acute to an improperly advised or break activity Power_Good arresting than others. Intermittent startup problems are generally the aftereffect of abnormal Power_Good signal timing. A accepted archetype is back you alter a motherboard in a arrangement and then find that the arrangement intermittently fails to alpha appropriately back you about-face on the power. This can be actual difficult to diagnose, abnormally for the inexperienced technician, because the botheration appears to be acquired by the new motherboard. Although it seems as admitting the new motherboard is defective, it usually turns out that the ability accumulation is ailing designed. It either cannot aftermath stable enough ability to appropriately accomplish the new lath or has an break active or timed Power_Good arresting (which is added likely). In these situations, replacing the accumulation with a higher-quality unit, in accession to the new motherboard, is the able solution.

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