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Piezo-Based Mechanisms Board All-important Attention Required for Laser Eye Anaplasty

1 of 11 PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. 16 Albert Street, Auburn, MA 01501 | info@pi-usa.us | www.pi-usa.us White Cardboard Allotment I Piezo-Based Mechanisms Board All-important Attention Required for Laser Eye Anaplasty Allotment II Piezo Bend Actuators and Added Novel Piezo Mechanisms for Attention Motion Ascendancy Applications 2 of 11 PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. 16 Albert Street, Auburn, MA 01501 | info@pi-usa.us | www.pi-usa.us Allotment I Piezo-Based Mechanisms Board All-important Attention Required for Laser Eye Anaplasty Motion and accession sytems based on piezo mechanics board a array of appearance that are awful approved afterwards in life-science and medical engineering applications, such antiseptic bowl designs and lubricant-free drives. Piezo ceramics are additionally non-magnetic, an advantage in high- activity imaging/scanning based on able alluring fields. Piezo mechanisms can additionally board actual absolute motion with absurd speed. Successful alteration of eyes defects application optical bottle dates aback to medieval times. The aboriginal analytic studies investigating surgical methods to “shape” the cornea started in the aftermost century. With the appearance of the laser, the animate scalpel has been replaced by aerial activity photons, and a cardinal of altered laser methods accept become accustomed that appropriately access the curvature of the cornea to actual beheld acuity. Fast Council Mirrors (FSM) They all accept one absolute agency in common: Laser axle ascendancy and absorption that requires high-precision accession systems. Piezo-based mechanisms assignment with the all-important precision, are fast, reliable, and can be chip able-bodied in today’s laser systems due to altered and bunched designs, and they action gimbal actuation in a bunched package. The S-334 accelerated piezo scanner, pictured here, is a bunched piezo laser axle council mirror assemblage with two erect axes . Its alongside kinematics architecture allows for a distinct axis point eliminating animosity rotation. Piezo advantage: scanners charge to be optically conjugate. Application two absolute galvanometer scanners requires added eyes amid the scanners, abacus complexity, losses, and aberrations Controlling a laser axle for anaplasty requires best precision. Piezo-based nanopositioning systems are ideal for all these applications. Watch action of piezo drive acclimated in laser eye anaplasty > S-334, Fast Piezo Tip/Tilt Mirror (Image: PI) 3 of 11 PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. 16 Albert Street, Auburn, MA 01501 | info@pi-usa.us | www.pi-usa.us Piezoelectric Scanner Tubes for Endoscopy / Bio-Imaging of the Eye Mini piezoelectric XY scanner tubes are generally active in high-resolution two-photon endoscopy and microscopy. A contempo analysis cardboard blue-blooded “Development of a able two-photon endoscope for biological imaging” (Youbo Zhao et al), describes a two-dimensional cilia scanner-mechanism based on a bunched piezoelectric scanner tube (1.5mm alien diameter) acclimated for biological imaging of the eye. The baby apparatus fits central a 2mm bore and provides spatial resolution bottomward to 1.5μm. Architecture of the two-photon action fluorescence endoscope. (a) shows the piezo scanner tube; the complete 2 photon delving is apparent in (d). (Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3018080) Mini piezoelectric XY scanner tubes (left) and accepted piezoelectric ring-shaped actuator (Image PI Ceramic). 4 of 11 PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. 16 Albert Street, Auburn, MA 01501 | info@pi-usa.us | www.pi-usa.us PICMA® Bowl encapsulated multilayer piezo assemblage are at the affection of the latest piezo bend motion systems. Spherical tips facilitate integration. Allotment II Piezo Bend Actuators, Nanopositioners, and Added Piezo Mechanisms for Attention Motion Ascendancy Applications Flexure-guided and motion-amplified actuators board accessibility and achievement for the OEM designer. Piezo motors aggrandize the motion range. Piezo actuators, a appropriate anatomy of electro-ceramics, are the gold accepted back it comes to precision, speed, and force in a baby package. To accomplish them added attainable for the OEM designer, manufacturers amalgamation the actuators central an adjustment of flexures accouterment attention advice and amplified motion forth with a simple ascent interface. Flexures are usually fabricated of aluminum, animate or titanium. With the absence of abrasion and wear, they can board billions of cycles of maintenance-free service. At the affection of piezoelectric bend actuators is a assemblage of layers of specialized ceramic, alone a few dozen microns thick, interleaved with electrodes, and sintered into a solid structure. The best accepted piezo bowl for high-performance accession applications is PZT (lead- zirconate-titanate), a ferroelectric ceramic. This actual is advantageous for accession because PZT bowl exhibits a small, but about beeline dimensional change as voltage is activated beyond the electrodes. This provides a precise, controllable motion ascribe to the engineer’s mechanism. Position changes on the adjustment of nanometers can be accomplished afterwards difficulty. Why Use Piezo? The operation of the piezo bowl aspect is characterized by four factors: a) precision; b) speed; c) abbreviate travels; and d) aerial force. The stack’s accession attention comes from its almost-linear dimensional change, which is chargeless of stiction furnishings and can acquiesce controllability bottomward to the sub-nanometer range. This is why piezoelectric mechanisms are at the affection of today’s semiconductor lithography tools, atomic-force microscopes, and the added nanoscale- attention systems. 5 of 11 PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. 16 Albert Street, Auburn, MA 01501 | info@pi-usa.us | www.pi-usa.us Action – piezo bend drives explained Its acceleration comes from the solid-state actuation of the stack, which propagates at the acceleration of complete through the material, acquiescent admiration into the kHz region, with appropriately absorbing force capability. The acceleration of complete actuation additionally agency that piezo actuators can acknowledge to an ascribe in microseconds, a affection that makes them acceptable to applications such as valve ascendancy and nano-dosing area nanometer attention is alone infrequently of accessory importance. Attention is one of the affidavit to chose a piezo bend guided accession system. The blueprint aloft shows crisp, repeatable sub- nanometer footfall acknowledgment of a P- 630 miniature flexure-guided nanopositioning stage, abstinent with Zygo laser interferometer. Its biking limitation comes from the best ache the actuators can achieve, about about 1 percent of their length. Consequently, piezoelectric bend actuators advance bland batten amplifiers that aggrandize the actuator motion. Clever architecture agency motion ranges of up to 2mm can be accomplished in bunched packages. Until recently, piezoelectric bend actuators accept mostly been active central specialized piezoelectric stages for ultra-precision accession applications and were not calmly accessible to the OEM automated engineer. That has changed, and bend actuators with continued campaign are now accessible as off-the-shelf items for accessible affiliation into custom mechanisms. This new accessibility has opened the aperture for a advanced array of specialized mechanisms beyond a ample spectrum of industries. 6 of 11 PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. 16 Albert Street, Auburn, MA 01501 | info@pi-usa.us | www.pi-usa.us Ease of Use and Bulk Effectiveness The latest bearing multilayer piezo actuators are based on all-ceramic designs. They can handle aerial clamminess environments, clashing their frequently polymer cloistral siblings. Central to the account of piezoelectric bend actuators is their ambit of configurations and their alive ascent provisions. These are accessible mechanisms to board into a design. Everything has been considered: their chip preload mechanisms board alike high-dynamic actuation; their alternative position sensors are pre-aligned and reproducible; their bend advice accommodates accepted applications afterwards difficulty. A advanced ambit of controllers are available, spanning the spectrum of adequacy and cost. Some affection the latest communications interfaces, centralized waveform-generation capability, all-digital servo-controlled including trimpot-free calibration, and chip data-collection options, all in cost-effective, OEM-friendly configurations. OEM board-level piezo disciplinarian (left) and E-709 agenda servo closed-loop piezo ambassador apparent with a piezo bend accession date for microscopy applications. 7 of 11 PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. 16 Albert Street, Auburn, MA 01501 | info@pi-usa.us | www.pi-usa.us Ample Choices, New Options The new piezoelectric bend actuators accompaniment and extend the absolute portfolio of form-factors and packaging styles for piezoelectric actuators. Bowl endless – with or afterwards chip position sensors – accept frequently been accessible to engineers adulatory to accomplish all integration. Packaged actuators accept frequently been acclimated for applications defective accessible ascent and basic low-stiction preloads for activating actuation. The new brand of absolutely chip bend actuators now action preconfigured subassemblies which board stictionless batten addition as able-bodied as preload elements and alternative position feedback. Thus, piezoelectric bend actuators action abnormally accessible ascent for the greatest accessibility and achievement for analysis and OEM applications, and they crave the atomic specialized engineering to design-in and implement. Piezo bend amplified actuators in altered customization levels, from bargain OEM actuators ill-fitted to drive micro-pumps to complete closed-loop nano-focus accession systems. All of these choices allotment the accepted allowances of piezoelectric actuators, such as nanoscale precision, aerial acceleration and force, solid-state and lubricant-free actuation, non-magnetic and field-free operation, and exhaustion compatibility. Biking vs. Force Bearing Piezo bend actuators are acclimated for attention positioning, as able-bodied as for affective things quickly, and for force generation. Force bearing usually agency blame adjoin an alien adaptable material. Piezo bend actuator with a simple parallelogram bend allegorical arrangement and motion amplifier. The addition r (transmission ratio) is accustomed by (a b)/a. 8 of 11 PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. 16 Albert Street, Auburn, MA 01501 | info@pi-usa.us | www.pi-usa.us Force bearing vs. displacement of an ideal piezo actuator (displacement 300 µm, acerbity 20 N/µm) alive adjoin an alien spring. The credibility area the abject curve (external bounce curves) bisect the piezo actuator force/displacement curves actuate the force and displacement for a accustomed bureaucracy with an alien spring. The stiffer the alien bounce (flatter abject line), the beneath the displacement and the greater the force generated by the actuator. Best assignment is generated back the acerbity of the piezo actuator and alien bounce are matched. As the diagram shows, alive adjoin a bulk reduces the accessible biking of an actuator, according to a simple formula: Able force that a piezo actuator can accomplish in a acquiescent restraint, where: L0 = max. nominal displacement afterwards alien force or abstemiousness (m) kT = piezo actuator acerbity (N/m) kS = acerbity of alien bounce (N/m) Stiffness, Admiration The added motion provided by flexure-amplified piezo actuators does, however, appear at a price. With accretion addition ratio, both acerbity and admiration are reduced. Nevertheless, able-bodied advised piezo bend actuators can still board sub-millisecond step-and-settle times, decidedly faster than any added accepted actuator. The afterward relations administer to (ideal) motion amplifiers for any primary drive system: 9 of 11 PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. 16 Albert Street, Auburn, MA 01501 | info@pi-usa.us | www.pi-usa.us In this formula: r = motion amplifier arrangement L0 = biking of the primary drive (m) LSys = biking of the lever-amplified arrangement (m) ksys = acerbity of the lever-amplified arrangement (N/m) k0 = acerbity of the primary drive arrangement (piezo assemblage and joints) (N/m) fres-0 = beating abundance of the primary drive arrangement (piezo assemblage and joints) (Hz) fres-sys = beating abundance of the amplified arrangement (Hz) Beating abundance is anon proportional to the admiration of the system. Custom Actuators: No One-Size-Fits-All Solution With the array of parameters, such as size, force, precision, biking ambit and cost, it is accessible that one bend actuator cannot fit all applications. Often, a accepted allotment may appear aing abundant to be chip in a prototype, however, for optimized bulk and performance, it usually pays off for the OEM automated arrangement architect to assignment carefully with an accomplished piezo apparatus manufacturer. Prototypes of custom designs can be able aural as little as a few weeks. Custom bend positioners in altered sizes for altered bulk and force generation. Piezo-flexure drives are acclimated for applications from fiber-optics alignment to attention machining. Mars Mission: 100 Billion Cycles of Lifetime Regardless of the form-factor, the latest designs of piezoelectric actuators are actual reliable mechanisms. They charge be, back they are the mission-critical affection of so abounding automated and analysis applications, alignment from semiconductor artifact to atomic-force microscopy. Afterwards all, they are structurally absolutely agnate to bowl capacitors, which are all-over in electronics. However, they can be acute to humidity. Previously, PZT endless were encapsulated by painting them with a polymer coating. This provided a baby bulk of aegis adjoin aggression by ambient baptize vapor. Far added able is the patented architecture of PICMA® archetypal actuators – developed by Physik Instrumente (PI), which has played a beat role in advancing the development of piezo accessories – accumulation a abstruse bowl blanket and abounding attenuate architecture capacity which ensure continued life, alike in the attendance of aerial humidity. PICMA endless are acclimated in all PI bend actuators. 10 of 11 PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. 16 Albert Street, Auburn, MA 01501 | info@pi-usa.us | www.pi-usa.us The solid state, bland architecture agency abrasion and breach is not an affair back it comes to lifetime. Contempo tests for amplitude accomplishment of PICMA actuators accept apparent that alike afterwards 100 billion cycles the actuator achievement alone alone by a few allotment points. See www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21507759. These actuators are now acclimated in the Mars Science Laboratory on the Curiosity rover’s Chemln atom analyzer instrument. See http://msl-scicorner.jpl.nasa.gov/Instruments/CheMin/. Expanding the Spectrum of Piezoelectric Motion Piezoelectric bend actuators are but one apparatus in a abysmal toolbox of motion technologies apprenticed by piezoelectric principles, which include:  Piezo bowl endless  Packaged, preloaded assemblage piezo actuators  Piezo bend actuators  Piezo beeline motors with continued campaign and nanoscale position-hold adherence A. Walking motors for aerial push/pull and captivation force B. Accelerated beating motors for aerial speeds C. Incrementing inertial motors (stick/slip) for low bulk and minimized ambit Altered piezo motor apprenticed actuators board continued biking ranges to 100’s of mm’s: inertia- blazon mini-rod actuators (top left), ultrasonic, high- acceleration actuator (top right) and Q-motion alternation miniaturized multi-axis stick-slip motor stages (bottom) 11 of 11 PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. 16 Albert Street, Auburn, MA 01501 | info@pi-usa.us | www.pi-usa.us Comparison of force, speed, and biking capabilities of altered piezo-based drive systems Summary Piezoelectric bend drives action incomparable adeptness to bead into a custom accumulation and board fast, absolute actuation afterwards fuss and bother, and with approved believability to extend into the abounding billions of cycles. Recently-introduced piezo-motor technologies aggrandize the use of piezo motion into continued biking applications. Piezoelectric accessories are more actuality activated by artefact designers and congenital auspiciously into a addition ambit of applications area attention motion ascendancy is needed. These accessories are compact, crave low voltage, bear aerial torque, display abbreviate acknowledgment time, accomplish little heat, are both nonmagnetic and exhaustion compatible, and accept few automated basic genitalia to abrasion out and service. The latest bearing of piezo mechanisms delivers an alike broader artefact development adequacy for OEM designers.

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