CHAPTER 9TOFU, TEMPEH, SOYSAUCE AND MISO
The differences in burning patterns for soy protein foods amid the West and the Orient were categorical by D. Fukushima of Kikkoman Foods, Inc. (U.S.A.), who wrote: ” There are cogent differences in the use of soy proteins for animal burning in the U.S. and in the Orient. In the U.S., the soy proteins are acclimated as capacity of a avant-garde array of foods, e.g. hamburgers, sausages, meat loaves, dairy products, breads, pastries and cookies. In the Orient, however, soy proteins accept been captivated for bags of years, not as an ingredient, but as characteristic, altered soy protein foods.” (Fukushima, 1981).
A abundant altercation of the aggregation of acceptable soy foods of the Orient is aloft the ambit of the present work. Abandoned four acceptable articles and their assembly technology will be described. These four articles were selected, not abandoned because of their arch position in the Orient, in agreement of burning levels, but additionally in appearance of the growing absorption that they accept afresh created amid Western consumers and aliment manufacturers.
Traditional soy protein foods are usually disconnected into two groups: brewed and non fermented. Miso, soysauce and tempeh are assembly of the aboriginal group. Tofu, calm with soymilk discussed in the antecedent chapter, accord to the second. Nevertheless, brewed varieties of tofu and soymilk additionally exist.
It should be fatigued that anniversary one of the four foods is, in fact, a accumulation in itself, absolute abounding audible variations.
Historically, best acceptable soy protein foods originated in China and were alien afterwards to added countries in East and Southeast Asia. At present, however, Japan occupies the arch position in this field, with account to industrialization, technology development, accessories accomplish and common marketing.
9.2 Soy booze
Soy booze is a aphotic amber acrid aqueous with a appropriate balm and a compact taste. It is the arch agreeable condiment abettor in Oriental cookery, but it is acceptable added accepted in abounding added regions of the world. Once a home-made staple, it has become an important automatic product. Industrialization has acclimatized the assembly process, afflicted the raw abstracts used, connected the articles and acclimatized somewhat their characteristics.
The capital capacity of soy booze are soybeans (or defatted soybean meal), wheat, alkali and water. The affection of the accomplishment action is a circuitous beverage whereby the carbohydrates are brewed to booze and lactic acerbic and the proteins are burst bottomward to peptides and amino acids. Chemical reactions amid the aboriginal apparatus and the beverage articles actualize the colour , bendability and balm of soy sauce. Formulations and processing altitude alter from one country to accession and in action of the blazon of soy booze to be produced.
The action of accomplishment soy booze can be disconnected into three stages: alertness of the “koji”, beverage in alkali and artefact refining.
Fig.42 describes the basal outline of the accomplishment action of “koikuchi” sauce, a adumbrative blazon of Japanese soysauce. Soybeans and/or defatted soybean meal are acclimatized in connected pressure-cookers and alloyed with broiled and coarsely burst wheat. The accumulation is inoculated with a mould- Aspergillus orizae (or A. sojae) and incubated in bank vats with perforated cheers and air is affected through the mass. Afterwards three canicule of evolution beneath controlled altitude of temperature and moisture, mould advance covers the absolute accumulation which turns greenish as a aftereffect of sporulation. This accumulation is alleged “koji”. Koji is the capital additive of best brewed articles of the Orient. It is a concentrated antecedent of amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes all-important for the atomization of the carbohydrates and proteins.
Figure 42: Assembly of “koikuchi” Soysauce Source: Fukushima (1981)
In the adorning stage, the brewed brew is apprenticed to abstracted the booze from the solid residue. the booze is filtered, antiseptic and acrimonious to 70-80o C. Heating is all-important to alter the booze and to advance the appropriate colour and aroma. Afterwards final description the booze is bottled.
The use of defatted soybean meal instead of accomplished soybeans is justified, back best of the oil is absent in the residue.
Tamari soy booze is accepted in Southeast Asia. It contains a much lower admeasurement of aureate and accordingly beneath booze in the final product.
In avant-garde soy booze plants, all the accomplish of the action , including the authoritative of koji, are automatic and the action altitude are absolutely controlled. Actual losses are minimized through accretion operations. Thus, 90% of the raw material nitrogen is recovered in the product.
Soy booze about contains 28% acrid debris (18% alkali and 7% protein).
Miso is a brewed soybean paste. It serves as an advantageous seasoning, a concentrated “instant soup” and a acceptable antecedent of protein. The capital ingredients acclimated for its alertness are: soybeans, rice (or barley), alkali and water.
As in the case of soy sauce, the assembly of miso is a three-step process: alertness of the koji, beverage in the attendance of alkali at high absorption and finishing.(Fig. 43)
Figure 43: Flow diagram for Miso assembly Source: Fukushima (1981)
Koji for miso is able from atom grains (most commonly, rice) alone. When the mould has developed abundantly on rice, alkali is added to arrest added growth. The absolute koji is alloyed with cooked, mashed accomplished soybeans and baptize is added to abate the debris agreeable to about 50-52%. The accumulation is inoculated with alkali avant-garde lactic acerbic bacilli and aggrandize cultures and accustomed to agitate at 30o C for two weeks to 6 months in bankrupt tanks, beneath pressure.During this period, the doughy brew is transferred from one beverage barge to accession for the purpose and bond and accelerating the fermentation. When the adhesive is abundantly accomplished (depending on the blazon of miso) , it is blended, pasteurized and packaged. Benzoate and/or sorbate are sometimes added as preservatives.
Several varieties of miso are produced, differing in formulation, alkali absorption and ripening time. “Mild” miso is ablaze coloured while the accomplished varieties are brownish-red.
Fat is an capital basic of miso. Therefore, accomplished soybeans and not defatted meal are acclimated as the starting material. A “hot” variety, flavoured with acceptable amounts of red hot pepper, is produced in Korea.
Dehydrated and freeze-dried miso are produced in Japan and the U.S.A. as capacity for burning dry soups, or as seasonings.
Typically, miso contains 50-60% solids, 10-14% protein, 3-6% oil, 8-14% salt, 3% fibre. A appropriate blazon of miso, fabricated from soybeans and alkali only, is produced in abate quantities. It has a aphotic colour and college protein content, over 19%.
Tempeh is a brewed soybean artefact of Indonesian origin. It consists of cooked, dehulled accomplished soybeans which accept been brewed by Rhizopus moulds. It is a clammy solid block with a mild, affable aftertaste . It is usually sliced, biconcave into a alkali band-aid and deep-fried in oil. The acceptable artefact is awful decaying and is usually captivated the day it is made. In automatic production, it can be preserved by dehydration or freezing (after blanching to inactivate the mould and its enzymes.)
Production methods alter as with best acceptable foods. In a archetypal process, soybeans are blood-soaked in water, dehulled and again acclimatized in baking baptize for one hour. Afterwards clarification the soybeans are advance out for air-drying of the apparent moisture. Tempeh from the antecedent day is acclimated as a starter. The able soybeans are thoroughly alloyed with the starter, captivated in assistant leaves and larboard to agitate for one to two days. Mould advance is active and the accomplished accumulation is anon covered and apprenticed calm by Rhizopus mycelium.
Typically, tempeh contains 35% dry matter, bisected of which is protein. Unlike the ahead discussed brewed soy products, tempeh does not accommodate salt.
Tempeh is still, predominantly a home-made or cottage-industry artefact in Indonesia and Malaysia. It is about alien in Japan. About , it has been alien to the U.S.A. and to Europe, mainly for the citizenry of Indonesian agent and for the rapidly accretion Indonesian restaurant trade. It is fabricated in modern, germ-free plants, application stainless animate accessories and sometimes, authentic cultures of mould.
The acceptable assistant leave is replaced by acceptable artificial abstracts or foil, perforated to accommodate the abstinent aeration all-important for mould advance after boundless sporulation. Commercial dehulled full-fat grits can be acclimated instead of accomplished soybeans.
A diagram anecdotic a avant-garde aberration of the tempeh assembly process, developed at the Northern Regional Research Centre, in Peoria, Illinois, is apparent in Fig. 44.
Figure 44: Flow diagram for Tempeh assembly Source: Wang (1984)
Tofu is the adumbrative of the “bean curd” foods, the best accepted blazon of acceptable soy protein products. Bean acerbate (Fu Fu or Tu Fu) has been able and captivated in China for bags of years and a accounting almanac of its alertness dates from the additional aeon B.C. Bean acerbate is a artefact by itself or a starting actual for a array of accompanying products, including fermented, salted, smoked, broiled and absurd derivatives. Tofu is the Japanese name for bean acerbate products.
Tofu has been fabricated in the U.S.A back the alpha of the century, as an indigenous food. Its burning in the West added rapidly back the 1970s , mainly as a vegetarian another to meat and cheese or as a atypical aliment by itself. The development of a awful acknowledged tofu-based all-vegetable ice-cream was a cogent agency in the contempo advance of tofu assembly in the West. Today, a array of types and brands are accessible in best supermarkets.
9-5-2 Approved and bright tofu
Basic approved tofu is a white, about bland, bendable product, carefully akin apprenticed white milk curd. Its assembly starts with the alertness of soymilk, as declared in the antecedent chapter. Soybean is boiled, again cooled to about 75o C. The attenuate protein-lipid blur (surface scum) formed on the apparent of the milk is removed. A coagulant, which consists of a slurry of adhesive crumb or a band-aid of magnesium salts (nigari) is added. Curdling occurs. The chargeless afloat whey is removed and the acerbate is transferred to perforated boxes and apprenticed until a articular block of acerbate is obtained. The acerbate is aing absorbed in algid active baptize for several hours, with the purpose of cooling and leaching out balance coagulant and entrapped whey solids. The block is cut to retail-size portions and captivated for marketing. Beginning tofu is stored, transported and awash as a air-conditioned perishable. The affinity amid tofu assembly and cheese accomplish is evident.
A radically altered adjustment is acclimated for the automatic assembly of “silken tofu”, a softer and added brittle blazon of bean curd. Here the assembly action resembles yogurt rather than cheese manufacture. Soymilk wit a aerial agreeable of debris (10% instead of 5-6% in approved tofu) is acrimonious to 100o C., again cooled to allowance temperature. Glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) is added and the milk if abounding into the retail containers. Afterwards sealing, the abounding containers are acrimonious in a baptize ablution at 80-90o C for 40 to 60 minutes. At this temperature, GDL is acclimatized to gluconic acid, which causes the protein to coalesce as a constant gel, with no whey separation.
Silken tofu able in this way is a pasteurized artefact which keeps able-bodied for a few canicule beneath refrigeration.
A diagram anecdotic the accomplishment action of approved and bright tofu is apparent in Fig.45.
A added avant-garde aberration of the action declared aloft is acclimated for the assembly of continued shelf-life bright tofu, application UHT technology. Soymilk with 10% debris agreeable is acrimonious to 130o C and cooled to allowance temperature in connected antibacterial fashion. The GDL band-aid is cold-sterilized by Millipore filtration and injected into the beck of the sterilized, cooled soymilk. The admixture is aseptically abounding into artificial containers. The closed containers are subjected to heating, as declared below. Aseptically abounding tofu keeps able-bodied for several months after refrigeration.
The assembly of approved tofu has additionally been avant-garde and acclimatized to ample calibration manufacture. The aboriginal allotment of a tofu branch is, actually, a soymilk plant, as declared in the antecedent chapter. The additional bisected comprises the coagulation, curd abrasion and finishing operations.
The accessories of a complete tofu bulb is declared in Figures 46, 47 and 48. Fig. 46 refers to the soymilk preparation. Fig. 47 shows the approved beginning tofu assembly line. Fig. 48 describes a band for the accomplish of pasteurized cottony tofu. Fig. 49 is a appropriate blueprint for the aforementioned tofu plant.
Figure 46: Accessories Flow-diagram of a Tofu Bulb Allotment One: Alertness of Soymilk Courtesy of Nagasawa Co.
Figure 47: Accessories Flow-diagram of a Tofu Bulb Allotment Two: Curdling and Acerbate Handling Courtesy of Nagasawa Co.
Figure 48: Accessories Flow-diagram of a Tofu Bulb Allotment Three: Authoritative Pasteurized Bright Tofu Courtesy of Nagasawa Co.
Figure 49: Blueprint of a Tofu Bulb Courtesy of Nagasawa Co.
In accession to complete automatic plants with aerial capacities, acceptable affection small-scale accessories is accessible for assembly at the bounded boutique level.
Being composed of a footfall of abstraction followed by a footfall of precipitation, the accomplish of tofu is, in fact, agnate to that of abandoned soybean protein. Just as in the case of ISP, a balance (okara) and a whey are produced. This may be an aggravation to baby tofu plants which do not accept the abridgement of calibration all-important to about-face the okara into a bartering product, and to actuate appropriately of the whey. In this case, the use of micromilled soy abrade (see Affiliate 8), soy protein concentrates and isolates may be bigger to accomplished soybeans as starting materials.
Kori-tofu is a dry, shelf-stable array of tofu. The dehydration address involves a altered freeze-thaw cycle, to deliver the apprenticed water.
First a tofu is made, application as a coagulant,calcium chloride instead of gypsum. This tofu is cut to aboveboard tablets, arctic and kept arctic for up to 3 weeks and again thawed. Afterwards the freeze-thaw cycle, a ample admeasurement of the baptize can be apprenticed out, and the actual damp can be calmly removed by air drying. The dry blocks of kori-tofu are again convalescent with ammonia gas and packaged.
Kori-tofu charge be reconstituted in baptize afore it is used. Reconstitution is easy, due to the sponge-like anatomy of the solid created by the freeze-thaw cycle, and the fractional solubilization of the protein by the acquaintance with ammonia gas.
In the acceptable way of authoritative kori-tofu, the algid nights were acclimated to benumb the beginning acerbate tablets.
9-5-4 Deep-Fried Tofu
A cogent admeasurement of the tofu assembly in Japan is added candy to a ample array of deep-fried products, such as “aburage”. Abysmal frying changes the characteristics of tofu and renders it adaptable and chewy. Two footfall frying methods (first footfall at 120o C, additional footfall at about 200o C) account ample puffing of the tofu. The change in arrangement is so apparent that some varieties of deep-fried tofu may be admired as meat analogs.
9-5-5 Brewed Tofu
Fermented varieties of bean acerbate are fabricated in China and alleged Su Fu . To adapt Su Fu, a boxy textured tofu with a damp agreeable of beneath than 70% is fabricated first. The acerbate is cut to baby (3 cm.) cubes,heated, cooled and inoculated with mould (usually Mucor sp.). Afterwards the apparent is covered with mycelium (about a week), the pieces are convalescent for several months in alkali absolute soy sauce, soy paste, spices and rice wine.
Su Fu is usually packaged in ceramics jars, in a admixture of brine, rice wine and condiments.
Su Fu is a white, ery aliment akin a semi-soft cheese.
Anon. (1990) Bean Machines Install Three New Systems in North America Soya International 4, No.3, 4.
Escueta, E.E., M.C. Bourne and L.F. Hood (1986) Effect of Baking Treatment of Soymilk on the Composition, Yield, Arrangement and Sensory Properties of Tofu Can.Inst. Aliment Sci. Technol. J. 19, 53
Fukushima, D. (1981) Soy Proteins for Foods Centering about Soy Booze and Tofu J. Amer Oil Chem. Soc. 58: 346
MIYAKO Inc. (1991) Commercial Communication Miyako Oriental Foods Inc. Baldwin Park, California
NAGASAWA Co. (1990) Commercial Communication Nagasawa Kikai Seisakusho Co.,Ltd. Kawaguchi, Japan
Wang, H.L. and C.W. Hesseltine (1982) Agglomeration Altitude in Tofu Processing Action Biochemistry, Jan./Feb. 1982, 7.
Wang, H.L. (1984) Tofu and Tempeh as Potential Protein Sources in the Western Diet J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 61: 528
Yung-Shung, C. (1981) Soybean Protein Aliment in China J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 58: 96A
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