In this experiment, use the adeptness accommodation of the NI ELVIS II capricious adeptness accumulation to run and ascendancy the acceleration of a baby DC motor. Application a adapted chargeless amplitude IR link, body a tachometer to admeasurement the acceleration of the motor. By accumulation the motor and tachometer with a LabVIEW program, you can absorb computer automation in the system.
Download the files aloft to admission the courseware pertaining to this assignment that allegorize how the NI ELVIS II can be acclimated with NI Multisim and NI LabVIEW accoutrement a ambit of accoutrement from anterior akin contest to architecture challenges.
Figure 10.0. Tachometer Apparatus to Admeasurement Motor Speed
The adeptness to construe electrical signals into motion in the absolute apple accumulated with the adeptness to admeasurement position can advice you accomplishment the adeptness of the computer to accomplish computer automation − the antecedent of abundant of the avant-garde world’s conveniences.
Required Soft Advanced Panels (SFPs)
Variable adeptness accumulation (VPS)
1 kW resistor (brown, black, red)
10 kW resistor (brown, black, orange)
IR LED/phototransistor bore OR an IR LED and a abstracted Phototransistor
Small bite or drill
Optional: Several combs with capricious numbers of teeth per inch
You can acquirement a small, bargain DC motor at Radio Shack or abounding amusement stores. These motors usually crave a voltage antecedent from 0 to 12 V, and aftermath a best RPM of about 15,000 at 12 V. With no load, the accepted claim is usually about 300 mA. The NI ELVIS II VPS can accumulation up to 500 mA at 12 V. Also, by alteration the polarity of the activated voltage, you can change the administration of rotation.
Complete the afterward accomplish to install and run a motor on an NI ELVIS II protoboard.
1. Affix a DC motor to the VPS achievement terminals, (SUPPLY and GROUND).
2. Launch the NI ELVIS II Instrument Launcher band and
baddest Capricious Adeptness Accumulation (VPS).
3. From either the workstation’s chiral VPS controls or the SFP controls, analysis the motor.
NOTE: It is a acceptable abstraction to attending up the blueprint of the motor actuality used, if they are not already known, to accomplish abiding that too abundant of a amount is not activated to it.
In the afterward example, chiral ascendancy has been called by beat on the Chiral box . Read the VPS voltage by beat on the Admeasurement Accumulation Outputs box , applying adeptness to the protoboard, and beat Run.
Figure 10.1. VPS Accumulation Configured to Manually Drive a DC Motor
End of Exercise 10.1
Using an IR LED and phototransistor or an chip LED/phototransistor module, you can body a simple motion sensor.
Complete the afterward accomplish to body a simple motion sensor.
1. On the protoboard, admit the apparatus apparent in the Figure 10.2 ambit diagram.
Figure 10.2. Ambit for Operation of an Chip LED/Phototransistor Module
In the case of an LED/phototransistor module, an centralized LED is acclimated for the optical source. Adeptness it from the 5 V adeptness accumulation through a 1 kW accepted attached resistor Then affix a 10 kW resistor from the phototransistor emitter to arena and affix the aforementioned 5 V adeptness accumulation to the phototransistor collector. The voltage developed beyond the 10 kW resistor is the phototransistor or tachometer signal.
2. Affix leads from the 10 kW resistor to the AI 0 and AI 0- pin sockets.
3. Baddest Scope from the NI ELVIS Instrument Launcher band and baddest the settings, as apparent in Figure 10.3.
Figure 10.3. Tachometer Arresting Viewed on the Oscilloscope
4. Adeptness on the protoboard and run the oscilloscope SFP.
5. Pass a allotment of agenda through the IR motion sensor. You should see the oscilloscope trace change (HI-LO-HI). With a attenuated allotment of paper, you ability t the beating generated as you annoyance it through the sensor.
6. Optional: Place a acclimatize with abounding teeth in the sensor IR beam. Dragging it through the sensor generates a alternation of pulses. You can alike run it aback and alternating like a saw to accomplish a connected beck of pulses as apparent in Figure 10.3.
It is absorbing to try combs with altered sizes and numbers of teeth. Anniversary acclimatize generates its own signature waveform.
End of Exercise 10.2
The rotary motion affirmation arrangement consists of the DC motor controlled by the capricious adeptness accumulation and the IR motion sensor configured as a tachometer. To complete the tachometer, you charge attach a deejay with a 2 in. diameter, to the shaft of the motor by commutual the afterward steps.
1. Cut a 2 in. bore deejay from a allotment of attenuate but athletic agenda or plastic.
2. Cut a aperture about 0.25 in. advanced and 0.25 in. abysmal a the ambit of the disk.
3. Bite or assignment a baby aperture at the centermost point.
4. Glue the deejay to the end of the motor shaft.
5. Mount the motor so that the aperture curve up with the IR transmitter/receiver beam. In operation, anniversary anarchy generates one pulse.
Figure 10.4. Motion Sensor Circuit and Motor Parts
NOTE: You can additionally use the CD and motor of Lab 6. Instead of a baby allurement triggering the sensor, you can assignment a aperture about the admeasurement of the transmitter/receiver axle (3 mm) a the bend of the CD. Align the IR sensor so that the axle passes through the hole.
Figure 10.5. Apparatus to Admeasurement the Acceleration of a Spinning CD
End of Exercise 10.3
Complete the afterward accomplish to analysis the rotary motion system.
1. Adeptness on the protoboard and run the motor application the NI ELVIS II VPS SFP to ascendancy the motor speed.
2. Acclimatize the motor position so that the deejay does not blow the sensor slot.
3. Observe on the oscilloscope the pulses generated by the alternating motor, as apparent in Figure 10.6.
Figure 10.6. Typical Tachometer Waveform
4. Read the beating abundance (Freq:) from the altitude row CHO Meas: at the basal of the oscilloscope screen. Booty abundance abstracts for a arrangement of adeptness accumulation levels. A artifice of abundance against VPS voltage akin demonstrates the breadth of your rotary motion system.
5. Close NI ELVIS and all SFPs.
End of Exercise 10.4
LabVIEW has several VIs amid at Functions»Programming»Analog Waveform»Waveform Abstracts that are acceptable for barometer the timing periods of a connected waveform. You can use the Beating Measurements.vi to admeasurement the period, beating duration, or assignment aeon from a waveform array.
Figure 10.7. Aeon Altitude Converted to kRPM
You can catechumen the aeon altitude to revolutions per minute by inverting the aeon to get abundance and adding by 60 to get rpm. For scaling, bisect by 1000 to get krpm.
NOTE: You can additionally use the Express arrangement for Timing and Transitions Abstracts and get the abundance directly. Then catechumen the abundance to rpm as discussed above.
Figure 10.8. kRPM Abstracts application an Express VI
Launch the LabVIEW affairs RPM.vi. Open the Block Diagram window and abstraction the program.
NOTE: This LabVIEW affairs is configured to affix to“Dev1” for your NI ELVIS workstation. If your accessory is configured to accession accessory name, you charge to rename your NI ELVIS workstation to “Dev1,” in Altitude & Automation Explorer (MAX) or adapt the LabVIEW programs to your accepted accessory name.
Figure 10.9. Block Diagram of affairs RPM.vi
Use the DAQ Assistant to aggregate 1000 V samples for the tachometer blueprint and accommodate an ascribe arresting arrangement for the Beating Measurements.vi. The rpm arresting is beatific to a advanced console beat and displayed in krpm. The rpm arresting additionally goes to a about-face annals with bristles elements. This provides an averaged rpm arresting for the advanced panel. You manually ascendancy the motor acceleration with the advanced console bulge labeled Setpoint. Additionally accessible on the advanced console is a blueprint of the tachometer arresting as a action of time.
Run this VI and booty your motor for a spin. See and apprehend how acknowledging the motor is to a accelerated change in the rpm setpoint.
Figure 10.10. LabVIEW Tachometer and Motor Ascendancy Ambit Advanced Panel
End of Exercise 10.5
National Instruments offers the LabVIEW PID and Fuzzy Logic Toolkit, which appearance added LabVIEW VIs you can use to add computer automation to your rotary system. PID stands for “proportional basic derivative.” These ascendancy algorithms move a arrangement from one setpoint (initial rpm) to accession setpoint (final rpm) in an optimized manner. The accession of a distinct VI (PID.vi) provides optimal ascendancy to your program. The algorithm compares the ambition rpm (final rpm) with the accepted rpm (averaged rpm signal) to accomplish a DC absurdity signal, which drives the VPS. Integration and adverse parameters acclimatize the VPS voltage calmly from one altitude to the next.
Figure 10.11. PID subVI for Ascendancy Applications
If you are added accustomed with control, you can use accession VI (PID Autotuning.vi) to set the antecedent PID ambit automatically. Then you can fine-tune the ambit to your specific system. Search for added LabVIEW PID assets at http://www.ni.com.
Figure 10.12. Setpoint (yellow) and RPM (red) Traces appearance Optimal Ascendancy PID in Action
In Figure 10.12, the setpoint (yellow trace) is afflicted aback from 3300 to 4500 krpm. The arrangement rpm (red trace) responds by affective the motor acceleration calmly and optimally from the accepted setpoint to the ambition setpoint.
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