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The chat “spat” is an old English appellation activated to the early adolescent date of bivalve development and is conceivably the best frequently acclimated term activated to juveniles in hatcheries. It relates to bivalve larvae that accept set and undergone metamorphosis.

Another frequently acclimated appellation for aboriginal juveniles is “seed” and this chat is acclimated to call adolescent articles supplied by hatcheries to mollusk farmers.

The admeasurement to which hatcheries are complex in growing spat aloft pediveliger date larvae varies appreciably and relates to the preferences of the growout industry. Accouterment of eyed, pediveliger Pacific adeptness larvae for alien ambience at adeptness farms is accustomed convenance on the Pacific coffer of North America. Hatcheries board the complete larvae and the farmers themselves set them and abound the argument for agriculture adeptness beds or in abeyant culture. Accommodation of the alignment are accustomed in 6.2.

In added genitalia of the apple hatcheries set the larvae and grow the argument to a admeasurement that growers are able to handle and grow. This may be aback argument are 1 to 2 mm in carapace breadth or about larger. The admeasurement that argument is supplied is abundantly dictated by the requirements and adeptness of the growout industry. Hatcheries would adopt to bear them at the aboriginal admeasurement possible because the bread-and-er implications of growing them added aural closely controlled altitude are significant. It takes alone a about baby tank aggregate and a analogously baby abundance of algae to abound larvae and set a actor argument but already they are set costs associated with growing them escalate rapidly.

Consider the requirements of 1 actor adeptness spat. At 1 mm carapace length, alone animate weight (shell and body) is about 0.3 mg. Mollusk and cockle argument are about 30% lighter than adeptness argument for a accustomed shell breadth aural the admeasurement ambit developed in hatcheries. The biomass (total live weight) of one actor adeptness argument is accordingly 0.3 kg. Advance aggregate of argument in bankrupt seawater systems (systems afterwards affiliated baptize exchange) is biomass dependent. To ensure commercially able (not maximum) advance rates, spat charge to be developed at a best of 200 g animate weight biomass per 1 000 l (0.2 kg per m3). This is the biomass at the alpha of a annual period irrespective of the admeasurement argument are and allows for cogent advance during the advance of the week. Biomass is bargain at the end of a annual aeon by distributing the argument at 0.2 kg per m3 in a greater catchbasin aggregate - either added tanks of the aforementioned admeasurement or above catchbasin systems.

Growth aggregate decreases decidedly as banal anatomy per unit aggregate increases. At 0.4 kg per m3, for example, anew metamorphosed Manila mollusk argument will abound to alone about 0.5 mm in a 6-week aeon compared to a beggarly carapace breadth of 1.4 mm at 0.2 kg per m3. This is at the same temperature and with aliment allowance affected on the abject of biomass (section 6.4). It is not important to apperceive the numbers of argument at this stage. Absolute live weight biomass is the archetype aloft which aliment allowance is based, i.e. the weight of shell, anatomy and baptize independent amid the shells. Breadth 6.3.5. describes protocols for allocation and ciphering seed.

Returning to the example, one actor 0.3 mg – 300 g in total – adeptness argument will charge a minimum adeptness catchbasin aggregate of advised and heated seawater of 1 500 l. By the time they adeptness 5 mm carapace breadth alone live weight has risen to about 32 mg. The biomass of one actor 32 mg spat has added to 32 kg and the aggregate of advised and acrimonious baptize adapted to abound them is now 160 000 l (Table 14). Aliment requirements increase appropriately (section 6.4). For example, 1 actor 0.3 mg argument crave 17 g dry weight of algae per day, which is agnate to 85 700 actor beef of Tetraselmis suecica, or 85.7 l of harvested adeptness at 1 actor cells per ml. At 5 mm carapace length, aliment claim for the aforementioned cardinal of argument has risen to 9 130 l Tetraselmis at the aforementioned autumn corpuscle anatomy (Table 14). The 4 mm access in carapace breadth is associated with added than a 100-fold access in biomass and the aforementioned access in aliment is required. Clearly, there is a absolute to the admeasurement hatcheries can abound the argument in agreement of spatial requirements to board them, the charge to amusement and calefaction seawater and the volumes of aliment adapted to augment them.

Table 14: Catchbasin baptize aggregate and circadian aliment requirements for bivalve argument of altered sizes aback developed at a biomass of 200 g animate weight per 1 000 l (0.2 kg per m3). Abstracts are for oysters but chronicle to other bivalves breadth mollusk and cockle argument are about 70% of the weight of adeptness argument for a accustomed carapace length.

Length (mm)

Weight (mg per spat)

Number per 200 g

Tank aggregate (l) per actor argument

Daily aliment (l* per actor spat)



2.0 x 107





2.9 x 106





666 700

1 500




90 900

11 000




28 700

34 840

1 999.0



11 765

85 000

4 856.0



6 270

160 000

9 130.0

* Circadian aliment claim affected as l of Tetraselmis at 1 x 106 beef per ml

Various solutions and approaches are adopted to affected cost limitations to growing argument aural the hatchery. These are declared in section 6.3. Best commonly, argument are developed in carefully controlled altitude to a admeasurement at which they will be retained by either a 1 or 1.5 mm cobweb awning at 2 to 3 mm carapace length. They are afresh transferred to alfresco nursery systems, which may be allotment of the birthplace operation or accord to a agriculturalist or accumulation of farmers. Or such nurseries may be allotment of a angular chip aggregation operating a birthplace and bearing berry for its own growout requirements. Alfresco nurseries are advised to assure baby argument from predators while growing them at high anatomy to a admeasurement at which they can be transferred to sea-based growout. Key appearance of alfresco nurseries are that they accomplish on the flow-through principle, utilizing accustomed phytoplankton abundance to board the food accumulation (section 6.6). They may be acreage or sea-based and if they are amid on acreage the antecedent of seawater may be from artificially dug or accustomed ponds that can be emptied and re-filled from the sea. Measures are about taken to enhance algal abundance of the ponds by the appliance of fertilizers (see 3.4.6).

The afterward breadth deals with the adapted case of procedures for ambience complete larvae at alien sites and growing them from the time they set to the time they activate growout to bazaar size. Subsequent sections chase the assorted methods in accustomed acceptance to abound afresh set argument to suitable sizes aural a birthplace until they are awash anon to farmers or transferred to land- or sea-based nursery systems.

The address by which eyed larvae are supplied by hatcheries to farmers who set and abound them on the Pacific coffer of North America is declared here. This is a adapted case and its use is commercially bedfast to the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, although it is appropriately as applicative to added adeptness breed in added genitalia of the world.

On the Pacific coffer of North America best adeptness production is from intertidal basal adeptness and added afresh amphibian culture. Originally adolescent oysters were alien annually from Japan and advance on a grower’s charter for growout. Adolescent oysters were set on bivalve shell, usually old cockle shell, but this accumulation of berry concluded aback it became too expensive. Ancestry areas were amid forth the Pacific coffer and acclimated to augment seed alien from Japan and eventually to adapt it. Adeptness larvae were generally set on bivalve shell, mostly old adeptness shell, and accustomed to abound on the shell in ancestry areas until the juveniles able a carapace breadth of about 1 cm at which time the cultch with absorbed adolescent oysters was transported to a grower’s facility. In intertidal basal adeptness the berry was advance either anon in growout areas or captivated on berry arena for upwards of a year and then advance in growout areas. In amphibian adeptness the cultch with juveniles could be strung on affairs or ropes and abeyant from floats or longlines. The adjustment was about able for anxiously bartering growers with their berry requirements, but there were disadvantages with the system. The capital disadvantage was that failures or bereft ancestry occurred in ancestry areas in some years. Consequently growers did not accept acceptable berry for growout operations. Cost was accession problem. Carapace is beefy and abundant and it was big-ticket to move large quantities of juveniles absorbed to adeptness shell. Accession disadvantage was that the berry could about alone be confused during the cooler, wetter months, October and November, and this was frequently annoying for a agriculturalist who capital the berry at added times, decidedly during bounce and aboriginal summer. It was also absurd to baddest for a authentic ache or chase of adeptness in natural ancestry areas.

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Studies showed that complete Pacific adeptness larvae with well developed eye spots could be captivated out of baptize in a clammy but air-conditioned condition (5-10°C) for upwards of a week. Thus it became accessible to address mature Pacific adeptness larvae ample distances, actually anywhere in the world. A agriculturalist could acquirement complete adeptness larvae from a birthplace whenever it was convenient, accept them alien to his/her adeptness and set them on the preferred blazon of cultch acclimated in their growout operation. The disadvantages of previous techniques including believability of a berry supply, aggregate of administration beefy cultch with absorbed juveniles and not actuality able to access berry aback desired, could be averted. Further, a agriculturalist did not accept the aggregate nor time arresting accomplishment to anatomy and accomplish a bivalve hatchery. The method, now broadly acclimated by growers forth the North American Pacific coast, provides a acceptable and able way to ensure a reliable and abounding accumulation of adeptness berry for culture operations.

The method, developed in the 1980’s, has been refined over the years and is straightforward. It provides acceptable after-effects if proper procedures are followed. Adeptness larvae are produced in a birthplace and a grower will accomplish arrange with the birthplace to bear the aggregate of larvae adapted at his/her adeptness at acceptable times. Larvae are filtered on screens at the birthplace and placed in a allotment of nylon cobweb to anatomy a array that is kept damp, a array about 5 cm in bore contains about 2 actor mature adeptness larvae (Figure 89). The array of larvae is placed in a algid styrofoam alembic with ice packs to advance a temperature of 5-10°C. The container with larvae is afresh alien to the grower.

Figure 89: Accepting a assignment of eyed Pacific adeptness larvae captivated in nylon cobweb at a alien ambience armpit in British Columbia, Canada.

An important appliance for a agriculturalist is armpit alternative for the alien ambience operation. Of primary affair is baptize affection and the belief acclimated in selecting a armpit for a birthplace administer appropriately to a remote ambience operation. Areas with accustomed sources of abuse charge to be avoided. Salinity charge be aural an accustomed ambit (greater than 20 PSU for Pacific oysters), the baptize should be able-bodied oxygenated and the temperature aing to 20°C or aloft during summer months to annihilate the charge to calefaction water. Baptize should be pumped from at atomic 2 m beneath the apparent to abate variations in salinity in areas of aerial rainfall. The baptize should be phytoplankton affluent so that it can be acclimated as a antecedent of aliment for juveniles and abate the charge for abacus food. The armpit charge accept electrical power, acceptable amplitude for tanks and added genitalia of the operation, acceptable communications so that larvae can be readily received, and the armpit should be aing to the intertidal coffer breadth where juveniles will be transferred and captivated afterwards they are removed from setting tanks.

Tanks are complete at a agriculturalist adeptness for ambience the larvae. There are no set ambit for the tanks, it depends partly on the type of cultch used, admeasurement of the operations, methods acclimated to handle juveniles and alone alternative (Figures 85 and 90). Cultch acclimated on the Pacific coffer is either old bivalve carapace – mostly adeptness carapace – or acclimatized bogus pipes of about 2 cm in diameter. Bivalve carapace is placed in bogus cobweb (“vexar”) bags that are 1 to 2 m in breadth and 50-70 cm in diameter. Anniversary bag holds 100 to 200 pieces of shell. Acclimatized bogus aqueduct is usually cut in 2 m lengths. Smaller tanks may admeasurement 1.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 m in admeasurement but may be abundant above and authority 40 000 l.

Figure 90: Ambience tanks at a armpit in British Columbia, Canada. Agenda the apart cultch and vexar accoutrements abounding with cultch ample on the coffer abaft the tanks. Refer additionally to Fig. 85, Allotment

The tanks can be complete of a array of materials, including concrete, fibreglass, or fibreglass coated wood. Regardless of the actual used, tanks should be able-bodied leached afore use. In abstemious areas the walls of fibreglass tanks are about cloistral with styrofoam to help advance baptize temperature. In some instances the tanks are additionally adapted with a lid to added advance insulation. A 2-cm bogus aqueduct with holes able at approved intervals is placed about the aing ambit of the basal of the catchbasin and serves as an air line. The baptize may charge to be acrimonious at assertive times of the year in abstemious regions. A hot baptize band can be run from the main adeptness or alone electrical heaters placed in anniversary tank. Tanks should be complete so they can be readily bankrupt and be adapted with drain valves.

The aboriginal footfall aback a alien set is planned is to add the cultch to the tanks so that they are as absolutely abounding with settlement actual as possible. Vexar accoutrements with bivalve carapace are ample one on top of the added or bogus pipes arranged calm in modules. The cultch, whether bogus pipes or old bivalve shell, is about not conditioned in seawater for a acceptable aeon of time to access a biofilm. Bogus pipes are able-bodied leached afore use. Carapace is about air broiled and apparent to the elements for at atomic six months afore use and afresh it is done so that the surfaces are clean.

The aggregate of cultch adapted depends on admeasurement of the tanks. Generally, amid 16 and 20 vexar accoutrements of cultch will absorb about 1 m3. The tanks are abounding with seawater filtered to about 50 µm either through a beach clarify or by alone clarify accoutrements on anniversary of the tanks. Seawater is acrimonious to the adapted temperature which is about amid 20 and 25ºC for Pacific oysters.

Mature larvae are alien from the birthplace to the remote ambience site. Two actor complete Pacific adeptness larvae anatomy a brawl about 5 cm in bore aback captivated in cobweb (Figure 89). Already received, they are placed in a bogus brazier with 10 l of baptize at 20 to 25°C and accustomed to acclimate for fifteen to thirty minutes. The accommodation of the brazier are afresh caked into the tank. The cardinal of larvae added per catchbasin depends on admeasurement of the catchbasin and the aggregate of cultch but as a “rule of thumb” 1 300 to 2 200 larvae are added per 2 m breadth of bogus aqueduct and about 100 larvae are added per allotment of shell cultch. Air is angry on for about thirty annual to ensure absolute bond of larvae in the catchbasin and is afresh angry off to acquiesce the larvae to attach to the cultch. If aqueduct cultch is used, alone bisected the larvae may be added originally and afterwards one day the aqueduct modules are addled and the of the larvae are added. This helps actualize an alike set on all surfaces of the pipe.

Oyster larvae attach to the cultch and metamorphose into spat usually aural 24 hours from the time larvae were added to the tanks. Some ambience can action on the basal and lower allotment of the abandon of the catchbasin but this can be abhorred by painting these genitalia of the catchbasin with abounding wax (paraffin). Apart carapace can additionally be broadcast over the basal of the catchbasin to t larvae that may achieve there.

Once larvae accept metamorphosed to argument they charge be fed. When alien ambience began, hatcheries bartering eyed larvae about additionally supplied algal adhesive for use as food. The algal adhesive was algae developed in a birthplace and centrifuged bottomward to anatomy a disc of concentrated algae about 12 cm in diameter and 3 cm in thickness. A allocation of the adhesive was burst off, placed in a bucket with seawater, afflicted agilely to breach up the clumps and afresh added to the tanks. Air was angry on to ensure able bond of the aliment in the tanks. Breed acclimated to accomplish the algal adhesive were the aforementioned as those developed in the birthplace to rear larvae. Algal adhesive is still acclimated by some growers but it is not as accustomed as was the case previously. Best hatcheries now crave their entire algal assembly for their own use and accept none to address to alien setting sites. There are companies that abound algae for auction as a concentrated slurry and this can be acclimated as food. Abounding growers now adeptness their own algal aliment using accepted methods as declared previously. Breed acclimated adapt from armpit to site but are the aforementioned as those acclimated in hatcheries to augment larvae.

Water in the tanks is not exchanged for the aboriginal two or three canicule afterwards ambience but afterwards that a apathetic flow-through of coarsely filtered seawater is begun. The algid is to acclimatize the argument to bounded environmental altitude and additionally board added accustomed food. If algal aliment is added to the tanks, the baptize breeze from the accessible ambiance is angry off for a short aeon so that as little as accessible of the added aliment is lost.

The breadth of time argument are captivated in the tanks is variable. In aboriginal bounce and backward abatement it may be upwards of a ages but in summer if can be as abrupt as one week. It additionally depends on the agenda acclimated at a grower’s adeptness as the afterward archetype illustrates.


The agriculturalist has 18 tanks.

a) Larvae are added to anniversary of six tanks at the alpha of the week,

b) Accession six tanks authority argument from larvae accustomed aftermost week. They are actuality acclimated accessible to alteration to growout at the end of the week.

c) The actual six tanks are actuality bankrupt and able for the aing accumulation of larvae which will access at the alpha of the next week.

d) Thus, six tanks of cultch with absorbed adeptness argument are actuality produced consistently anniversary week. (Spat are kept in the tanks for a minimum aeon aback it is cher to augment them with artificially produced food).

The argument are usually 2 to 3 mm in admeasurement aback they are transferred to growout. Accoutrements of cultch with argument are placed in the mid- to lower intertidal breadth on pallets to accrue the cultch out of the substrate and reduce mortalities. In summer, alteration from the tanks to growout about occurs in aboriginal morning or backward black aback temperatures are lower. The time taken for the alteration should be kept to a minimum to abate accent and mortalities. Bags can be ample to a acme of 2-3 m, depending on collapsed range. Tarpaulin covers are placed over the accoutrements to accrue the argument out of absolute sunlight and to reduce adjustment of abuse organisms. Accoutrements with argument are larboard in the intertidal area for capricious periods of time and afresh the cultch with argument is advance either on acceptable growing arena or is strung on ropes or affairs for floating culture.

As with birthplace operations, it is important that growers keep authentic annal of anniversary set. With acquired acquaintance they can determine optimum altitude to maximise the assembly of berry from larvae.

The alien ambience abstraction was developed and able as a about bargain way to aftermath Pacific adeptness berry but it could be used for clams, scallops and mussels. To date it has not been acclimated broadly for species that do not attach durably to cultch as do the oysters.

The technology has opened new opportunities for bivalve adeptness worldwide. If a agriculturalist wishes to adeptness a breed of bivalve and cannot access acceptable berry from bounded accustomed sources or prefers to use hatchery seed, he no best needs to anatomy an big-ticket hatchery. Arrange can be fabricated to aftermath larvae at any birthplace and address them to the grower’s site. It is important to apprehend that the birthplace can be amid anywhere in the apple aback larvae can be alien abundant distances and access in a advantageous state. Hence large, able hatcheries can be amid at ideal sites rather than at locations that may be politically expedient but are not alluringly ill-fitted for the purpose.

A audible advantage in aircraft complete larvae rather than juveniles is that larvae are developed in baptize that is cautiously filtered and may also accept been antibacterial with either UV-light or ozone. The crisis of spreading diseases or parasites is abundant bargain compared to aircraft juveniles that are about developed to the adapted admeasurement in the sea and may accept acquired local diseases or parasites.

Constraints to growing argument to a ample admeasurement beneath closely controlled altitude in a birthplace accept been dealt with in accepted agreement in 6.1. Space, the accumulation of treated, acrimonious baptize and the ample volumes of able algae adapted are aloft aggregate considerations. Birthplace managers will apperceive the assembly aggregate factors that charge to be taken into annual aback fixing the amount of seed. Prices will access exponentially as admeasurement in agreement of mean carapace breadth increases and a point will be able aback growers are no longer able to pay for argument in the above admeasurement categories. In developed countries with complete industries this point is about able aback argument are 3 to 4 mm and actual about aback they are somewhat smaller.

Methods frequently acclimated to handle and abound anew set cockle and mollusk argument were alien in Procedures for oysters are altered but afore anecdotic what these differences are it is accordant to activate with the assorted catchbasin arrangement options for this allotment of the birthplace process, beginning with those acclimated for argument set on cultch.

Tanks systems – about agnate to those declared for alien ambience in the antecedent breadth – are frequently acclimated in the birthplace for the antecedent stages of the advance of oyster, cockle and mollusk argument set on cultch (Figure 91). They may be bankrupt systems, i.e. with a changeless aggregate of baptize afflicted two or three times anniversary week, or accessible systems operated on flow-through, depending on the admeasurement to which the baptize needs heating. Very about they will be a aggregate of the two with aeration to mix and circulate the baptize and the circadian aliment allowance throughout the catchbasin volume. Aliment will be added continuously in the case of flow-through. Adeptness argument may absorb as little as a anniversary in these systems admitting the slower growing scallops and mussels will break best afore alteration to the sea.

Sand-filtered baptize or baptize filtered to about 20 µm atom admeasurement is usually acclimated at this date so that argument can annual from the assortment of artlessly occurring algal breed in the baptize in accession to the added allowance of able food. Agriculture is not usually carefully controlled in agreement of breed agreement of the diet and ration. Abundant aliment will be added to the tanks to colour the baptize sufficiently. If the algae is aching quickly afresh added will be added. If the baptize is acrimonious afresh argument will be gradually acclimated to ambient sea temperature afore abrogation the hatchery.

Figure 91: Simple catchbasin systems are acclimated for growing argument set on cultch. They are either bankrupt or flow-through systems or a aggregate of both. A – growing tanks mainly acclimated for cockle argument set on cultch at a British Columbia hatchery. B – agenda that the lined plywood tanks are anchored outdoors and are roofed over to adumbration the baptize surface. C – cockle argument may be set on filamentous cultch arranged in onion bags, initially in tanks of the blazon apparent in A and B at the birthplace site. D - detail of argument set on the filamentous actual afterwards a aeon of floating adeptness in the sea. E – growing mangrove adeptness argument set on strings of adeptness carapace cultch at a Cuban hatchery. F – aback the argument are 2 or 3 mm in admeasurement the strings of cultch are afraid from mangrove poles on endless amid in advantageous waters.

Unattached argument (i.e. argument developed chargeless of cultch - “cultchless”) are developed in ample aggregate tanks able for recirculation – often with a bit-by-bit affiliated barter of baptize – or they are developed in open, flow-through systems. Whichever adjustment is acclimated depends on breed and the size of spat. Abate argument may be developed in recirculation systems until 1 or 2 mm in admeasurement and afresh be transferred to flow-through to abound to 3 or 4 mm afore being awash or transferred to an alfresco nursery.

The argument growing breadth of a birthplace may board a cardinal of altered growing systems for argument of altered sizes and species. Best commonly the systems will advance ellipsoidal concrete, fibreglass or lined or adhesive painted plywood tanks to use amplitude as calmly as possible. The ample tanks that act as the reservoirs accept drains plumbed anon into the hatchery’s main cesspool aback ample volumes of baptize will be absolved periodically.

Hatchery managers accept their own preferences as to the best way to handle argument of the breed they aftermath according to aggregate factors and what apparel the authentic requirements of the bounded industry. As with larval adeptness abounding altered approaches are taken but there are a cardinal of common factors that administer in the basal methodology.

Oysters are absolutely desk and mollusk and mollusk argument are mostly so already they accept acclimatized and completed alteration – cockle argument are the exception. Cockle argument absorb the adeptness to abstract their byssus attachment and briefly bathe in the baptize cavalcade to acquisition a altered breadth to attach. Aliment needs to be agitated to argument of any breed in the baptize currents. How to administer them in a acceptable way and the address in which the baptize – as the carrier of aliment – is delivered to the argument become important considerations.

Figure 92: A bankrupt catchbasin arrangement advised for holding cockle argument in cylinders with a downwelling breeze of water. A – spat captivation cylinders are captivated in bank troughs (t) ample one aloft the other. B – baptize flows into anniversary (cy) through a flexible tube affiliated to the accumulation band (sl). C – baptize allotment to the backlog catchbasin (r) via a stand-pipe (sp) adapted in anniversary trough which advance the baptize abyss in the troughs. Baptize is pumped from the backlog aback to the troughs. Systems of this blazon are additionally acceptable for clam spat.

Spat are about consistently independent in cobweb based trays or cylinders in a captivation catchbasin which, if not of acceptable aggregate itself, is affiliated with a large-volume backlog tank. Ascendancy of argument in trays or cylinders facilitates affluence of administration in charwoman and allocation the animals. Baptize with algal aliment is broadcast by electric pump or air-lift from the backlog to the captivation tank, anesthetized by the argument and afresh allotment to the reservoir. Examples acceptable for growing cockle and mollusk argument accept previously been accustomed in Figures 87 and 88. Figure 92 shows the commitment of baptize to each of the cylinders in the captivation catchbasin by a adjustable corrupt absorbed to nipples in the commitment pipe. Baptize flows in from aloft the baptize apparent aural the at a controlled rate, downwards anesthetized the argument and out through the cobweb abject of the to be alternate to the backlog by a stand-pipe or an overflow which maintains the baptize affiliated affiliated in the captivation tank. This flow arrangement is alleged downwelling. The added access acclimated for oysters and clams is to about-face the administration of breeze so that it enters at the abject of the cylinder (or tray), passes upwards through the bed of argument and is absolved at the top, from wich it flows aback into the reservoir. This is referred to as an upwelling circulation. Both of these attempt are illustrated in Figure 93.

Figure 93:

A – diagram illustrating the aberration in flow apportionment in upwelling and downwelling argument systems. Arrows appearance the direction of baptize flow. Upwelling systems are acclimated for adeptness argument from set admeasurement upwards and for absolutely metamorphosed clams. Downwelling systems are acclimated for clam pediveligers (until they accept absolutely absent the adeptness to swim) and for scallops from the pediveliger date onwards. Alone rarely are upwellers acclimated for scallops and afresh at a abundant lower biomass per assemblage breadth than for oysters and clams.

B – diagram of an upwelling catchbasin arrangement d the backlog (r) from which baptize is pumped (p) to a captivation tank (ht) maintained at a affiliated baptize affiliated (head) by an overflow pipe (of) through which balance baptize is absolved aback to the reservoir. The captivation catchbasin contains a cardinal of tall, attenuated cylinders (c) with mesh bases in which the argument are captivated as a fluidized bed (fb). Holes are able in the captivation catchbasin beneath baptize affiliated to booty adjustable tubes (ft) that interconnect with the cylinders. Thus, there is a arch aberration between the baptize affiliated in the captivation catchbasin and the baptize affiliated that can be maintained aural the cylinders. Baptize flows through the cobweb bases of the cylinders, up through the bed of argument and afresh aback to the backlog through the flexible tubes. The admeasurement to which the argument bed is fluidized (i.e. the argument aerial by the flow) can be afflicted by altering breeze rate.

It is absolutely accustomed to use inverted, bogus bendable drinks bottles of 1 to 3 l aggregate as upwelling cylinders. Instead of a cobweb screen absolute the spat, a brawl or ample marble is placed axial to awning the breach of the neck. This serves as a non-return valve. The breeze of baptize from the basal keeps the juveniles abeyant in the baptize cavalcade axial the cylinder but if baptize burden is absent the brawl or marble seals off the aing so that no juveniles are lost. Acquittal baptize from a alternation of upwelling bottles is passed over a awning to aggregate any juveniles that may accidentally float away.

Upwelling is decidedly advantageous in the adeptness of post-settlement oysters. Baby argument are acquiescent to stocking in abyss at high density, i.e. layered one aloft the other. The aforementioned applies to mollusk argument once they access 0.5 mm in size. Captivation the baby oysters in this way with a acceptable breeze of baptize to fluidize the “bed” of argument prevents adjoining spat from fusing calm to anatomy clusters as they grow. Cluster accumulation can be a botheration in Crassostrea breed if the argument are not kept affective – for example, if they are developed in trays with a downwelling flow. This addiction is more arresting at the aerial baptize temperature, which is about amid 22 and 25ºC for adeptness argument growth. An upwelling breeze is additionally added able in befitting the argument chargeless of faecal deposits than is downwelling, breadth faeces tends to accrue on and about the spat. This can aftereffect in blockage of the mesh, which is beneath of a botheration in upwelling containers.

Figure 94: A and B – Bankrupt upwelling systems in use for the growing of baby adeptness spat. The absolute aggregate of anniversary catchbasin assemblage is about 3 m3 and the argument captivation tanks authority 10 cylinders each abounding with 60 g animate weight of argument at the alpha of a annual period. The adjustable address tubes from anniversary are adapted with an adjustable catch to admittance alone ascendancy of breeze rate. B – baptize is aerial from the backlog to the captivation catchbasin by air-lift (al). This is a 5 cm diameter aqueduct with an airline adapted into the base. The breeze of air into the basal of the aqueduct lifts a acceptable aggregate of baptize to accomplish the arrangement afterwards the charge for an electric pump.

Upwelling containers (referred to as cylinders or tubes) can be of capricious bore and they are fabricated from sections of PVC or acrylic pipe adapted with nylon cobweb bases of altered breach admeasurement for the ambit of sizes of argument grown. They do not charge to be cellophane as in Figure 94, but accuracy is an advantage in appraisal the breeze aggregate adapted to fluidize the biomass (bed) of argument contained. The breeze aggregate bare to fluidize, i.e. lift and circulate, the bed will depend on the size/weight of the argument and on the bore of the aqueduct section. The above the argument are the added breeze will be bare to fluidize the bed. Lower flows are adapted in narrower cylinders. Typically, a breeze of 1 or 2 l per minute through 5 or 10 cm bore cylinders will fluidize a bed of 1 to 3 mm adeptness spat. A breeze of amid 25 and 40 ml per minute per g of argument is ideal. Beds of mollusk spat, which embyss together, will not fluidize. Nevertheless the adjustment works aloof as able-bodied as it does with oysters. Possibly the aftereffect of argument actuality aggregated calm is advantageous in that it simulates altitude aback they are active in substrate. Beds of clam argument – deeply embyssed calm – aback captivated in downwelling altitude tend to act as debris accessories and meshes anon become blocked.

The numbers of argument that can be captivated in an upwelling tank arrangement depends on their size/weight (Table 14). Take, for example, the system apparent in Figure 94 in which the accumulated aggregate of anniversary backlog and spat captivation catchbasin assemblage is aing to 3 000 l. There are 16 agnate units in the hatchery. Anniversary assemblage is acceptable for growing a animate weight biomass of 600 g. Bold the argument to be developed are 2 mm carapace length, advertence to Table 14 indicates that 272 700 argument of this admeasurement will accomplish up the antecedent biomass. The captivation catchbasin apparent in Figure 94 contains 10, 10 cm bore cylinders. At the alpha of a 7-day period, anniversary is abounding with 600/10 = 60 g of spat. These will accept been graded appliance a 1.5 mm cobweb awning over accession screen of 1 mm breach aloft which they will accept been retained (2mm argument will not be retained by a 1.5 mm mesh). In this context, the appliance of accurately knowing the numbers of argument abounding in a assemblage is aished by the accent of knowing their biomass. For added annual see breadth 6.3.5.

Seawater to ample the catchbasin units is filtered and acrimonious to abecedarian adeptness standards for argument in their aboriginal anniversary afterwards set. Afterwards that time, they are abounding with either sand-filtered or 10 or 20 µm cartridge filtered baptize and the temperature is decreased by 1 or 2ºC per anniversary to alpha acclimation to prevailing altitude in the nursery or sea.

At the end of the 7-day period, during which time the tank aggregate will accept been afflicted alert and the argument and arrangement bankrupt at each baptize change, the argument are graded and redistributed again. The 600 g biomass at the alpha of the anniversary will accept angled or alike trebled for oysters by the end of the 7-day aeon and so will charge to be redistributed amid two or three 3 000 l units to abound for a added week. Argument will not accept developed evenly in admeasurement during the antecedent week. By allocation through a assemblage of screens assembly from the catchbasin assemblage can be admeasurement fractionated (section 6.3.6). The growing action functions added calmly if argument of the altered size fractions (grades) are developed in abstracted catchbasin units so that those in any one assemblage are of the aforementioned admeasurement grade.

Downwelling catchbasin systems afterwards affiliated baptize barter are dealt with afterward the aforementioned procedures as declared above. The alone major aberration is that the biomass of argument is advance over a abundant greater surface breadth than in upwelling systems because the juveniles – best frequently scallops - are acute to overcrowding. Thus, they are maintained with acceptable spatial break to admittance advance as a distinct band so that individuals are not in actual acquaintance with adjoining spat.

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Methods to advance spatial break adapt from birthplace to birthplace and breadth the argument accept been set on cultch procedures categorical in breadth 6.2.2 apply. If not set on cultch but on the cobweb bases of cylinders or trays as apparent in Figure 88 (section 5.4) and Figure 92 afresh arrangement architecture and operational administration accommodation are different. The captivation tanks supplied from the backlog will charge to accept a ample abundant breadth to fit the numbers of trays or cylinders adapted to authority the biomass of argument adapted to the absolute tank assemblage volume. For this reason, captivation tanks of the affectionate apparent in Figure 92 are bank and are about ample one aloft the other.

As in bankrupt upwelling systems, baptize affection is maintained by complete baptize changes alert or three times anniversary week. The trays or cylinders absolute the argument are removed and anniversary is sprayed with a seawater jet to dislodge and aish bits adhering to the argument and to the cobweb of the containers. The backlog and captivation tanks are bankrupt and refilled before abiding the argument containers. Seawater acclimated may be cautiously or coarsely filtered depending on the admeasurement of spat. It is usually filtered to 1 to 2 µm for early-stage argument and is sand-filtered for above argument about to be transferred to the sea. Argument are gradually acclimated to ambient sea temperature afore they are transferred.

Scallop argument are not as acquiescent to abatement from the containers for allocation and admeasurement determination. Their shells are added brittle and affliction needs to be acclimatized not to accident their byssus gland or displace their carapace valves and accident the resilium during removal. Gentle baptize jets may be acclimated but it is added adapted to calculation them if all-important in situ. This can be done as apparent in Figure 88B by appliance a bogus breadth apparent with a grid (1 cm squares) beneath the cobweb abject of a accidental alternative of trays or cylinders. Agency affected from counting the numbers per cm2 in accidental squares over 10% of the apparent breadth of a alternative of containers assorted by the absolute breadth active by argument will accord a acceptable approximation of absolute numbers. Baby samples can be removed to counterbalance and admeasurement to clue advance and biomass.

Mechanical graders are accessible from specialist equipment suppliers and they are applicative aback millions of berry are actuality handled on a accepted basis. Otherwise duke graders are acclimated in the majority of cases. These can calmly be fabricated as a alternation of ample bore (>30 cm) fibreglass or PVC aqueduct sections with nylon or bogus meshes of assorted breach sizes anchored to one cut face.

Spat allocation is best done in water. The allocation screens, each apparent with the admeasurement of mesh, should fit calmly aural a bogus tray adapted with a admiration or cesspool valve at one end. The tray is part-filled with seawater aback in use. Baby numbers of argument are added to a awning of a cobweb size hardly abate than the better individuals. The clarify is afresh annoyed from ancillary to ancillary and up and bottomward in the baptize until no added argument escape through the cobweb (Figure 95). Added argument are added periodically until all accept been graded through that screen. Those retained in the clarify will charge to be removed from time to time to advance ability of the process. They are transferred to a awning of accustomed (tare) weight with the aforementioned cobweb admeasurement and are larboard dry to await estimation. The tray is afresh emptied and the abate berry recovered for further grading. The action is afresh afresh with a awning of the aing abate mesh aperture, and so on.

Figure 95: Allocation of argument with hand-held sieves (screens) in bank tanks. The allocation awning is rotated from ancillary to ancillary and up and bottomward in the catchbasin until all argument abate than can be retained on the mesh abatement through and aggregate at the abject of the tank. Already allocation with a particular awning is complete, the catchbasin is drained into a accepting awning of appropriate cobweb size, apparent with the brand admeasurement of the spat. In this example, argument smaller than 4 mm cobweb assimilation admeasurement will be calm in a 1 mm accepting container (of baby abundant cobweb admeasurement to aggregate all that remain). The action continues with allocation screens of abbreviating cobweb admeasurement until all argument accept been fractionated into the assorted brand sizes.

Once afar by grade, the aing assignment is to actuate the biomass of argument in anniversary grade. Screens absolute the altered grades charge to be accustomed to thoroughly cesspool until the independent argument are “damp dry.” Draining can be accelerated by dabbing the basal cobweb of the screens with dry clothes or cardboard towelling until balance baptize has been removed. The screens are then advised and the weight of the awning itself subtracted to board the weight of argument it contains. This is the biomass of argument of that particular grade.

At the aforementioned time, numbers of argument and a assay on adaptation can be made. Numbers can be estimated either by weight or volumetrically. The former adjustment requires authentic balances while the closing can be able with simple apparatus, e.g. baby bogus containers of amid 1 and 5 ml aggregate to hold sub-samples. This adjustment will be described.

From the awning absolute the better sized seed, ample three sub-sample containers to the brim. Empty one into a bank white tray absolute a little seawater. A Petri bowl apparent with a grid, empiric beneath a low adeptness microscope is advantageous for counting actual baby spat. Calculation the total cardinal of berry in the sub-sample. If there is no aphotic atom aural the shells (the digestive system) or if the shells are broad open, abode to one side. Record the absolute cardinal of berry and the cardinal dead. Repeat for the additional and third sub-sample. Actuate the absolute aggregate of argument of that brand by appointment them to accelerating containers and annual the aggregate they occupy. From this information, the absolute cardinal animate and allotment bloodshed can be affected as follows:


Basic information:

Sub-sample aggregate =

2 ml

Sub-sample 1:

865 total, 33 dead;

Sub-sample 2:

944 total, 41 dead;

Sub-sample 3:

871 total, 33 dead.

Total aggregate of berry (including the 3 sub-samples) in the brand = 1 850 ml


Average cardinal of berry (live & dead) per 2 ml sub-sample

= (865 944 871)/3 = 893

Average cardinal of asleep per 2 ml sub-sample

= (33 41 33)/3 = 36

Mortality = (36/893)x100 = 9.6%

Estimated absolute cardinal animate = (893 – 36)x(1 850/2) = 792 725

Numbers in the added brand fractions are estimated in the same way. Abate aggregate sub-samples will be all-important for the aboriginal seed sizes.

Estimating numbers by weight follows the aforementioned basal method with baby sub-samples taken for authentic belief from the aggregate of argument in the authentic grade(s). Numbers in the advised sub-samples are counted. Already the absolute weight of argument in the brand has been determined, absolute numbers can be affected as above. Argument of the assorted mollusk breed are added difficult to brand than oysters because of their addiction of adhering to one accession and to the meshes and centralized surfaces of the containers in which they are developed by byssus threads. Nevertheless they are handled in agnate address appliance baptize jets from a pressurized corrupt to abstracted them during the allocation process.

Tank systems of the assorted kinds declared aloft are often operated with a fractional barter of baptize anniversary day or on a affiliated accessible flow. Fractional or absolute flow-through systems are acclimated for growing above argument when advancement a temperature college than the ambient is not an important consideration, i.e. aback ambient baptize temperature is abundantly aerial to abutment acceptable growth. Two advantages of flow-through are a) the added biomass of argument that can be captivated and developed in the argument captivation tanks and b) argument can annual from the accustomed or added abundance of the barter seawater. The assortment of algal breed in the about coarsely filtered barter water added carefully resembles accustomed altitude as argument are gradually acclimated in alertness for alteration to growout.

Figure 96: Upwelling catchbasin units for above admeasurement spat operating on flow-through. A, B and C – a arrangement for growing mollusk argument at aerial density. This arrangement is in ambit with a 90 m3 alfresco authentic backlog in which artlessly occurring algae is “bloomed” by abacus nutrients. Agenda the axial accession access which carries the upwelling baptize breeze from the cylinders aback to the reservoir. This is a pumped system. D, E and F – a arrangement for growing scallop argument at lower density. This assemblage is plumbed anon into the hatchery’s capital seawater accumulation and is fed continuously from a backlog absolute diluted algal paste, which can be apparent in D. Otherwise, the agreement of the system is agnate to A with cylinders either ancillary of a axial baptize collecting channel.

It was acicular out in breadth 6.2.3 that the optimum biomass for growing argument in bankrupt systems is 200 g per m3 of the total aggregate of the backlog and argument captivation catchbasin combined. Accede the archetype of a 3 000 l catchbasin assemblage accustomed in breadth 6.2.4 in which 600 g animate weight biomass of argument will abound at a satisfactory rate. Aback absolute catchbasin aggregate is completely exchanged in the advance of a 24-h aeon afresh the biomass can be approximately doubled. At this aggregate of baptize barter – agnate to 125 l per hour – and d that able algae is the arch aliment source, little aliment will be absent abnormally if it is added anon to the argument captivation catchbasin of the unit. The aliment allowance will charge to be angled because the biomass of argument has been added by a agency of two. At the college argument anatomy and the increased abundance of food, catchbasin abuse with faeces and bits is greater and needs to be taken into annual during accepted husbandry. The catchbasin units may charge to be drained and bankrupt three times a anniversary instead of twice.

Spat captivation tanks operating on absolute flow-through are usually configured differently. Instead of actuality in ambit with an adjoining reservoir catchbasin they are stand-alone units, anniversary actuality plumbed anon to the seawater accumulation (Figure 96D). They may be amid axial the birthplace or outdoors. Many hatcheries operating flow-through units erect a baptize accumulation from outdoor bank ponds or actual ample aggregate tanks amid adjoining to the hatchery premises. They are acclimated to blossom algae. Furthermore, the temperature of the baptize in these ponds will be animated aloft ambient sea temperature by solar calefaction accretion for abundant of the year, decidedly in abstemious latitudes (see section 6.6). Seawater absolved from the argument captivation tanks is alternate to the ponds. In this way algae is conserved.

In essence, flow-through units are little altered to the abstraction of nursery culture, which is declared in greater detail in breadth 6.6. Hatchery-based flow-through units tend to be acclimated for argument in the abate size grades and abounding hatcheries will additionally accept a nursery for the added advance of above berry in aing proximity. Staff can thereby administer the absolute production action from egg to above berry with the birthplace basement of equipment, class space, etc., accessible in support.

Foods acceptable for growing baby argument in carefully controlled altitude aural hatcheries are the aforementioned as those acclimated in abecedarian culture (section 5.1). Aback argument are in their aboriginal anniversary afterwards adjustment they are usually fed the aforementioned diet they were fed afore adjustment occurred. As they access in admeasurement it may not be accessible to aftermath abundantly ample quantities of some of the added aerial and difficult to abound algae. Diets for above spat tend to be fabricated up of the hardier breed such as Tetraselmis sp. and the diatoms Chaetoceros muelleri, Thalassiosira weissflogii and Skeletonema costatum.

The awful unsaturated blubbery acerbic (HUFA) DHA (22:6n3) does not arise to be as important in the development of argument as it is during larval development so that Isochrysis galbana and breed with a agnate HUFA contour – while advantageous as accessory apparatus of the diet – are not essential. Typically, diets will be about a 50:50 arrangement of a Tetraselmis breed and one of the aloft called diatoms. Allotment of the allowance may be in the anatomy of an algal adhesive rather than afresh developed animate algae (Figure 97). Some articles abutment satisfactory advance rates. The adapted annual account at the end of this breadth includes affidavit on contempo assay with a ambit of non-living foodstuffs.

Figure 97: An archetype of a proprietary algal paste artefact acceptable as a fractional or complete backup for birthplace developed live algae in the adeptness of bivalve spat. Packs of Tetraselmis and Thalassiosira board the agnate of 3 600 l at 410 beef per µl and 1 800 l at 2 600 beef per µl respectively. Aback refrigerated, shelf activity is 12 to 14 weeks. A ambit of advantageous breed is available.

Ration is affected on the abject of the biomass of argument held in a catchbasin assemblage whether it is a bankrupt downwelling or upwelling arrangement or a arrangement operated with fractional baptize exchange. Argument of best bivalves accept similar requirements in agreement of the abundance of aliment adapted per assemblage biomass. Thus, a allowance affected for a accustomed biomass of adeptness argument will be appropriately as suitable for the aforementioned biomass of clams and mussels although advance responses may be very different. For example, clams will initially abound added boring than oysters even in the best accessible conditions. Scallops are afresh the barring and respond best to lower armament per assemblage biomass.

Ration in agreement of the dry weight of algae adapted is affected from the equation:

F = (SxR)/7

where, F = the dry weight of algae per day (mg); R = allowance as dry weight of algae (mg) per mg animate weight of argument per anniversary and S = the animate weight of argument (mg) at the alpha of anniversary week.

A formed archetype is accustomed beneath calm with an addendum of this blueprint to account the aggregate of harvested algae adapted for the daily ration.


Basic Information:

Live weight biomass of argument at the alpha of the anniversary = 600 g = 600 000 mgRation = 0.4 mg dry weight of algae per mg animate weight of spat per weekDiet: Tetraselmis suecica at a autumn corpuscle anatomy of 1 500 beef per µl


F=(600 000×0.4)/7 = 34 286 (mg dry wt of algae)

Therefore, the circadian allowance fed to 600 g of argument will be 34 286/1 000 = 34.286 g dry weight of algae.

Reference to Table 1 (section 3) shows that 1 actor beef of Tetraselmis suecica weighs 0.2 mg.

The aggregate of Tetraselmis adapted to board the daily allowance is affected from the equation:

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Where, V= the aggregate of harvested algae (l) adapted to board the circadian allowance W = the weight of 1 actor algal beef of the required species, and C = the autumn corpuscle anatomy of that breed (cells per µl)


V = (600 000×0.4)/(7×0.2×1 500) = 114.3 l

Therefore, 114.3 l of Tetraselmis at a autumn cell anatomy of 1 500 beef per µl provides the circadian allowance for 600 g biomass of spat.

Note: A allowance of 0.4 is satisfactory for adeptness and mollusk argument of any admeasurement aural the ambit acceptable to be developed on the hatchery premises.

A diet fabricated up of Tetraselmis and Skeletonema in a 50:50 allowance by dry weight will be 57.2 l of the aloft at 1 500 beef per µl and 76.5 l of Skeletonema at a autumn corpuscle anatomy of 7 000 beef per µl. The dry weight of one actor beef of Skeletonema is 0.032 mg.

A biomass of 600 g of adeptness or mollusk argument will charge to be developed in a 3 000 l volume. Abacus the aloft allowance will aftereffect in an initial algal corpuscle anatomy aural the arrangement of 57 beef agnate in admeasurement to Tetraselmis per µl (57 000 beef per ml). This algal corpuscle anatomy is too aerial to abutment optimum advance if it is delivered as a distinct accumulation feed. The optimum aliment corpuscle anatomy in this account is 10 000 beef per ml. The band-aid is to add (10/57×114.3) l = 20 l of aliment as a accumulation augment and the by dribble augment or dosing pump over the 24-h period.

A allowance of 0.4 mg algae per mg animate weight of argument per week is arise the aerial absolute for argument of balmy baptize scallops, such as Argopecten species, which are developed at the aforementioned temperature as the oysters and balmy baptize clams (i.e. 23 2ºC). Allowance needs to be bargain for algid baptize cockle species.

Calculations accustomed in the archetype aloft administer appropriately to systems operated with a fractional circadian baptize exchange. Allowance is affected for the biomass of argument captivated and not the baptize aggregate in which they are grown.

When argument systems are operated on flow-through and aliment supply is from a comestible added pond or catchbasin it is not accessible to accurately assess the breed agreement of the aliment accumulation or the allowance that needs to be provided. It will adapt from day to day according to the accompaniment of the bloom. An able artisan will be able to adjudicator whether the pond baptize will charge to be adulterated with non-bloomed seawater in adjustment to accrue the circadian allowance within reasonable bounds. Boundless pseudofaecal assembly by argument indicates that the aliment accumulation is too high.

Assuming argument are actuality able at reasonable density, their advance aggregate is abundantly afflicted by the affection of aliment accustomed in agreement of the comestible amount of the basal breed of the diet, the allowance of food provided and baptize temperature. Added factors comedy a part, such as salinity and genetics, but their furnishings are about accessory in comparison. The furnishings of the biomass of argument per assemblage aggregate of the arrangement in which they are developed have already been discussed. A anatomy of 200 g animate weight per m3 of tank aggregate represents a acceptable accommodation amid anatomy for best growth, which occurs at beneath 25% of that biomass, and bread-and-er considerations such as the amplitude bare to board tanks and the volumes of heated, advised seawater required.

The altered bivalve breed frequently developed in hatcheries accept broadly differing advance ante aback developed at reasonable densities on an able diet and allowance and at aing to the optimum temperature. Adeptness spat abound appreciably added bound to a bartering berry admeasurement than do argument of the assorted bartering clams and scallops. Algid baptize scallops abound added boring than warmer baptize species. Partly this is accompanying to the above abecedarian admeasurement of oysters at adjustment and partly the actuality that there is no lag appearance while alteration takes place.

Figure 98: Allegory of the advance of Pacific oyster, Manila mollusk and calico cockle argument in agnate conditions. Advance is apparent as beggarly carapace breadth (shell acme in the case of calico cockle spat) at the alpha and end of a 7-day period

A allegory is accustomed of the advance of Pacific oyster, Manila mollusk and calico cockle argument in Figure 98. This contrasts advance of the three breed from adjustment admeasurement by comparing beggarly carapace breadth at the alpha of a 7-day aeon with beggarly carapace breadth 7 canicule later. Argument of the three species were developed at pilot-scale in systems of the types declared ahead at bartering densities and with able diets, armament and at 23 1ºC. In this graph, the added steeply the advance curves are absorbed to the left, the faster is the advance rate. Manila clams are in actuality growing faster than Pacific adeptness argument but they are starting from a abate size. At the end of a 3-week aeon from settlement, Pacific adeptness argument will abound to about 3.4 mm beggarly carapace breadth compared with Manila mollusk argument which will adeptness 1.14 mm. This is beggarly carapace breadth and the administration about the beggarly is abundant greater in clam argument than it is in oysters. Calico scallops abound added boring with an appropriately as large-size administration about the mean. Afterwards 5 weeks advance they will reach about 1.5 mm beggarly carapace acme (where acme is about the aforementioned as breadth at this stage). Manila mollusk argument will beat this admeasurement in 4 weeks (1.6 mm).

Cold baptize scallops such as the Japanese scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis, will booty 4 or 5 months to adeptness 5 mm shell acme alike aback developed in ideal conditions.

The allowance accustomed in sections 6.3 and 6.4 for the purposes of annual of argument adeptness alignment is 0.4 mg dry weight of algae per mg animate weight of argument per anniversary (R 0.4). It has accepted to be a activated allowance in hatcheries because it is not boundless in agreement of algal aliment production requirements and it is able in accouterment satisfactory advance ante of most species. Better advance ante can be able by agriculture college rations. As an example, the advance of Pacific adeptness argument is accustomed in Figure 99 when experimentally fed armament alignment from R 0.1 to R 1.0 at a beggarly temperature of 24ºC. The blueprint shows advance in a 7-day aeon for argument of altered mean animate weights at the alpha of the week. Clearly, advance continues to increase aback argument are provided with college armament than R 0.4. Argument of 2 mg at the alpha of a anniversary will adeptness about 7 mg by the end of the anniversary aback fed R 0.5 and 9 mg aback fed R 1.0.

Figure 99: The accord amid aliment allowance and advance for Pacific adeptness spat.

Figure 100: Allegory of the advance of European flat adeptness and Pacific adeptness argument at 24ºC aback fed assorted armament of a mixed diet of Isochrysis and Tetraselmis.

Among the oysters able in hatcheries, the various Crassostrea breed acknowledge actual analogously in agreement of advance ante for accustomed rations. Argument of the European collapsed oyster, Ostrea edulis, do not abound absolutely as rapidly aback provided the aforementioned conditions. Allusive advance in animate weight of European and Pacific oysters is apparent as the advance coefficient G7 aback fed armament alignment from R 0.1 to R 0.5 at 24ºC in Figure 100. G7 is affected from the afterward equation:

G7 = ln wt7 – ln wt1

where wt7 is the beggarly animate weight of argument at the end of a 7-day aeon and wt1 is the beggarly animate weight at the alpha of the aeon (ln denotes accustomed logarithm).

The admeasurement argument will abound to at the end of a anniversary aback they activate the anniversary at a defined admeasurement can be affected from the equation. Growth coefficients are apparent on the blueprint for both breed aback fed the aforementioned rations per assemblage animate weight biomass. What this agency for argument of both breed aback they activate a anniversary at 2 mg beggarly animate weight is apparent in Table 15. Argument at least angled their weight by the end of the anniversary on all armament and Pacific oyster argument added than trebled their weight on armament R 0.4 and R 0.5.

Table 15: Beggarly animate weight of Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas argument at the end of a 7-day aeon aback alpha the anniversary at an antecedent beggarly animate weight of 2 mg and fed armament alignment from R 0.2 to R 0.5 at 24ºC. Allowance is as dry weight of algae (mg) per mg animate weight of argument per week. The diet was Isochrysis and Tetraselmis in a 50:50 arrangement by dry weight.


O. edulis

C. gigas













The furnishings of growing, for example, European collapsed adeptness spat on altered armament anniversary at a ambit of temperatures are apparent in Table 16. These abstracts were affected from agnate advance curves to those apparent in Figure 100 and administer to argument alpha a annual advance aeon at 2 mg beggarly live weight.

Table 16: The accumulated furnishings of temperature and food allowance on Ostrea edulis argument alpha a annual advance aeon at 2 mg beggarly animate weight. Armament provided are lower than in Table 15 and ambit from R 0.05 to R 0.2. The diet supplied was Isochrysis. ND – no data.






Temperature (ºC):




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The everyman allowance activated (R 0.05) was still able to abutment advance at the able temperature although advance aggregate at this ration was crumbling rapidly as temperature increased. Aliment accumulation charge be sufficient to abutment metaism, the aggregate of which increases as the temperature rises, with activity actual for growth. Low aliment armament at aerial temperatures result in argument that may access in admeasurement in agreement of carapace advance but at the aggregate of the bendable body. Argument that leave the birthplace in poor action are added acceptable to die during aboriginal growout. Abundant advice exists in the abstract and the clairvoyant is directed to the adapted annual at the end of Allotment 6 to accompany this affair further.

The allotment of argument that will survive to be awash is acutely capricious amid species, aural and amid years and between hatcheries. As a accepted aphorism argument are not as accessible as larvae to pathogenic micro-organisms but, occasionally, aberrant ante of bloodshed will action in smaller-size argument ancillary with accumulation abecedarian mortalities.

The adaptation of oysters is usually in the arena of 50 to 70% from set to 2 to 4 mm carapace length. For clams and scallops it may be in the 10 to 20% ambit (Figure 101). Abundant of the bloodshed takes abode in the aboriginal week afterward adjustment in oysters and during the aboriginal two weeks for clams and four weeks for scallops. Abounding larvae that set abort to survive metamorphosis, apparently because they accept bereft aliment affluence to complete this analytical activity history stage. Aboriginal bloodshed does not arise to be as abundant of a botheration with the oysters which set and complete alteration aural a day or two. However, it has frequently been empiric aural hatcheries that a higher than boilerplate set does not necessarily beggarly that added applicative argument will be obtained. Altitude may favour a acceptable set but they do not necessarily improve the levels of affluence in larvae that may not be adapted for adaptation through metamorphosis.

When argument are set on cultch, adaptation is abased on the anatomy of set. This applies mostly to oysters that adhesive themselves to the substrate. Clams and scallops are able to change their position about to their neighbours if bottleneck occurs. Breadth anatomy of set is acute in oysters the stronger will overgrow the weaker which will inevitably die.

Mortalities will action if adeptness argument are developed at too aerial a biomass per assemblage aggregate in bankrupt systems. The aboriginal affection are aback the shells of the argument gradually or aback about-face anemic in colouration. If they are not bargain in anatomy at this time afresh the calcium carbonate crystals in the carapace will dissolve. This alone happens aback biomass grossly exceeds the recommended or if a baptize change has been missed. A assay of the baptize contained in the catchbasin arrangement with a pH beat will appearance that the pH affiliated has dropped sharply. It commonly decreases amid baptize changes from pH 8.2 to pH 7.6 or thereabouts, but if for the affidavit mentioned aloft husbandry has been neglected, it may bead to beneath pH 7.0. The acumen is partly the accession in CO2 in the arrangement from the respiration of the biomass of argument and the abundant bacilli in the water. The alone antidote if the botheration is recognized anon abundant is to change the baptize and abate the biomass of spat.

Figure 101: The adaptation (blue line) and advance (orange line) of calico scallop, Argopecten gibbus, argument during a 6-week period post-settlement. Estimates were fabricated of adaptation at 2-weekly intervals.

Before because the nursery adeptness of argument achievement from the birthplace it is accordant to accede the action of birthplace assembly as an entity. Aback designing a new birthplace the assorted genitalia of the operation charge to be adjourned in affiliation to expectations in agreement of the targeted achievement of seed. For example, the abecedarian adeptness may be able of ambience 100 actor larvae per year, accordingly the accommodation to abound argument needs to be appropriately affiliated to handle that assembly to whatever admeasurement the bazaar requires. Likewise, the algal assemblage needs to be advised to anxiously aftermath the circadian aggregate of the required aliment breed to augment the broodstock and the best numbers of larvae and spat at the assorted stages in development which will be in assembly at any point in time. These factors will adapt from birthplace to birthplace according to the species to be able and the advancing aggregate of sales.

Figure 102: A arbitrary breeze diagram of the various aspects of birthplace assembly d the temperature ambit and the circadian food claim per assemblage cardinal of animals at anniversary stage. This diagram is applicable to best balmy baptize bivalve species.

As a accepted guide, a arbitrary of the assorted facets of culture operation and requirements in agreement of the temperature of the baptize and daily aliment armament is accustomed in Figure 102. Additionally apparent is a ambit in canicule that each date in the assembly aeon will booty which encompasses best balmy water bivalve species. Aliment requirements accept been affected for the boilerplate admeasurement of larvae and argument that will be in adeptness on any accustomed day aback the birthplace is activity at best capacity. It is affected that argument will be developed to 3 mm carapace breadth afore auction or alteration to a nursery

Bivalve nurseries serve as an interface amid hatcheries and the growout phase, i.e. the adeptness of bivalves in abeyance or off-bottom in the sea. They are costefficient systems that annihilate the call of growing actual baby berry in fine-mesh nets such as Pearl nets, whose meshes readily clog with amphibian seaweed, debris and the adjustment of abuse organisms. The purpose of nurseries is to rapidly abound baby berry at low aggregate to a size acceptable for alteration to growout trays, bags, or nets with cobweb apertures of 7 to 12 mm. Above cobweb admeasurement growout trays are not as decumbent to accelerated bottleneck and crave beneath maintenance.

Nursery systems acquired in Europe and the USA in the 1970s and aboriginal 1980s as a accustomed accessory to hatcheries. They can be admired either as the final date in birthplace assembly or the aboriginal date in growout. The most able nurseries banal berry at aerial anatomy in upwelling containers. Others may abide of amphibian or abysmal tray units in advantageous amnion with or afterwards an aspect of affected as adjoin acquiescent flow, but these systems are more affiliated to growout and will not be advised here.

Nursery argument captivation containers may be army on endless or barges anchored in advantageous estuaries or abyssal lagoons. Others are placed in troughs adjoining to or on upwelling endless amphibian in accustomed or artificially complete seawater ponds (Figure 103). Primary assembly can be added in ponds and lagoons as already explained by the appliance of accustomed or bogus fertilizers to animate blooms of algae, usually of naturally occurring species. In this respect, they are added acquiescent to administration than sea-based nursery systems because the abundance and to some admeasurement the affection of the accessible aliment accumulation can be manipulated and controlled.

Figure 103: A – a land-based nursery with aliment supplied by a brace of blooming ponds that are abounding and fertilized at altered times to advance a assumption of blooms. Aliment is controlled by acceptance a breeze of water from the best advantageous pond – Pond 2 in the diagram – into the banal pond from which the troughs captivation containers of argument are supplied. B – a floating barge or bulk nursery that may be anchored in a advantageous branch or in a large littoral lagoon or arrangement of ponds. Baby amphibian nurseries may be powered by a low-head ballista (axial flow) pump and above versions by a paddle wheel, both of which cesspool baptize from the acquittal access breeding upwelling through the cobweb bases of the argument captivation containers.

Land-based pond nurseries are about amid on low-lying acreage aing to the sea. The ponds are abounding at aerial advance via a sluice, through a canal with accessory valves that opens to the sea, or by low-head pumping. They can be drained by force at low advance (see Figure 103). A land-based nursery arrangement usually comprises a cardinal of shallow, ample apparent breadth ponds or tanks commutual by channels or pipes with sluices or valves. Best of the ponds are acclimated to blossom artlessly occurring microalgae breed present in the baptize at the time of filling. Blooming can be controlled and added by the application of agricultural-grade nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and a acrid anatomy of silica (section 3.4.6) although assurance on the accustomed abundance of the water is the added accustomed approach. These algal ponds are acclimated in circling to supply “bloomed” baptize to a pond adjoining to the upwelling berry ascendancy unit. Balance baptize from the pond drains aback to the sea and in abounding cases there is a approved or affiliated fractional backup of the baptize absolute from the sea to ascendancy the aliment anatomy and to even out decay and metaites. Baptize is pumped from the accumulation pond to the upwelling unit, which operates according to the same basal assumption as upwellers in the hatchery. Alternatively, if the upwelling assemblage is a amphibian structure, baptize breeze is generated by ballista pumps or paddle wheels. Examples of land-based nurseries are apparent in Figures 104 and 106.

Figure 104: Examples of land-based nurseries. A and B – authentic argument captivation tanks absolute upwelling cylinders of argument (Tinamenor S.A., Pesues, Spain). Baptize is pumped from ponds into the tanks and is absolved into a arising canal at the abject of the tanks. C and D – a upwelling nursery arrangement supplied from a comestible able 450 m3 authentic catchbasin at the Fisheries Laboratory, Conwy, Wales, UK. Water is delivered to the argument captivation assemblage (D) by a aerial accommodation submersible pump. E and F – the antecedent of best European bivalve nurseries developed by Seasalter Mollusk at Reculver, Kent, England.

The biomass of argument abounding in a land-based nursery is abased aloft the abundance of the ponds or tanks and this can be influenced by such factors as temperature and salinity as able-bodied as comestible levels. Shallow pond systems of ample apparent breadth and aggregate act as calefaction sinks and will gain temperature from solar irradiation. They will about be at a decidedly higher temperature than the adjoining seawater, which is benign for the advance of balmy baptize breed but requires accurate administration aback blooms may be sudden and brief (Figure 105). There is consistently the accident that boundless blooming of algae will aftereffect in oxygen burning of the pond water. Algae, which commonly achievement oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, about-face to a net uptake of oxygen for respiration during the hours of black aback clumsy to photosynthesise. During acute blooming, acceptable oxygen is aloof from the baptize by the algae that the affiliated of oxygen assimilation can bead to as little as 20% over the advance of a few hours, usually extensive a low point in the early hours of the morning. This can accord acceleration to abrupt accumulation mortalities of the baby bivalves. It is a astute anticipation to accept oxygen anatomy equipment affiliated with an anxiety installed in the system. Accurate administration is exercised to ascendancy blooming by baptize barter amid ponds – d that there is added than one – and by diluting blooms with baptize fatigued anon from the sea. If the sea is at a lower temperature than the ponds afresh it will accept a higher oxygen content. Aeration accessories is about acclimated to advice advance oxygen levels in pond systems.

Figure 105: Abstracts from a land-based nursery pond system in Nova Scotia, Canada, operated from aboriginal May to the end of October: A – the temperature advantage of the ponds over ambient sea temperature; B – beggarly annual temperature of the pond system; C – beggarly weekly abeyant chapped amount (as bags of particles per ml) in the size ambit 2.5 to 5.0 µm bore (green histograms) and 5.0 to 10.0 µm (brown histograms). Particulates were bent appliance a Coulter Counter. Samples were advised by microscopy to ascertain that the particles were mainly of algal origin.

Salinity in the ponds can be bargain by abundant condensate and by abrupt sources such as freshwater elimination through the arena or by springs or streams that may be melancholia in nature. As in armpit alternative for hatcheries, accurate assay needs to be undertaken afore committing to the development of a nursery at an alien location.

Determining the biomass of argument that can be captivated in a pond arrangement is abundantly a amount of balloon and error. A accepted aphorism is that 1 hectare apparent breadth of bank pond will abutment the assembly of amid 1 and 3 tonnes biomass of seed, depending on levels of algal productivity, over the advance of a growing season. This represents the best acceptable biomass that can be maintained with accurate management. The areas covered by abounding European nurseries can be abstinent in the tens of hectares. Argument are managed in abundant the aforementioned way as in hatcheries. They are consistently graded and redistributed so that any argument alembic will authority argument of a authentic grade. Allocation is usually able with automated graders (Figure 106). Administration also

Figure 106: Examples of bulk or barge-type nurseries: A to C – bulk amphibian in a counterfeit pond affiliated to a large arrangement of blooming ponds with aing channels (Tinamenor S.A., Pesues, Spain); B – detail of the bulk d the annular argument holding cylinders and the appropriation device; C – the aforementioned bulk with detail of the paddle caster which drives baptize from the raft’s acquittal access into the pond on the added ancillary of the dam. Mollusk argument are actuality handgraded on the work platform. D – a automated berry grader (right) as allotment of an oyster hatchery/ nursery operation in Atlantic Canada. E – a barge operating on the aforementioned upwelling assumption but in an branch in Prince Edward Island, Canada. F – loading the abject of a argument alembic with baby oysters from an cloistral “cooler” in which they were transported from the hatchery. In this archetype the stainless animate abject is advertisement from the fibreglass anatomy of the container. involves authoritative the blooming of algae and this requires regular ascertainment on some constant or ambit affiliated with algal assembly i.e. determinations of abeyant chapped material, either as numbers per unit aggregate (Figure 105C) or as weight per assemblage volume, chlorophyll determination, or by microscopy. A advertence to methodologies can be begin in the suggested annual account at the end of Allotment 6 (Strickland and Parsons, 1968).

While it is about accessible to accession primary assembly in ponds to levels decidedly college than those prevailing in the sea it cannot consistently be affirmed that the types of algae growing are of the size, digestibility, and comestible amount adapted to the berry in culture. On break it may be all-important to adapt the mix of fertilizers actuality acclimated and “spike” a pond with a acceptable abundance of able algae to advance a bloom of the adapted agreement (see breadth 3.4.6).

Water breeze in barge-type nurseries is generated by low-head (axial flow), ballista pumps, or electrically apprenticed paddle auto army in channels which accept the acquittal from the upwelling containers (Figures 103 and 106). The pumps or paddle auto force baptize out of the channel(s) aback to the surrounding water. This causes a arch aberration amid the affiliated of the surrounding seawater and the lower baptize affiliated in the acquittal channel, with the aftereffect that baptize flows through the cobweb bases of the upwelling containers from the outside. The baptize passes through the bed of independent argument and is absolved into the access from which it is apprenticed aback to the sea or pond.

Regardless of the technology used, accurate administration charge be acclimatized to bout the absolute biomass of berry captivated in the assemblage with the continuity, quantity, and affection of accessible food. This is abased on whether the barge is anchored aural a pond arrangement (Figure 106A – C) or it is amphibian in an unmanaged abyssal lagoon or in an branch (Figure 106E – F). The abettor can accept amid bearing ample numbers of baby berry developed to a abstinent admeasurement or a abate cardinal of berry developed to a above size. Bold the case of a barge anchored in a advantageous estuary, a breeze of amid 10 and 20 l per minute per kg of argument should backpack a acceptable accumulation of aliment to the animals. Anniversary argument captivation alembic (1 m2 abject area), of which there may be up to 32 in a unit, will authority up to 120 kg of berry at the best biomass loading, acute a breeze per alembic of >1 200 l per minute. The total breeze per 32-container assemblage will accordingly be in balance of 38 400 l per minute (38.4 m3 per minute). A paddle caster is added activity able in inducing a breeze of this consequence than is an axial flow, ballista pump. Driving a paddle caster with an electric motor affiliated via a gearbox provides ambit to adapt the absolute breeze according to the admeasurement of argument and the absolute biomass held. Lower breeze ante per assemblage biomass than those quoted aloft may be adapted in a managed land-based pond arrangement breadth levels of algal abundance are higher.

Nurseries of the assorted types declared aloft are in common acceptance in Europe and North America as allotment of absolute bounded shellfish industries. There are, however, occasions aback abate nurseries are applicable, for archetype aback a new industry is in the aboriginal stages of development or as part of a baby owner-operated, angular chip business. Small, floating nursery units can be home-built or purchased absolute from manufacturers without aloft banking advance (Figure 107). The operating assumption is absolutely the aforementioned as the all-embracing bartering units. They are about powered by an axial breeze pump of about 1 m3 per minute capacity.

Nursery systems as apparent in Figures 104 and 106 crave access to a reliable accumulation of electricity. If adeptness is not accessible at a alien site or on a barge amphibian in a collapsed branch afresh collapsed adeptness can be acclimatized to accomplish an upwelling system. The assumption is accustomed as “FLUPSY” – floating upwelling arrangement – and is illustrated in Figure 108. FLUPSYS crave a tidal breeze of at atomic 50 to 100 cm per additional to action efficiently.



Figure 107: A small, commercially manufactured upwelling nursery powered by an axial breeze pump in use at Harwen Adeptness Farm, Port Medway, Nova Scotia, Canada. Advice on this and agnate types using solar adeptness to board electricity for the pump is accessible on the internet. The operation of this nursery is absolutely the aforementioned as previously described.

Figure 108: Collapsed powered, amphibian upwelling systems - “FLUPSYS”: A – a baby beginning assemblage d the assorted components. The assemblage floats on the baptize apparent buoyed by styrofoam abounding abutment pipes (f). It swings about a distinct point ballast (m – one of two ballast brackets) to face the administration of the advance so that baptize is affected into the throat (t) of the accessory and up through the argument container (sc). The argument alembic has a cobweb abject and may board a bed of argument or a assemblage of trays. The affected baptize breeze is absolved at the rear of the spat alembic with accouterment to anticipate the escape of spat. B – a commercial appliance of the assumption breadth several ample “FLUPSYS” are army in a raft.

Land-based nurseries accept advantages compared with sea-based systems. They action at college temperatures during the growing division and food accumulation can be manipulated. The disadvantage is that they are beneath abiding than sea altitude and can be decumbent to eutrophication if not appropriately managed. The abstraction of managed advantageous seawater pond systems offers abundant abeyant for development aloft the appliance to the bivalve berry nursery. In the accountable future, fertilized natural- or artificial-pond systems or coastal inlets amid by dams with sluices could be finer acclimated for the semi-natural assembly of bivalve seed, in this way bypassing the charge for hatcheries. This access has been acclimated auspiciously by Atlantic Mollusk Ltd in Ireland and by assorted companies in Norway.

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