When we aftermost larboard Mac OS X, it had accomplished the additional developer examination release. The amount technologies and APIs were all present, but the GUI remained troublingly unfinished. At the contempo MacWorld Expo in San Francisco (MWSF), Steve Jobs appear in his keynote abode that the Mac OS X DP2 GUI is not so abundant “unfinished” as it is wholly adapted to the GUI that will address with the OS–a place-holder, if you will. The absolute Mac OS X GUI was briefly approved during the keynote, and it is a aitionist abandonment from acceptable Mac OS.
This commodity will analysis Jobs’s Mac OS X GUI affirmation and explain the basal technology that makes it possible, emphasizing what is so new and adapted about it, and what it agency for Mac users and PC users alike. Before we start, let’s briefly analysis Apple’s latest business bend on the Mac OS X core.
Core OS: The Latest Picture
Before demonstrating the GUI, Jobs advised the Mac OS X architecture. The acme of this analysis was yet addition high-level block diagram of the OS:
Mac OS X Architecture
Nothing has absolutely afflicted back Mac OS X was aboriginal appear over a year ago, but the naming, emphasis, and acclimation of the blocks has been adapted to clothing Apple’s business goals. For example, the bottom-level block is now labeled “Darwin.” Darwin is Apple’s name for the accessible antecedent administration of the Mac OS X kernel. In antecedent diagrams, the bottom-level block was artlessly labeled “Mach.” It’s still Mach, of course, but the Darwin activity additionally encompasses the BSD API layer–something that was ahead apparent as a abstracted block aloft Mach and alongside the added APIs like Carbon and Cocoa.
These corrective changes say a few things. First, they emphasizes the actuality that Darwin is to be synchronized with Mac OS X. The accepted Darwin absolution accessible at Apple’s web armpit is somewhat abaft Mac OS X’s centralized development, but Darwin will be adapted back Mac OS X ships to be absolutely identical to the atom in the bartering release. This was appear continued ago at an Apple World Wide Developer Conference (WWDC), but it was not emphasized to the accepted public. Consequently, abounding developers accept looked at the Darwin activity as a array of bookish exercise, or as accessible antecedent political assuming by Apple. Now it’s bright that it’s in developers’ best interests to pay absorption to Darwin. Even if they don’t accomplish absolute contributions to the antecedent code, aloof accepting the cipher on duke as a advertence is a abundant aid to development (especially back assorted with the archetypal Mac OS development experience, area abounding OS appearance were abstruse “black boxes” with blotchy documentation).
Second, back the BSD APIs are allotment of Darwin (and accordingly lose their own block in the diagram), this new appearance of Mac OS X de-emphasizes the BSD APIs. They’re still there, and developers can still address to them, but the added APIs are added applicative to acceptable Mac OS development. Similarly, Java absent its API block and was alone mentioned as an alternating accent for Cocoa development. Again, this is added of a business change than a abstruse one.
The (green) cartoon band of the diagram has additionally been changed. Accessible GL, QuickTime, and Quartz are listed alongside anniversary added admitting their cogent differences. OpenGL is the 3D API anybody knows and loves. QuickTime is Apple’s media architectonics which encompasses aggregate from audio and video playback to a 3D API of its own (QuickDraw 3D) which exists at a akin of absorption far aloft OpenGL. Indeed, QD3D could conceivably be implemented on top of OpenGL. (Apple’s RAVE API is acclimated instead, but it’s a arguable point back QD3D is now defunct.) And Quartz, which will be abundant in the aing section, is the lowest-level of Mac OS X’s affectation system. Why are they side-by-side in the block diagram? Perhaps it makes for a beneath ambagious overview for non-technical people.
As mentioned earlier, the (purple) API band now contains alone the three C’s: Classic, Carbon, and Cocoa. They’re listed in the adjustment that Apple expects developers to use them: Archetypal for absolute Mac OS apps, Carbon for revised Archetypal apps that booty advantage of Mac OS X’s avant-garde features, and Cocoa for developers absorbed in the latest afterlight of the acquisitive NeXT/OpenStep APIs.
But it’s the top band that is absolutely new. Previously, this block was evasively labeled “Advanced Mac OS Look and Feel.” Absolutely what that meant, no one knew. Knowledge of that block’s actuality led to cogent ambiguity about the GUI present in Mac OS X DP2, but I don’t anticipate anyone accepted article as aitionist as Aqua. Before we get to that, let’s analysis what is absolutely the best cogent allotment of the Mac OS X GUI–that box that’s been in the diagram for over a year and that not abounding bodies took apprehension of until Aqua showed what it could do: Quartz.
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