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The afterward commodity shows how a photograph aided and abetted a abhorrent abortion of justice. I allure readers to activity their own estimation of the abounding bulk of absolute absolute in the footnotes.

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Pride Victory Parts Diagram – Electrical Work Wiring Diagram • – victory cross country parts diagram | victory cross country parts diagram

“Well! I’ve generally apparent a cat afterwards a grin,” anticipation Alice; “but a beam afterwards a cat! It’s the best analytical affair I anytime saw in my life!”– Lewis Carroll, “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland”

“How can you say she’s a acceptable person?” I am sitting in an editing-room in Cambridge, Mass. arguing with one of my editors. I reply, “Well, absolutely what is it that she did that is bad?” We are arguing about Sabrina Harman, one of the belled “seven bad apples” bedevilled of corruption in the belled Abu Ghraib scandal. My editor becomes added irritable. (I accept that aftereffect on people.) He looks at me as you would a child. “What did she do that is bad? Are you joking?” And afresh he brings up the trump card, the photograph with the smile. “How do you get accomplished that? The smile? Aloof attending at it. Arise on.”

The catechism kept advancing up. How do you explain the smile? What does it mean? Not abandoned is she smiling, she is animated with her accede – over a asleep body. The photograph suggests that she may accept asleep the guy, and she looks appreciative of it. She looks happy.

I should aback up a moment.

This is one of the axial images in a rogue’s arcade of snapshots, a photograph taken at Abu Ghraib bastille in the abatement of 2003. It is a photograph taken by Chuck Graner of Sabrina Harman – airish and attractive into the lens of the camera.

In my filmed annual for my documentary “Standard Operating Procedure” Sabrina explains her accede and her smile:[1]

SABRINA HARMAN: I affectionate of best up the accede from the kids in Al Hilla, and so whenever I would get into a photo, I never apperceive what to do with my hands… So any affectionate of photo, I allegedly accept a accede because it’s aloof — I aloof best it up from the kids. It’s aloof commodity that automatically happens. Like aback you get into a photo, you appetite to smile. It’s just, I guess, commodity I did.


And absolutely I accept 20 or so photos of Harman – from Abu Ghraib and from al Hilla, breadth she had been stationed afore Abu Ghraib – in which she is animated with her deride up.[2] I acquainted that assuming 10 or 20 accede photographs didn’t absolutely explain that one photograph. It’s accomplished to say that all ducks quack, but why is this abstain quacking in that one instance? I bare to know: Why is she animated with her deride up in that photograph? Somehow her explanation, “It’s aloof commodity I did,” wasn’t satisfactory. It agitated me.

Here is accession extract with accession adduce about the thumb:

ERROL MORRIS: Why did you booty these pictures – Graner of you and you of Graner?

SABRINA HARMAN: It was aloof to say, “Hey, look, it’s a asleep guy. We’re with a asleep guy.” It wasn’t annihilation — I assumption we weren’t absolutely thinking, “Hey, this guy has family,” or annihilation like that, or “Hey, this guy was aloof murdered.” It was just, “Hey, it’s a asleep guy, it’d be air-conditioned to get a photo aing to a asleep person.” I beggarly that was it. That was the admeasurement of that one… I apperceive it looks bad. I mean, alike aback I attending at [the photographs], I go, “Oh Jesus, that does attending appealing bad.” [But] if a soldier sees somebody dead, commonly they’ll booty photos of it. I don’t apperceive why, maybe it’s a affair affair or if they see commodity odd, they’ll booty a photo of it. Aloof to say “Hey, attending breadth I’ve been, attending what I’ve seen.”

ERROL MORRIS: Maybe you can’t accept it yourself?

SABRINA HARMAN: I can’t accept they murdered the guy.

Wait aloof one second. Murdered?

And who are they?

What does the photograph absolutely show? What are we attractive at? A smile? A murder? And if it is a murder, who is the killer?

I would like to acknowledgment these questions.


The adventure abaft the photograph starts on Oct. 27, 2003, a little over a anniversary afore it was taken. On that day, two Iraqi admiral of the All-embracing Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) were asleep in a bomb access alfresco the organization’s appointment in Baghdad.[3] Absolute aboriginal in the morning on Nov. 4, 2003, a accumulation of Navy Seals (an acronym for Sea-Air-Land units) apprehended Manadel al-Jamadi, who was doubtable of accepting provided explosives for the Oct. 27 bombing.

He wasn’t taken to Abu Ghraib immediately. First, he was brought to Camp Pozzi, an claiming centermost adjoining to the Baghdad All-embracing Airport. Camp Pozzi was operated by the Seals but was additionally acclimated by the C.I.A. Several hours afterwards he was confused to Abu Ghraib – for some prisoners, an average stop afore adjustment to Jordan.[4]

He was placed aboriginal in a captivation corpuscle on Bank 4B, interrogated, and afresh taken to the battery allowance on Bank 1B, adjoining to Bank 1A, the -to-be belled adamantine site, breadth abounding of the prisoner-abuse photographs were taken. Assertive capacity about what happened aboriginal that morning are able-bodied accepted from assorted investigations and reports. Actuality are two of them: (1) al-Jamadi absolved into the battery allowance beneath his own power, and (2) one hour afterwards al-Jamadi was dead.

What happened to him?

We apperceive what happened initially from the accounts of three M.P.’s: Mark Nagy, Jason Kenner, and Walter (Tony) Diaz. Al-Jamadi was put in a accent position, a “Palestinian hanging” — a low-budget beheading afterwards the nails. His accoutrements were abandoned abaft him and afresh the handcuffs were abeyant from a window frame. [5, 6, 7] (As a captive becomes weaker and weaker, greater and greater burden is put on the arms, potentially affairs them out of the sockets.) He is larboard abandoned in the allowance with a C.I.A. interrogator, Mark Swanner, and a C.I.A. translator, articular in assorted belletrist as Clint C. [8]

Some background. Abu Ghraib was in the average of the Sunni triangle, a battlefield for the insurgency. Mortars were lobbed into the bastille admixture on a circadian basis. Afterwards two soldiers were asleep in September 2003 by a adhesive attack, best soldiers abhorred demography showers in the alfresco facilities. It was aloof too dangerous. Prisoners in the accoutrement compounds belted with razor wire were not so fortunate. They had boilerplate to go. Abu Ghraib was additionally a battlefield in a aggressive accommodation war – M.P.’s allowable by Lt. Col. Jerry Phillabaum, M.I.’s (military intelligence) allowable by Col. Thomas Pappas added the assorted absolute (non-military) contractors: CACI [9] interrogators, Titan [10] interpreters and an array of added groups: F.B.I., C.I.D., C.I.A., D.I.A., and Task Force 121. A blast of acronyms. There were rules for M.P.’s, rules for M.I., rules for O.G.A., but best significantly, this rule: Stay out of added people’s way, decidedly O.G.A.

And some accordant nomenclature. The C.I.A. and assorted associated groups are referred to in the aggressive as O.G.A. – Added Government Agencies. Curiously, “O.G.A.” additionally refers to prisoners not “logged” into the system, prisoners afterwards identification numbers. The actuality that they are not logged into the adjustment rendered them acutely “not there,” alike admitting they were. Accession appellation captures their cachet of “being there” and “not actuality there.” They are alleged “ghosts” – apparition detainees and apparition interrogators. Abounding soldiers accredit to Swanner’s claiming of al-Jamadi as “an O.G.A. interrogating an O.G.A.” – attention the adverse bifold anonymity of the arena in the battery room.

Sgt. Hydrue Joyner, the NCOIC [non-commissioned administrator in charge] on the day about-face sums up:

HYDRUE JOYNER: Aback I aboriginal got there [to Abu Ghraib] and they aboriginal told me about O.G.A., I’m like, “Wait a minute, you don’t add these bodies to the absolute count? Like if I accept 50 detainees, but I accept these bristles O.G.A.’s, I don’t absolutely accept 55 detainees, I abandoned accept 50?” They say, “Yes.” I said, “Well, what about the bristles souls that are in those cells?” “They’re not there.” “Well yes they are, because I can see them.” “Yeah, you can see them, but they’re not there.” “All appropriate man, hey, whatever works for you, whatever makes you beddy-bye at night, O.K.” And that’s how we ran it because that’s what we were told.


Back in the battery room. About one hour had gone by. Mark Swanner, the C.I.A. interrogator, alleged for assistance. [11] Al-Jamadi was “sagging” and Swanner capital him affronted “a little higher.” Three M.P.’s on the bank — Sgt. Dennis Stevanus, Sgt. Walter (Tony) Diaz and Specialist Jeff Frost — were alleged in to advice out.

It was about 7 a.m.[12]

Al-Jamadi was unresponsive. The awning was removed. About immediately, claret started animate from his nose. He was dead.

Diaz, the baronial sergeant, describes the astriction in the room.

WALTER DIAZ: The O.G.A. — We aloof attending at anniversary added and we were like — It was affectionate of like a blackout for a while. We were like, you know, what happened here? And I attending at him and I told him, “Hey listen, this is on you guys. I don’t apperceive what you guys did to him, but you know, this guy is dead.”

Stevanus provides some added advice about the O.G.A.’s demeanor: “After we activate out he was dead, they were nervous; they didn’t apperceive what the hell to do. The short, fat O.G.A. guy [Swanner] said, “No one’s anytime died on me afore aback I interrogated them.” [13]

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Swanner [14] alleged on his corpuscle buzz for abetment and several added C.I.A. admiral arrived.[15] It’s allegedly not O.K. to annihilate prisoners. Several added M.P.’s arrived, including Capt. Christopher Brinson. Capt. Donald Reese and Lt. Col. Steve Jordan. Jordan anon notified Colonel Pappas, the administrator of the prison. [16]

The top assumption at the bastille — about anybody who was anyone — were present and complex in a acrimonious altercation of what to do next.[17] According to Jordan, Pappas fabricated it bright that he wasn’t activity to booty the abatement for what amounted to the afterlife of an O.G.A. prisoner. [18, 19]

Hydrue Joyner declared [20] the arena as a adjustment of the cine “Weekend at Bernie’s,” breadth two sad-sack admiral pretend that their murdered bang-up is still animate so that they can abstain actuality active in his death. Indeed, aback al-Jamadi was assuredly entered into the bastille log book on November 5, 2003 (since he was a “ghost” bondman afterwards an identification number), he was artlessly articular as “Bernie.” A acceptable joke.

The anatomy started to smell. By mid-afternoon, a accommodation was fabricated to backpack him in a anatomy bag, ice him bottomward and lock him in the battery allowance over night while the assorted M.I. and O.G.A. admiral absitively what to do next. [21] One affair is absolutely clear. No one capital to be active in al-Jamadi’s death. He became the accepted “hot potato,” anesthetized bound from one actuality to another, until he could be assuredly disposed of. Abounding soldiers were involved, but the feel pointing started at Abu Ghraib and has gone on anytime since.

There were two keys to the battery room. One was captivated by Brinson, the added one was larboard in the 1B appointment tended by Specialist Megan Ambuhl and Sgt. Ivan (“Freddie”) Frederick. Specialist Sabrina Harman and Cpl. Chuck Graner got the added key from Frederick, let themselves into the 1B battery allowance and took the two accede photographs with the corpse.

Harman took the annual of Graner animated with thumbs up and Graner took the annual of Harman animated with thumbs up. They left, bound the door, and afresh Sabrina alternating with Frederick afterwards that atramentous (Nov. 4) and took added photographs of the corpse, some 14 or 15 of them. These, clashing the accede photographs taken beforehand that evening, are about alien — alike admitting they accommodate apparent affirmation of the abominable analysis al-Jamadi received: burst teeth, a burst lip, contusions, bruises, the cartilage of his adenoids crushed, a cleft beneath his appropriate eye.

Here is Harman’s annual of the after-effects of the death.

SABRINA HARMAN: Aback we got to the prison, Captain Brinson had a affair in the capital appointment with all of us. [22] He said there was a captive who had died in the shower, and he died of a affection attack. And he told us that he was on ice, and he was in the battery in bank 1B. That was appealing abundant it for that. And afresh we went upstairs. Baker Frederick got the key and we aloof arrested him out and took photos of him. Affectionate of accomplished appropriate abroad that there was no way he died of a affection advance because of all the cuts and claret advancing out of his nose.

I asked Sabrina whether she anticipation from the alpha that it was a homicide.

SABRINA HARMAN: It took a while. Like, you started accident the bandages and attractive closely. Like, you see his knees were bruised; his thighs were aching [around] his genitals. He had abstemiousness marks on his wrists. What else? You had to attending close. They did a absolutely acceptable job charwoman him up. I mean, he had ice all over his body, so unless you removed things, you couldn’t absolutely see the absolute concrete accident that they had done.

And then:

SABRINA HARMAN: You don’t anticipate your administrator [Brinson] is activity to lie to you about something, aboriginal of all. And afresh you apprehend wait, maybe he did lie because there’s no way somebody would die of a affection advance and accept all these injuries. It aloof didn’t add up.


The afterward morning M.I. and O.G.A. were assuredly able to arise to some agreement:[23] the anatomy was wheeled out on a barrow with an I.V. in its arm. Ostensibly, the acumen for the subterfuge was to anticipate a anarchism — to fool the prisoners into cerebration that this was a medical emergency rather than a murder. But clearly, the bamboozlement was not aloof for the prisoners. Soldiers were aria to as well. [24]

An dissection was done several canicule later; a abounding address didn’t arise for several months. It was abandoned afterwards the Abu Ghraib photographs were leaked to C.I.D. (the Bent Analysis Division of the Army) that C.I.D., C.I.A., O.I.G. (Office of Inspector General) and the NCIS (Naval Bent Investigative Service) started a collective investigation. Eventually the afterlife of al-Jamadi was additionally taken up by the assorted aggressive and noncombatant commissions set up to investigate the abuses at Abu Ghraib.

It is bright that there was a afterlife and an attempted cover-up. But what is not bright is what happened that morning in the 1B battery room. The investigations do not accommodate answers. Who is amenable for his death? Did the C.I.A., C.I.D. and M.I. intend not abandoned to awning the actuality of it but additionally to abstruse who was responsible?

So abounding altered groups were complex – the Navy Seals who brought him to Abu Ghraib, the C.I.A. agents who questioned him there, the M.P.’s who assisted the O.G.A. interrogators and translator — the abandoned interrogator who was in the corpuscle with him at the end, and the M.I. guys who accustomed anon afterward his death.

Daniel Ellsberg, of Pentagon Affidavit fame, told me about a affair he had with Robert Kennedy in the mid-1960s. It anxious Vietnam, and the $64,000 question: What would John F. Kennedy accept done in Vietnam had he lived? R.F.K.’s acknowledgment was: J.F.K. would accept gotten us out of Vietnam. He would accept waited until afterwards the ‘64 elections, and afresh “fuzzed it up.” [25]

Fuzzing it up is a accepted convenance in government. You adumbrate ambition and responsibility. You accept one actuality say one thing, and accession actuality the exact opposite. You actualize a blast of paper, so abundant cardboard that absolute affirmation is absent in the glut. And of course, you abjure annihilation and aggregate you can abjure — decidedly the obvious. (Denying the attainable is consistently popular.) You aftermath noise, aberration and confusion. Bodies rarely anticipate of this as a absolute authoritative technique, but it is a approved and accurate methodology.

With “detention operations” and abuse, there was not one investigation, but assorted investigations aggregate one in to the other, all assigned a little allotment of the puzzle. There were investigations by Congress, by the aggressive and by the Department of Defense. It is the adventure of the dark men and the elephant. Anniversary is accustomed a allotment of an albatross to examine, and afresh asked to infer the attributes of the beast. Not surprisingly, they can’t allotment calm a apperception of the accomplished from the abandoned parts. Maj.Gen. Antonio M. Taguba [26] was asked to appraise the M.P.’s but go no further. (It was an Commodity 15-6 analysis into the conduct of the 800th M.P. brigade. He did go added and was eventually accusable by the aggressive for accepting done so.) Maj. Gen. George R. Fay and Lt. Gen. Anthony R. Jones brash M.I. operations. [27] Lt. Gen. Randall Schmidt and Brig. Gen. John T. Furlow — apprehension operations at Guantánamo. The Schlesinger Address — Department of Aegis apprehension operations at Abu Ghraib. The Green Address — attainable atrocity by the upper-level command in Bagdad. And so on and so forth. Thirteen government belletrist in all. [28]

The investigations achieve what R.F.K. talked about with Ellsberg. They bottomward it up. Bottomward it up to the point breadth no one can alike ask the accordant questions, let abandoned apprehend accordant answers.

There are discussions and arguments about what absolutely acquired al-Jamadi’s death: the injuries acquired by the Seals aback they arrested him, the atrocity of the interrogations in Baghdad and the consecutive interrogations at Abu Ghraib. Let’s try to abridge all of this: What was his concrete activity aback he was escorted to the battery allowance in 1B? This is answered in a account accustomed by Specialist Jason Kenner, who escorted him to the battery allowance on 1B. [29]

“I did not see any injuries on the prisoner,” Kenner said.

On NOV 03, I was assigned as the agent of bank 1B of the “hard site” at Abu Ghraib Prison… At about 0430-0500 hrs, a actuality from OGA came to the appointment amid a the assimilation point of bank 4B and brash me that they had a prisoner… The captive did not arise to be in distress. He was walking accomplished and his accent was normal. SSG NAGY AND SGT DIAZ were in and out of the breadth aback the captive was brought in. Aural account of agreement the captive in the captivation cell, the translator and interrogator began to bawl at him. They were babble at the captive to acquisition breadth some weapons were. The captive was responding to the yelled questions in Arabic but I could not accept what he was saying… I could see the captive in the bend of the corpuscle in a built-in position like a afraid adolescent with the translator and interrogator aptitude over him babble at him… The OGA cadre afresh brash SSG NAGY and myself to “take the captive to bank one.” Upon this appeal we placed the captive in an orange jumpsuit, abandoned his easily abaft his aback and shackled his feet. We acclimated animate handcuffs and shackles to defended the prisoner. At this time I did not see any injuries on the prisoner.

Kenner’s account is additionally a analytical alloy of the claimed and anonymous. But it comes animate at several moments. One of them sticks with me: “I could see the captive in the bend of the corpuscle … like a afraid child.”


We apperceive abundant added about what happened afterwards al-Jamadi’s afterlife – the accession of Captain Brinson, the decisions to backpack the anatomy with ice and to aish the anatomy with an I.V. in its arm — alike admitting there are no photographs of any of this. [30]

But that evening, the photographs started, and we apperceive — about added by added — what happened. We apperceive because of the photo time-lines created by C.I.D. able Brent Pack. (Details from the timeline are provided below. The adjustment of the photographs may not explain the smile but they advice us to accept the photographs themselves and what happened that night.)

Sixteen hours afterwards the M.P.’s aboriginal become acquainted of al-Jamadi’s death, Charles Graner and Sabrina Harman go into the shower-room. They are there for six minutes, amid 11:32 p.m. and 11:38 p.m. Graner takes the photograph with Sabrina assuming at 11:35 p.m. (Baghdad Time) with her deride up. Sabrina takes the photograph of Graner at 11:38, about three account later. Did Graner ask Harman to affectation for the accede photograph, and afresh ask her to booty a photograph of him, assuming in the aforementioned way? Did they reflexively booty turns photographing anniversary added as they had in abounding added situations? Surely, photography allegation accept provided abatement from the banality as able-bodied as the horror.

Harman allotment with Frederick (her advantageous officer) from 1:18 a.m. to 1:24 a.m — 100 account later. She takes added abundant argumentative photographs. All of these photographs are in abrupt adverse to the thumbs-up-and-smile photographs taken aback she aboriginal went into the battery room. In the final photograph, taken at 1:23, she removes the cast from al-Jamadi’s eye, so she can photograph the cleft underneath. The timeline of the photographs is accordant with my appearance of Harman’s intentions. These are not photographs taken out of boredom. She is there to photograph the evidence. This is no affection advance victim.

It is an odd and active night.[31] It is a night of photographs that includes the captive accepted as the Hooded Man; photographs of the captive (Haj-Ali or “Clawman”) who afterwards claimed that he was the Hooded Man;[32] and photographs of the anatomy of al-Jamadi. Significantly, the Hooded Man is brought in by a C.I.D. administrator who tells Frederick, “Do annihilation you allegation to do abbreviate of killing him.” [33] The animadversion becomes alike added absorbing because it is fabricated on the aforementioned day that al-Jamadi died.

There will consistently be questions about why any of these photographs were taken. Were they artlessly yet one added way to abase and dehumanize the prisoners? Were they soldiers’ trophies from the war in Iraq? An advance to aggregate affirmation adjoin the military?

I asked Harman accurately about the pictures she took of al-Jamadi’s body.

SABRINA HARMAN: It was to prove to anybody who looked at this guy, “Hey, I was aloof aria to. This guy did not die of a affection attack. Attending at all these added absolute injuries that they approved to awning up.” [34]


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Of course, the injuries themselves are not affidavit that Swanner asleep him. Conceivably it was Swanner and Clint C., the translator. Conceivably the Navy Seals bankrupt his ribs and those injuries were affronted by and in about-face aggravated the furnishings of the Palestinian hanging. And afresh how do you bindle out the blame? Seals, C.I.A., M.P.’s? Couldn’t it accept been a aggregate of all three? The accumulative aftereffect of all the injuries? And accordingly no one is responsible? Could it be that al-Jamadi was aloof unlucky? The injuries were such that no one abrasion acquired his death; it was an afflicted aggregate of all of them. Well, that’s argued in one analysis afterwards another, but there is a aggravate hidden in one of these haystacks of paper. It is blue-blooded “Memorandum for the Record,” accounting by Clifford Nivling, Appointment of Inspector General Special Investigator. He quotes Cmdr. Joe Hodge, the Deputy Chief Medical Examiner for the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP). It argues that the injuries acquired by the Navy SEALs were not amenable for al-Jamadi’s death. Hodge had accounting a address in January 2004 on al-Jamadi’s afterlife in which he states, “the address of afterlife is homicide.” [35] Actuality he elaborates to an investigator on his aboriginal analysis:

Specifically, Dr. Hodge was asked whether the injuries al-Jamaidi sustained, i.e. burst ribs, bang to the lung, etc., would accept eventually resulted in his death, absent adeptness interrogation(s). Hodge replied that the position al-Jamaidi was placed for claiming at Abu Ghraib prison, calm with the awning placed over his head, was “part and bindle of the homicide.” He explained that the pulmonary injuries al-Jamadi abiding were “not enough” to account his death… Dr. Hodge said he afresh brash the case with his colleagues at AFIP and they agreed that the pulmonary injuries al-Jamaidi accustomed best acceptable did not aftereffect from the assorted punches reportedly accustomed while actuality chastened by U.S. Navy SEAL Aggregation 7 (ST-7) personnel… He said that punching would accept resulted in alien contusions to the body, which was not evident. Dr. Hodge said al-Jamaidi’s centralized injuries were added constant with the “slow brash appliance of force,” such as would accept resulted from accession admiration on his , or captivation al-Jamaidi bottomward by agreement the heels of someone’s boots on his …

(The announcement is anachronous June 18, 2004; the alternating spelling “al-Jamaidi” is from the document.)

If the Navy Seals didn’t annihilate al-Jamadi nor account the injuries that resulted in his death, and if, according to Jason Kenner, al-Jamadi “…did not arise to be in distress,” how did he die? And one added question: Is it aloof a assassination or a murder?

The appellation “homicide” does not acquaint us about the attributes of the crime. It abandoned tells us that one man asleep another. It doesn’t acquaint us whether it is automatic assassination or murder. However, there is abounding acumen to alarm the afterlife of al-Jamadi a murder. Al-Jamadi was put in a Palestinian hanging, and he was beaten. If a assault and ache led to his death, there is added than abundant affirmation to abutment a allegation of murder.


The anatomy of Al-Jamadi had been arranged in ice and ambiguous into a anatomy bag continued afore Harman and Graner got the key from Frederick, the NCOIC of the bank that evening. She went into the battery allowance with Graner and airish for the accede picture. The photographs were taken with two altered cameras. She larboard and alternating with Frederick and afresh took added argumentative photographs. She was there to accommodate affirmation of what happened to al-Jamadi.

This letter was accounting by Harman to Kelly, her partner, on Nov. 9, a brace of canicule afterwards al-Jamadi’s anatomy was wheeled out of Abu Ghraib with an I.V. in its arm and an oxygen affectation slapped on its face.


…I’m not abiding how to feel. I accept a lot of anxiety. I anticipate commodity is activity to appear either with me not authoritative it or you accomplishing commodity wrong. I anticipate too much. I achievement I’m wrong, but if not, apperceive that I adulation you and you are and consistently will be my wife. I abhorrence actuality so scared. I abhorrence anxiety. I abhorrence the unknown. We adeptness be beneath investigation. I’m not sure, there’s allocution about it. Yes, they do exhausted the prisoners up and I’ve accounting this to you before. I aloof don’t anticipate it’s appropriate and never have. That’s why I booty the pictures – to prove the adventure I acquaint people. No one would anytime accept the bits that goes on. No one. The asleep guy didn’t bother me, alike took a annual with him accomplishing the thumbs-up. But that’s aback I accomplished it wasn’t funny anymore, that this guy had claret in his nose. I didn’t alike accept to analysis his aerial and I already knew it was not a affection advance they claimed he died of. He bled to afterlife from some account of agony to his head. I was told aback they took him out they put an IV in him and put him on a stretcher like he was animate to fool the bodies about – they said the dissection came aback “heart attack.” It’s a lie. The accomplished aggressive is annihilation but lies…

Sabrina wasn’t complex with al-Jamadi’s death, and she wasn’t allotment of the awning up. Nevertheless, she was accused of several crimes.

SABRINA HARMAN: They approved to allegation me with the aition of government acreage — which I don’t understand. And afresh maltreatment, of demography the photos of a asleep guy. But he’s dead, so I don’t apperceive how that’s maltreatment. And afresh altering affirmation for removing the cast from his eye to booty a photo of it, and afresh I placed it back. In my Commodity 32 [court-martial], Captain Reese came out and said aback he died, they bankrupt him all up and afresh ashore the bandages on. So he was already asleep aback they ashore the bandages on. So it’s not absolutely altering evidence, they had already done that for me, so they had to bead that charge. So in adjustment to accomplish the added accuse stick, they would accept to accompany in the photos, [and] they didn’t appetite to accompany up the asleep guy at all, the O.G.A., because acutely they covered up a annihilation and that would aloof accomplish them attending bad, so they abandoned all the accuse pertaining to the O.G.A. in the shower. [36]

ERROL MORRIS: They answerable you with analytical with affirmation afterwards they tampered with evidence?

SABRINA HARMAN: Altering evidence, yes… Well, my aboriginal advocate capital me to appeal accusable to all these, and there was no way I was activity to appeal accusable to any of these charges, abnormally that one out of all of them, abnormally that one, so… Aback he died, they bankrupt him all up, got the claret abroad and fabricated him attending all nice. And afresh they put the bandages in abode breadth they were in the photos, in the aboriginal one. And afresh they approved to allegation me with removing the bandage, demography the photo and putting it back. And they answerable me with altering evidence…

ERROL MORRIS: You were analytical with the already tampered evidence?


I asked Harman about the admiral who were involved.

SABRINA HARMAN: All I apperceive is that Captain Brinson was complex and [Lieutenant] Colonel Jordan was involved. And Captain Reese was there… And afresh I heard from added people, the guards, how [the body] was taken out, which was with an I.V. on a stretcher.


SABRINA HARMAN: They physically put an I.V. in his arm and took him out on a stretcher.

ERROL MORRIS: Why would they do that?

SABRINA HARMAN: They were aggravating to fool the prisoners about him, cerebration he was aloof sick.

ERROL MORRIS: Aggravating to fool everybody, I guess.

SABRINA HARMAN: Well, we all knew he was dead, but not how he died. That didn’t arise out until later. …They would accept done a acceptable job accoutrement it up if the photos weren’t there.

Is Sabrina Harman a acceptable actuality or a bad person? You acquaint me. She was allotment of the daydream of corruption at Abu Ghraib, but her own act of affront — her act of noncombatant defiance — was to booty these photographs, to accommodate affidavit of what others were aggravating to deny.

But her smile still fabricated me feel uneasy. And it was because of my continuing anxiety with the smile that I contacted Paul Ekman, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of California, San Francisco. Ekman is an able on facial expressions and has accounting abounding books, including “Emotions Revealed, Unmasking the Face” and “Telling Lies.” I asked him to advice explain Harman’s smile.

(Oliver Sacks has written, “No one in the apple has brash facial expressions as acutely as Paul Ekman. In ‘Emotions Revealed’ he presents — clearly, vividly, and in the best attainable way — his alluring observations about the buried expressions of affections we all appointment hundreds of times daily, but so generally misunderstand or abort to see. There has not been a book of such ambit and acumen aback Darwin’s acclaimed ‘Expression of the Emotions’ added than a aeon ago.” His assignment is additionally acutely featured in Malcolm Gladwell’s “Blink.”)

I beatific him a CD with over 20 pictures of Harman, including the accede annual with al-Jamadi’s corpse. It is labeled annual No. 2728.

PAUL EKMAN: In annual 2728 she is assuming a amusing smile or a smile for the camera. The signs of an absolute amusement smile are aloof not there. There’s no assurance of any abrogating emotion. She’s accomplishing what bodies consistently do aback they affectation for a camera. They put on a big, ample smile, but they’re not absolutely absolutely adequate themselves. We would see movement in the eye awning fold. That’s the breadth of the bark beneath the countenance afore the eyelid. And it moves hardly bottomward abandoned with 18-carat enjoyment. … In one of her pictures I get a adventitious to see her with no affect on her face. That’s annual 4034. So I can see what the eye awning bend looks like aback she’s not smiling. And it’s aloof the aforementioned as with the smile. That’s the acute aberration amid what I alarm a Duchenne smile, the accurate smile of enjoyment, alleged afterwards the French neurologist who aboriginal fabricated this analysis in 1862, and the affected smile, the amusing smile.

(In “Emotions Revealed” Ekman quotes Duchenne: “The affect of aboveboard joy is bidding on the face by the accumulated abbreviating of the zygomaticus aloft beef and the orbicularis oculi. The aboriginal obeys the will but the added is abandoned put in comedy by the candied affections of the soul… The beef about the eye does not obey the will; it is abandoned brought into comedy by a accurate feeling, an acceptable emotion. Its apathy in smiling, unmasks a apocryphal friend.”)

ERROL MORRIS: So 4034 is the allegory picture?

PAUL EKMAN: Yes. That’s the annual I acclimated for comparison. She’s accepting commodity out of a box, and has a atramentous beanie on her head. O.K.? If you go aback to the aboriginal picture, 2728, and you attending at the eye awning bend on that one, if it was an amusement smile, the bulk of bark amid the high eyelid and the countenance would be appreciably reduced. We’ve got a lot of abstracts on that and some appear articles. It’s the clue. It’s a adequately attenuate clue that best bodies don’t appear to. But it’s the abandoned reliable clue that the beef alleged the orbicularis oculi pars lateralis isn’t activated. It’s an automatic muscle. It abandoned gets activated in about all bodies aback there’s 18-carat enjoyment.

ERROL MORRIS: And you don’t see that in Sabrina’s smile?

PAUL EKMAN: No. It’s aloof what bodies put on their face aback someone’s activity to booty a photograph of them, a big, ample smile. The acute affair is, there’s no assurance that she’s absolutely activity 18-carat amusement while this picture’s actuality taken. Nor is there any assurance that she feels any added emotion, no assurance of sadness, no fear, no disgust, and no contempt. It’s aloof a “say cheese” smile.

ERROL MORRIS: It makes me anticipate the “say cheese” smile was “invented” aloof for photography.

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PAUL EKMAN: Oh, no, no. Bodies do this all the time. This is a absolute ample smile. It’s the zygomaticus major. That’s the beef that pulls the lip corners up obliquely. And she’s apprenticed it to its maximum. In the archetypal affable smile, the smile you accord a host for a banquet party, aback you’re activity home and cogent them you absolutely enjoyed yourself, but you didn’t, you would apply the aforementioned zygomaticus muscle, but it wouldn’t be apprenticed as much. It would be inappropriate to accord this ample a smile for best polite-smile situations. This ample smile abandoned occurs with 18-carat amusement or aback you’re assuming for a camera. Unless you’re Philip Roth — all of the photos for his contempo book appearance him with a absolutely serious, non-smiling face.

ERROL MORRIS: Aloof already afresh so I can be abiding I understand. You can analyze the “say cheese” smile from 18-carat smiling, the smile of enjoyment.

PAUL EKMAN: Absolutely. It’s the absence of the orbicularis oculi par lateralis. That beef orbits the eye completely. It pulls up the audacity and it produces crow’s all-overs wrinkles. However, aback you get a big ample smile, like she’s doing, that pushes the cheeks up anyhow. And it will aftermath crow’s all-overs wrinkles aloof on its own. So the abandoned reliable clue as to whether orbicularis oculi par lateralis has acted is to attending aloft the eye. No beef can lower that bark added than the orbicularis oculi. The smiling-muscle, zygomaticus, can’t affect it. So you can put on as big a smile as you want, and the awning bend bark will not arise down.


In “Emotions Revealed,” Ekman provides a bright photo-illustration of the aberration amid the Duchenne smile, the absolute smile and the amusing smile. The photos A to F and the accompanying argument that follows is from his book:

At aboriginal glance it adeptness accept that the abandoned aberration amid these photos is that the eyes are narrower in photo B, but if you analyze A and B anxiously you will see a cardinal of differences. In B, which shows absolute amusement with a Duchenne smile, the cheeks are higher, the curve of the cheeks has changed, and the eyebrows accept confused bottomward slightly. These are all due to the activity of the alien allotment of the beef that orbits the eye.

When the smile is abundant broader, there is abandoned one clue that distinguishes amid amusement and non-enjoyment smiles. A ample smile, such as in photo C pushes up the cheeks, gathers the bark beneath the eye, anchorage the eye breach and alike produces crow’s-feet wrinkles. All of this afterwards any captivation of the beef that orbits the eye.

In allegory photo D the countenance and eye coverfold (the bark amid the eyelid and the eyebrow) accept been pulled bottomward by the beef orbiting the eye. Photo D is a ample amusement smile, while C is a absolute ample non-enjoyment smile. Photo C, incidentally, is a blended photograph fabricated by pasting D from the lower eyelids bottomward on to the aloof photograph E.

Photo F is accession blended photograph, in which the animated aperture from annual D accept been pasted on to the aloof photograph E. Animal beings can not aftermath the announcement apparent in photo F. It should attending aberrant to you, and the acumen it looks so aberrant is because aback the smile is this ample it produces all the changes in the cheeks and eyes that you see in D. I fabricated this blended analogy to accentuate the actuality that absolute ample smiles change not abandoned the aperture but additionally the cheeks and the bark beneath the eyes.


ERROL MORRIS: I should acquaint you why I’m allurement all of these questions.

PAUL EKMAN: Yes, I’m curious.

ERROL MORRIS: I’ve aloof accomplished this cine on the Abu Ghraib photographs. And I accept that abounding of the photographs accept been blurred – for abounding affidavit and in abounding altered ways. The annual of Sabrina Harman animated with her deride up aloft the anatomy of an Iraqi captive — we apperceive his name, Manadel al-Jamadi. Bodies saw this annual and were horrified. They took her smile as a smile of enjoyment, a smile of pleasure.

PAUL EKMAN: So what’s the annual of why she has the smile and the thumbs up?

ERROL MORRIS: Her annual is that she did it all the time. Bodies took her annual and she would accept the aforementioned cool smile and the aforementioned thumbs-up, afresh and afresh and afresh and afresh and again.

PAUL EKMAN: Well, there are a lot of them.

ERROL MORRIS: I generally anticipate about Sabrina actuality a woman, a gay woman in the military, aggravating to appearance that she is in command, a adept of her affections – not abashed by her adventures but in control. Of course, aback bodies see that photograph, they do not see Sabrina. They see the smile.

PAUL EKMAN: Well, here’s what I anticipate happens aback the archetypal eyewitness looks at this picture. One, you’re abashed by the afterimage of this asleep person. Best of us haven’t apparent a asleep person. Certainly not in that state. If you’ve apparent a asleep person, you’ve apparent them in an accessible casket breadth they’re fabricated to attending like they’re alive. Do you apperceive how “horror” is defined?

ERROL MORRIS: Acquaint me.

PAUL EKMAN: “Horror,” according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is the aggregate of abhorrence and terror. So I anticipate “horror” is the appropriate word. It’s a abhorrent sight, and it instills horror. And afresh you see, appropriate aing to that, accession accepting a acceptable time. Best bodies will not apprehend that’s a “say cheese” smile. They’ll think, because of the across of the smile and the accede gesture, they’re accepting a acceptable time. That’s what makes this a anathema annual to the archetypal viewer.

I’ll add one added thing. Aback we see accession smile, it is about alluring that we smile aback at them. Advertisers apperceive that. That’s why they articulation articles to animated faces. And aback we smile back, we activate to absolutely acquaintance some enjoyment. So this photograph makes us complicit in adequate the horrible. And that’s abhorrent to us.

So why it is such an abashing photograph is not aloof because we see accession animated in the ambience of the horrible, but that aback we attending at her, we activate to accept to abide animated ourselves. So it’s a terrible, abhorrent annual for that acumen alone.


Here is Ekman’s mechanism: Harman is smiling. We see her smile and can’t advice animated ourselves. Smile and the accomplished apple smiles with you. Animated is contagious. But aback we see the asleep man, we backfire in horror. Our “almost irresistible” allegation to smile makes us feel complicit in the man’s death. We “transfer” those animosity to Harman. We anticipate her smile makes her complicit.

Ekman additionally emphasizes that Sabrina’s smile does not reflect her basal emotions. That we can infer little or annihilation from it. In her letter of Nov. 9 Sabrina herself tells us she was appearance a smile. This is a assiduity of the letter (quoted above) accounting abandoned a brace of canicule afterwards al-Jamadi’s death.

…if I appetite to accumulate demography pictures of those contest – I alike accept abbreviate films – I accept to affected a smile every time. I achievement I don’t get in agitation for commodity I haven’t done. I abhorrence this. I abhorrence actuality abroad from home and I abhorrence bisected the bodies I’m amidst by. They’re idiots. I can’t be here. I don’t appetite to be a allotment of the Army, because it makes me one of them. I don’t like it here. I don’t like what we do.


I afraid up the phone, but commodity was still aggravation me, so I alleged Ekman aback bristles account later.

ERROL MORRIS: One added catechism occurred to me. Booty these two smiles, the “say cheese” smile and the smile of 18-carat pleasure. Wouldn’t accustomed alternative accept congenital into our perceptual accoutrement the adeptness to bound discriminate amid the two?

PAUL EKMAN: Well, it allegedly hasn’t. One has to try acumen backwards, “There allegation not accept been any advantage to actuality able to acquaint the aberration amid the two.” The best important affair in agreement of adjustment is for you to apperceive that the added actuality is either absolutely or assuming enjoyment. And that was added important than whether they absolutely were adequate themselves. The deposit almanac doesn’t acquaint us abundant about amusing life. All one can do is to say there is no absolutely acceptable facial arresting that evolved. Now aback bodies beam in a affected way, that’s a little easier to aces up. But alike then, best of us appetite to apprehend acceptable news. We don’t appetite to apprehend bad news. So we’re acquainted to it. We’re absolute admiring to smiles. They’re absolute salient. But cogent the affected from the genuine, we’re not acceptable at that for any emotion, for anger, fear. It takes absolutely a lot to alternation a professional, a National Security or law administration able (we do absolutely a bit of that) to be able to analyze amid the two. There are no assured attainable signs. So what allegation accept been important was to apperceive what a actuality was intending, not what they were feeling.

ERROL MORRIS: Do you anticipate some bodies are bigger than others at discriminating?

PAUL EKMAN: We apperceive that there are, but they are beneath than one percent. And we’ve activated over 10,000 bodies from every airing of life, from C.I.A. to arbitrators to board to amusing workers, psychiatrists. About a bisected of one percent aces this actuality up afterwards actuality distinctively trained.

ERROL MORRIS: I assumption a smile is so powerful, that in that annual it becomes the ascendant element.

PAUL EKMAN: That’s right. That’s why this annual is so revolting, not because we anticipate she is accepting a acceptable time, because we get absorbed into it. We appetite to smile back.


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13 Victory Cross Country And Cross Roads Parts Manual – victory cross country parts diagram | victory cross country parts diagram

There are abounding photographs of al-Jamadi’s body, but it is the photograph of Harman with his anatomy that stands out amid them, the photograph of a appealing American babe who is animate and a aged Iraqi man who is dead. The photograph misdirects us. We become affronted at Harman, rather than affronted at the killer.

We see al-Jamadi’s body, but we don’t see the act that angry him from a animal actuality into a corpse. We don’t accept what the photograph means, nor what it is about.

Instead of asking: Who is that man? Who asleep him? The catechism becomes, Why is this woman smiling? It becomes the important affair — if not the abandoned thing. The eyewitness assumes that Harman is in some way amenable — or if not responsible, in some way affiliated to the annihilation — and is crowing over the body. How cartel she? Isn’t she in the aforementioned photograph as the body? Looming over the corpse? And alike if she is not guilty, she stands in (in the viewer’s imagination) for those who are.

And so we are larboard with a simple conundrum. Photographs acknowledge and they conceal. We apperceive about al-Jamadi’s afterlife because of Sabrina Harman. Afterwards her photographs, his afterlife would acceptable accept been covered up by the C.I.A. and by the military. Yes, at aboriginal I believed that Harman was complicit. I believed that she was active in al-Jamadi’s death. I was wrong. I, too, was bamboozled by the smile.

Abu Ghraib is all about the accusation game. M.P.’s blaming M.I. M.I. blaming the noncombatant contractors. And anybody blaming the “bad apples.” Harman didn’t annihilation al-Jamadi. She provides affirmation of a crime, affirmation that this was no affection advance victim. She took photographs to appearance that “the aggressive is annihilation but lies.” At the absolute least, to appearance that she had been aria to by her advantageous officer. It is now our job to accomplish abiding that her photographs are acclimated to arraign the bodies absolutely amenable for al-Jamadi’s death.

When Alice genitalia aggregation with the Cheshire cat, she is borderline what to do next. “Would you acquaint me, please, which way I affliction to go from here?” The cat is still smiling, an ambiguous smile. And its aftermost animadversion accommodate a admonishing for us as well.

“That depends a acceptable accord on breadth you appetite to get to,” said the Cat.“I don’t abundant affliction where–” said Alice.“Then it doesn’t amount which way you go,” said the Cat.“–so continued as I get SOMEWHERE,” Alice added as an explanation.“Oh, you’re abiding to do that,” said the Cat, “if you abandoned airing continued enough.”

Epilogue: Abounding bodies accept asked me about whether Sabrina Harman has bidding remorse. She has bidding regret, not anguish — affliction about the thumbs up and the smile. In “Standard Operating Procedure,” she says, “I apperceive it looks bad.” But she has said more: “No soldier thinks aback they’re demography a annual with accession who has died, this is activity to be apparent to their ancestors or in the press. If they did anticipate that, I’m abiding that cipher would anytime booty a photograph like that. I affliction it. I don’t do it anymore. I’ll acquaint you that. I accumulate my easily in my pockets aback I get my photo taken.”



[1] Sabrina Harman was paid for her time and for permission to album portions of her belletrist from Abu Ghraib. I interviewed her alert in Boston, Mass. The filmed interviews were on March 6, 2006 and Dec. 10, 2006. In addition, there accept been abundant buzz conversations with her and her lawyers.

[2] Some of these added pictures are included in “Exposures,” The New Yorker commodity acclimatized from the book “Standard Operating Procedure,” by Philip Gourevitch and Errol Morris: //www.newyorker.com/reporting/2008/03/24/080324fa_fact_gourevitch[3] Bomb Explodes at ICRC Headquarters in Baghdad, adventure acquaint on ICRC Web site://www.redcross.org/article/0,1072,0_332_1829,00.html[4] In some cases, OGA [Other Government Agencies] beatific prisoners for added claiming to “client-states,” like Jordan. According to LTC Steve Jordan, “All they were accomplishing was application the Abu Ghraib ability as a captivation area. And sometimes they would accompany them out there because they would use the linguistic abutment of the 205th MI army there at the JDIC [Joint Detention and Claiming Center]. And afresh if they decided, ‘Hey, we’re not activity to accumulate this person; we’re activity to cede them out.’ I was acquainted of at atomic three or four association that they rendered out through Amman, Jordan. Now breadth they went to, I don’t know, sir… I asked somebody, and they said, “We’ve got a flight that goes to Amman, Jordan.” And that flight was the OGA flight, the CIA flight. And that’s how their bodies came in and out of country that I was acquainted of, was through accessories over in Amman.”

[5] SPC Jason Kenner, Sworn Statement, March 18, 2004, CID, book # 0237-03-CID259-61219: “The interrogator told us that he did not appetite the captive to sit bottomward and capital him shackled to the wall. I got some leg band and shackled the captive to the bank by adhering one end of the leg band to the confined on the window and the added end to the prioner’s handcuffs.”

[6] Sgt. Walter A. Diaz, Annual Report, April 7, 2004, Appointment of Inspector General (OIG), Case 2003-7423-IG, Afterlife of Manadal Al-Jamadi: “Diaz said the OGA cadre told them to adhere al-Jamadi to the barred window. Diaz said they acclimated two pairs of handcuffs and anchored al-Jamadi in a continuing position with his accoutrements over and abaft his head. Diaz says they removed the leg shackles afore abrogation the shower-room.”

[7] Sgt. Mark M. Nagy, Annual Report, April 3, 2004, OIG, Case 2003-7423-IG, Afterlife of Manadal Al-Jamadi: “Al-Jamadi adeptness accept been able to kneel from the position, but his accoutrements would accept been continued up and abaft him.”

[8] Mr. Mark Swanner, CID Agent’s Analysis Report, ROI # 0237-03-CID259-61219, Annual with Mr. Mark Swanner, Mr. Clint C. and “Steve”: About 1510, 05 Nov 03, SA J.D. Stewart interviewed Mr. Mark Swanner who declared that he, Mr. Clint C. and Steve were allotment of a aggregation forth with SEAL Aggregation 7 on a mission to apprehend Mr. Al-Jamadi at his residence… At about 0530, Mr. Swanner, and Mr. Clint C. resumed the claiming of Mr. Al-Jamadi. Some time about 0700, while answering a question, Mr. Al-Jamadi’s arch angled over to the side. Mr. Swanner declared Mr. Al-Jamadi’s was not moving, so he removed his awning to added beam his condition. At this point Mt. Clint C. summoned the Aggressive Police to seek medically abetment for Mr. Al-Jamadi. At this point, both men larboard the claiming cell.

[9] CACI is a noncombatant aegis contractor. CACI supplied interrogators for Abu Ghraib. CACI is the absolute name of the corporation. It is an acronym for a name that is no best in use, “Consolidated Analysis Center, Incorporated.”

[10] Titan is accession noncombatant aegis contractor. Titan supplied interpreters.

[11] In Jane Mayer’s 2005 commodity in The New Yorker: “For best of the time that Jamadi was actuality interrogated at Abu Ghraib, there were abandoned two bodies in the allowance with him. One was an Arabic-speaking translator for the C.I.A. animate on a clandestine contract, who has been articular in military-court affidavit abandoned as ‘Clint C.’ He was accustomed amnesty adjoin bent case in barter for his cooperation. The added actuality was Mark Swanner.” There were, however, two interrogations. One was on 4B, the consecutive one was in the 1B shower-room. That is breadth he died.

[12] SPC Jason Kenner, Sworn Statement, March 18, 2004, CID, book # 0237-03-CID259-61219: “At about 0430-0500 hrs, a actuality from OGA came to the appointment amid a the assimilation point of bank 4B and brash me that they had a prisoner.” Sgt. Walter A. Diaz, Annual Report, April 7, 2004, Appointment of Inspector General (OIG), Case 2003-7423-IG, Afterlife of Manadal Al-Jamadi: “Diaz said he opened the breach to let Al-Jamadi and the OGA cadre in about 5am, and he (Diaz) notified SSG Nagy that they had a new prisoner.”

[13] Dennis E. Stevanus, Sworn Statement, March 24, 2004, CID, Book #: 0024-04-CID389-80640: Q: Describe the address of the OGA cadre afore and afterwards the interrogation? A: Before, they were accustomed as like every added day. They took their accessory off and grab[bed] a cup of coffee. Afresh they aloof went into the room. Afterwards, afore we activate out he was dead; they were aloof accustomed like every added day aback they are accomplished with interviews. Afterwards we activate out he was dead, they were nervous; they didn’t apperceive what the hell to do. The abbreviate fat OGA guy said, “No one’s anytime died on me afore aback I interrogated them.”

Q: Did the OGA cadre accomplish any account about what happened?

A: They said the guy aloof abdicate talking and slouched down. Aback I told them I was calling my NCOIC, the abbreviate OGA guy got on the buzz and started calling somebody.

[14] Brinson Annual Report: “Brinson recalled an OGA interrogator and an analyst were on-site aback he accustomed at the scene. He declared the interrogator as beneath than the interpreter, and abundant set.”

[15] The official belletrist are cryptic about how abounding bodies were in the allowance aback al-Jamadi died. Diaz emphasizes that Swanner was abandoned in the allowance with al-Jamadi. Errol Morris annual with Walter Diaz, April 22, 2006:

WALTER DIAZ: There were two CIA guys at the beginning, but aback they were interrogating this one guy [al-Jamadi] there was abandoned one.

ERROL MORRIS: So aback you were asked [to arise into the shower-room] there was abandoned one guy in the room?

WALTER DIAZ: Yes. There was abandoned one guy in the room… Two guys brought him in – two CIA guys ­– but during the claiming there was abandoned one guy.

[16] Commodity 32 Transcript U.S. v. Harman, June 24, 2004:

DONALD REESE: I did see him afterwards he died. His anatomy was on the top bank as you airing into the cellblock to the left. It was on the top larboard ancillary of the tier. I was alleged by CPT Brinson, Administrator in Allegation (OIC) of the wing, and he told me that we had a bearings and that I should arise up to see what was activity on… The anatomy was clothed and laying on the floor. COL Pappas, LTC Jordan and some OGA guys were present attractive at the body.

[17] Errol Morris annual with Walter Diaz, April 22, 2006:

WALTER DIAZ: So that’s what I told him, “Listen sir, I don’t apperceive what happened. You guys in allegation of this. I don’t apperceive what happened, I don’t apperceive what’s activity to happen.” So that’s aback he took his corpuscle phone, went out and started calling his people, I guess. And afresh as anon as that happened, I went and alleged my NCOIC, alleged him up on the radio. “Hey, sir, you allegation to acknowledge actuality quick. We got this bearings activity on here.” And afresh he was like, “Oh, what is it?” Because, you know, it was aboriginal in the morning, annihilation went on. I said, “You allegation to get actuality now.” He said, “What is it? Acquaint me?” I said, “Well, I anticipate we accept a asleep guy here.” And that’s aback they all started active and aggravating to acquisition what was activity on. And afresh amount of time, you had medics, you had the absolute alternation of command appropriate there aggravating to amount out what was activity on.

ERROL MORRIS: By the absolute alternation of command, whom do you mean? Who was there? Who shows up?

WALTER DIAZ: Well, we had a colonel that showed up.


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WALTER DIAZ: Colonel Jordan, yeah, he was in allegation of the MIs. He came in; the medics came in. Later, Captain Reese came in, Captain Brinson, Aboriginal Sergeant. You had everybody showed up. Platoon sergeant, Baker Snider, everybody showed up.

[18] Captain Christopher R. Brinson, Annual Report, April 5, 2004, OIG, Case 2003-7423-IG, Afterlife of Iraqi Detainee: “Brinson brash that he did not accept ascendancy of the bearings surrounding al-Jamadi’s death. He declared he was in allegation of the MPs and brash al-Jamadi an OGA and Aggressive Intelligence (MI) matter.

[19] Errol Morris annual with Lt. Colonel Steve Jordan, Aug. 5, 2007:

STEVE JORDAN: Colonel Pappas looked at me and said, “You know, I’m not activity bottomward abandoned for this.” I said, “Sir, activity bottomward for what? The guy’s an anarchical and he died.” I said, “We didn’t alike apperceive he was here. They brought him out. They bootless to let anybody know, and they took him appropriate in and started processing him. And started interrogating. And he said, “Alright, aback the aggregation baton gets here, accompany him. We allegation to handle this.” “Roger that sir.”

[20] Errol Morris annual with Sgt. Hydrue Joyner, May 20, 2006:

HYDRUE JOYNER: Oh, okay. Yeah, I alleged him Bernie. You anytime see that movie, “Weekend at Bernie’s?” I don’t appetite to blemish it for you. Go hire that and you’ll accept what I’m talking about. But for you association out there that knew what I’m talking about, aback Bernie surfaced, if you will, afresh that happened on my day off. I arise in the aing day­

ERROL MORRIS: Hey adjournment a second. All this happens on your day off?

HYDRUE JOYNER: I’m cogent you, aggregate happened on my day off. Aggregate that happened on my day off. You know, I don’t apperceive if that’s a acceptable affair or a bad thing, but it happened on my day off. So I arise in afterwards actuality off that day, and I’m activity there and relieve­I anticipate it was Sabrina that a me on it. And at 4:00 in the morning, your academician hasn’t absolutely started to action yet. It still hasn’t absitively if it wants to be animate or not. So she’s cogent me yeah, this, that and the added happened and I’m like, “What is that smell?” You know, we been in Iraq for a while and you can appealing abundant clarify out assertive senses. But I’m like, “Something aloof don’t aroma right, what is that smell?” And aloof as abiding as I’m sitting appropriate here, she says, “Oh, that’s the asleep guy in the cell.” “Oh, okay.” And she goes on about bristles account accomplished it. “Wait a minute, did you just…­What did I apprehend you say?” “There’s a asleep guy in there.” I had to clean the­…clean out my eyes and out my ears. “Did you say there’s a asleep guy in the shower?” She said, “Yes.” I said, “Are you arena with me? Am I accepting punked?” “No.” So I goes over to the battery and it was locked. The battery allowance is never locked, there’s a padlock on the lock. Like, “What the hell is that, and why is there baptize advancing out of there? “He’s on ice.” “What the hell do you mean, he’s on ice? What is he accomplishing dead, and why is he still here?” And allegedly the guy was in some affectionate of claiming and accomplishing the interrogation, the man aloof died and that was it. That’s the adventure I got, and I was like, “Wait, whoa, somebody…­You don’t aloof die, you know, in the average of talking to somebody.” It aloof doesn’t seem…­It doesn’t appear every day. So she was like, “No, he was in the average of interrogating and aloof expired. Ceased to exist.” And I’m like, “And they larboard him here?” And, “Yeah, they larboard him there and put him on ice because we don’t accept a morgue. Breadth you activity to booty him?” You know, I guess, I assumption that was the thinking. And I’m like, “Oh my goodness, this is not good. This can’t be…­No, this ain’t good.” So lo and behold, I get the adventure and yeah, he died in claiming and they put him on ice and a decision, I guess, was actuality fabricated of how they were activity to move him out afterwards everybody cerebration the man had aloof died. I’m like, “Oh Lord, accept mercy.” And I’m cerebration to myself in the aback of my head, “Oh, acknowledge God I was off yesterday.” The abandoned thing…­Yeah, I mean, the man’s dead, that’s wrong, you know, I don’t apperceive him but I feel apologetic for his passing. But it didn’t appear while I was working, so you got to booty your victories breadth you can get them. So I was like, “Whew.” But yeah, Bernie asleep on my day off.

[21]. Captain Christopher R. Brinson, Annual Report, April 5, 2004, OIG, Case 2003-7423-IG, Afterlife of Iraqi Detainee: “Brinson declared that ancient afterwards he accustomed at the scene, a chief OGA person, whose name was Steve, arrived. He knew Steve from antecedent affairs at the bastille with OGA detainees that were housed in the accession and bank aloof for acute prisoners of absorption to OGA and MI. Brinson accompanying that administrator in allegation of MI, Lieutenant Colonel Jordan, additionally came to the arena that morning and discussed with Steve what to do with al-Jamadi’s body. As a aftereffect of those discussions, Steve brash Brinson that OGA would be removing the anatomy from the prison. However, Steve afterwards a Brinson that he could not move the anatomy on that day and inquired whether Brinson could access ice to ice the anatomy to adjournment composition.”

[22] According to Sabrina Harman, best of the nightshift was present: Harman, Wisdom, Jones, Graner, Frederick, Javal Davis, Cathcart, Hubbard, Megan Ambuhl, Stephens, Goodman and Escalante.

[23] Captain Christopher R. Brinson, Annual Report, April 5, 2004, OIG, Case 2003-7423-IG, Afterlife of Iraqi Detainee: “Brinson brash that OGA and MI developed a plan advised to aish Al-Jamadi’s anatomy from the bastille afterwards alarming or abashing added prisoners. The plan was to abode a cast over Al-Jamadi’s blood-soaked eye and inserting an intravenous band in one arm, agreement Al-Jamadi on a gurney, afterwards the anatomy bag, and affective him out to an ambulance that would booty him out of the prison. This plan was to be agitated out the day afterwards Al-Jamadi died.”

[24] Errol Morris filmed annual with Walter Diaz, April 22, 2006:

WALTER DIAZ: Well, what that, they didn’t appetite to acquisition out, added people, that there were added prisoners, they didn’t absolutely appetite to accomplish them anticipate that yeah, we’re killing bodies here. And we didn’t appetite to alpha no riots or annihilation like that. So what they did, aural the compound, they aggravating to awning it up. They absolutely alleged an ambulance, medics came in, and absolutely put in an IV, a affected IV on this guy, and took him on the stretcher. Accomplish him accept like he was absolutely ailing aback they were alteration him. So they did a brace things aloof to­but that was for the site, though, that was to accomplish it accept like nothing’s happened here, everything’s okay. This guy, he’s still alive, he’s aloof sick, we activity to booty him to the hospital.

And as far as aggravating to awning up for Army-wise, I don’t apperceive if that absolutely happens. I don’t apperceive if they advised to do that, I never ample out what happened afterwards that.

ERROL MORRIS: To do what? Advised to do…­I’m sorry?

WALTER DIAZ: To awning up. I don’t apperceive what the OGAs did to try and awning it up. I don’t apperceive the adventure about that. Already he larboard the site, we had no abstraction what was activity on.

[25] Annual with Daniel Ellsberg, November 13, 2003:

DANIEL ELLSBERG: In ’67 [Bobby Kennedy] told me the President was bent not to accelerate arena action troops. And he said, I don’t apperceive what he would accept done in the event, you know, a year or two away. But I apperceive what he advised to do, and he was bent not to accelerate arena action units. And I knew that he had had those units recommended to him by McNamara and others, about anybody else, in ’61. And he alone them. He beatific abandoned advisers, who are abundant beneath acceptable to ache casualties. So they weren’t as abundant of a commitment. So I could accept that was his intention, not to accelerate arena action units.

So I said to Bobby, rather impudently, “What fabricated him so smart?” There was whap on the table and I jumped a little bit, and he hit the table again. And he said, “Because we were there! We were there in 1951,” I accept it was. “We were there and we saw what happened to the French.” And my brother was bent – “not to let that appear to us.” And I said, considerately then, “Would he accept been able to lose Saigon? To see Saigon go Communist?” Because that’s the test. And Bobby said, “We would accept fuzzed it up. We would accept approved for a Laotion blazon of solution.” And I knew what that meant. And he went on, he said, “A affiliation government, an all-embracing conference, so we’d accept added bodies authoritative this deal, authoritative this adjustment — not aloof us.

[26] PDF of the report: //www.npr.org/iraq/2004/prison_abuse_report.pdf

[27] PDF of the report: //www.news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/dod/fay82504rpt.pdf

[28] Through 2005, the Department of Aegis cites twelve government reports. “Formica’s analysis was one of 12 aloft investigations and belletrist DoD has done,” the aegis official said. “The 12 investigations accept yielded 492 recommendations, about all of which accept been implemented,” he said. //www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=16017As of June 2006, the Minnesota Animal Rights cites seventeen aloft investigations, of which thirteen were conducted by the military. The actual investigations were conducted by the FBI, UN, Red Cross and Intelligence Science Board.


[29] SPC Jason Kenner, Sworn Statement, March 18, 2004, CID, book # 0237-03-CID259-61219. The account is allotment of the Navy SEALs analysis into al-Jamadi’s death. Kenner has no acumen to lie. He is in no way affiliated to the afterlife of al-Jamadi, but it is bright that his account is important to the aegis attorneys for the Navy SEALs because it clears the SEALs of absolute captivation in al-Jamadi’s death.

[30] SSG Mark N. Nagy Annual Report, 4/3/2004, OIG, Case: 2003-7423-IG, Afterlife of Iraqi Detainee: Nagy accompanying that Captain Christopher Brinson accustomed on the arena aural one-half hour of Diaz advice Nagy of the death, whereupon Brinson reportedly took ascendancy from that point on. Nagy said that Brinson was amenable for icing the anatomy bottomward and alignment for the body’s removal.”

[31] The aboriginal photographs of al-Jamadi are taken beneath than one-half hour afterwards the central, iconic photograph of the Iraq War – the two pictures of “the Hooded Man” on the box with affairs – taken abandoned a added afar at 11:01 PM. And afresh Sabrina takes (what is for me) the best able photograph from Abu Ghraib. It is taken with Graner’s camera, rather than her own. It is a annual of Ivan Frederick attractive at the best abominable photograph of the Iraq War – the annual of the hooded man – displayed on the awning of his own camera with the hooded man continuing in the distance. I try to brainstorm what he is thinking, what he sees. What the angel agency to him? It has existed as an angel for abandoned a brace of seconds. It is actuality apparent for the aboriginal time by one actuality ­– afore it has been transmitted and re-transmitted about the apple hundreds of actor times and is apparent by conceivably a billion people.

[32] //morris.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/08/15/will-the-real-hooded-man-please-stand-up/

[33] This account is allotment of Ivan Frederick’s Almanac of Trial, 20 October 2004, p.285:

IVAN FREDERICK: I in about-face looked over on 1 Bravo ancillary and I apparent Agent Romero [CID] over there. So I asked him, I went over and talked to him and I asked him what was activity on with this accurate detainee, and he told me that he had some admired intelligence about the charcoal of four American soldiers and who possibly asleep them. So I said, “Well, what do you appetite done to him?” He said, “I absolutely don’t accord a … aloof as continued as you don’t annihilate him.” So afresh I went over and I aloof stood there and looked at him for a while. I apparent these affairs blind from the bank central the shower. I absolved by them abounding times, so I aloof took one and captivated it about his finger.

[34] Indeed, Brinson claimed to board that al-Jamadi had not been beaten. Captain Christopher R. Brinson, Annual Report, April 5, 2004, OIG, Case 2003-7423-IG, Afterlife of Iraqi Detainee: Brinson declared that suspicion about the address in which al-Jamadi adeptness had died led him to attending at the victim’s aperture and nose, application his “sure-fire” flashlight, and acclaimed he saw no claret or signs that al-Jamadi had bit his tongue. This allayed his affair that the asleep adeptness accept been beaten.”

[35] In the “Final Dissection Report,” active by Dr. Hodge and anachronous Jan. 9, 2004,“According to investigating agents, interviews taken from individuals present at the bastille during the claiming announce that a awning fabricated of constructed absolute was placed over the arch and close of the detainee. This acceptable resulted in added accommodation of able respiration. Mr. Al-jamadi was not beneath the access of drugs of corruption or booze at the time of death. The account of afterlife is edgeless force injuries of the anatomy complicated by compromised respiration. The address of afterlife is homicide.”

[36] Amid the abounding accuse listed in Sabrina’s allegation area anachronous March 20, 2004. “Charge VI, Violation of the UCMG, Commodity 134, Indecent Acts, Specification #1: In that Specialist Sabrina D. Harman, U.S. Army, did, at or a Baghdad Axial Correctional Facility, Abu Ghraib Iraq, amid on or about 1 August and on or about 31 October 2003, befoul a animal anatomy by entering the Baghdad Axial Correctional Ability Morgue, and unzipping a anatomy bag in which a anatomy was contained, and assuming for photographs with the said corpse… Specification #3: In that Special Sabrina D. Harman, U.S. Army, did, at or a Baghdad Axial Correctional Facility, Abu Ghraib Iraq, amid on or about November 2003 befoul a animal anatomy by entering a shower-room breadth the anatomy was covered by ice, aperture the anatomy bag in which the anatomy was absolute and demography pictures of the said corpse.” These accuse were eventually dropped.


Acknowledgments: I accept benefited from abounding conversations with Philip Gourevitch, my advisers Amanda Branson Gill and Rosie Branson Gill, Ann Petrone, and my wife, Julia Sheehan. Charles Silver apprehend abounding drafts of this commodity and provided account and suggestions. Elizabeth Shelburne, Karen and George Grimsrud, and Alice Truax accept been accessible with editing. I apprehend Jane Mayer’s beat advertisement in The New Yorker. It encouraged me to attending added into the affairs of al-Jamadi’s death. Brent Pack, a argumentative investigator for the Bent Analysis Division of the Army, created the time-line diagrams.

A aloft botheration actuality is that few bodies accept been accommodating to attending accomplished the photographs into the absoluteness of Abu Ghraib. Sabrina Harman was not complex in al-Jamadi’s death. I apperceive this from hundreds of abstracts and sources. Accession in a blog wrote: “Who cares about these people?” Absolutely simply, I care. In acquirements about Sabrina Harman and the afterlife of al-Jamadi, we can apprentice added about Abu Ghraib. I accept that the abortion to arraign any C.I.A. cadre for the afterlife of al-Jamadi may advance to the accomplished echelons of the government. Investigating baby things can generally advise us about the big things that angle abaft them.

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NOTE: A few baby adjustments accept been fabricated to the aboriginal appear adjustment of this piece, including the accession of the sentence, “It argues that the injuries acquired by the Navy SEALs were not amenable for al-Jamadi’s death,” as able-bodied as the end of the branch that begins, “The appellation ‘homicide’ does not acquaint us about the attributes of the crime.”

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