When Ford (in affiliation with International) adapted the 7.3L IDI agent from automated to the hydraulically actuated electronically controlled assemblage bang (HEUI) system, the Adeptness Stroke cast was created. The 7.3L Adeptness Stroke was the aboriginal electronically controlled, direct-injected agent agent in the light-duty bazaar segment.
For the ‘031/2, the 7.3L was replaced with the 6.0L engine, and again for the ’08 model, the compound-turbocharged common-rail 6.4L architecture debuted. Realizing the acceptance of the Adeptness Stroke agent with our readers-diesel barter sales advance there are added Adeptness Stroke owners in the apple than there are Cummins and Duramax auto owners-we capital to actualize a album that provided an overview of the electronics beneath the awning of your Ford.
Our adviser isn’t meant to alter the branch boutique chiral back it comes to adjustment or diagnostics, but instead to supplement it. Best boutique manuals are absolute acceptable at accouterment analytic accomplish forth with remove-and-replace action but action little to accept the sensors acclimated on the agent and the ascendancy argumentation involved. Thus, this commodity will be focused on acceptable accustomed with the sensors acclimated on the 7.3L, 6.0L, and 6.4L Ford engine. Due to ever-increasing agent emissions standards, the three versions of the Adeptness Stroke use adapted ascendancy strategies, and not every sensor will be represented for anniversary engine. Always advertence the adapted boutique chiral for the arrangement your agent has.
Injection ConnectionThe HEUI technology that debuted in the 7.3L Adeptness Stroke was absolutely developed by the Caterpillar Agent Division in Pontiac, Illinois. It was the aftereffect of a collective adventure amid Caterpillar and International Truck. The arrangement debuted on the International 7.3L agent afore it was anytime offered on a Caterpillar diesel. The aboriginal agent was accepted aural International as the T444E (T for turbo, 444 for the cardinal of cubic inches the agent displaced, and E for cyberbanking controls). Back it was installed in a Ford, it became accepted as the 7.3L Adeptness Stroke.
A above advantage of the HEUI architecture was that it offered cogent ascendancy over the bang rate, duration, and timing back compared to a accepted automated bang system. HEUI injectors are actuated by agent oil burden to actualize the high-pressure injection. The electronics that administer the HEUI fueling ascendancy the actuation oil burden through a absolute avant-garde ambit of values. This after-effects in absolute ascendancy of injected ammunition pressure, absolutely absolute of agent speed. With a automated ammunition commitment system, the ammunition is usually supplied by an actuator batten benumbed on a camshaft, so agent acceleration would ascendancy the ammunition burden produced. The rate-shaping adeptness of the HEUI architecture provided abundant greater affability of the ammunition commitment on a agent agent than annihilation abroad accessible in North America in 1994.
HEUI To Common-RailThe 7.3L Adeptness Stroke acclimated a Caterpillar-produced HEUI injector. Back the 6.0L agent came out, its HEUI arrangement (injectors) was produced by Siemens but acclimated a Bosch-built high-pressure oil pump. Heavy-duty Caterpillar engines that featured the ACERT arrangement (advanced agitation emissions abridgement technology) in the ’90s additionally acclimated an HEUI arrangement design. The 6.4L Adeptness Stroke alone the HEUI arrangement and went to a Siemens common-rail piezo injector that acclimated no agent oil. The arrangement is agnate to what is begin on ’01-and-newer Duramax, as able-bodied as ’03-and-newer Cummins engines, which use a Bosch-based common-rail injection.
The absorbing allotment of the 6.4L’s common-rail bang arrangement is its piezo actuator. It is an electrically activated accessory that acts agnate to a solenoid, but it’s abundant added precise. It is comprised of piezo discs that, back electrically charged, account them to deform, consistent in expansion. This amplification creates a longitudinal motion that controls the bang of fuel. Back energized, the piezo actuator pushes bottomward adjoin a valve agent (in the injector). The piezo actuator is again alternate to its non-energized accompaniment via the cyberbanking controller, switching the polarity of the electrical augment to the injector.
Due to its speed, the piezo injector can aftermath up to bristles bang cycles per agitation event. This abundantly reduces bankrupt emissions and helps ascendancy the burden acceleration to aftermath beneath agent noise. The piezo actuator is angry on for about 400-millionths of a added to actualize two injections.
Decision MakingEven admitting the 7.3L, 6.0L, and 6.4L Adeptness Stroke engines do not allotment a basal ammunition commitment arrangement design, they await on electronics to ascendancy the bulk of agent ammunition injected into the agitation chamber. All of the Adeptness Strokes are direct-injection engines, so there is no charge for a pre-chamber in the head. The compression arrangement is lower than an IDI architecture (the pre-chamber abundantly increases the apparent volume, and appropriately the thermal accident into the coolant). All three engines use a chip to accomplish the ammunition commitment and timing decisions. But the affinity amid the three engines’ electronics ends there. The 7.3L and 6.0L apply two microprocessors to accomplish the injectors, while the 6.4L has one unit. The 7.3L Adeptness Stroke acclimated a PCM (power alternation ascendancy module) in affiliation with an IDM (injector disciplinarian module) to run the engine. The IDM active an centralized DC-to-DC advocate that added the arresting to the injectors to 115 volts.
The 6.0L agent uses two computers in alternation to ascendancy the engine. There is a PCM and an FICM (fuel bang ascendancy module). The two modules are intrinsically linked, back both accept a beam anamnesis and are complex with the authoritative action of how continued and back to accessible the ammunition injectors. The majority of the ascendancy for the agent arrangement is in the PCM, while the FICM does the absolute assignment of aperture the injectors through an cyberbanking accessory alleged a driver. The disciplinarian can be advised a high-current about-face that has no affective parts. The FICM additionally internally generates the 48 volts that the 6.0L HEUI arrangement uses.
In the FICM, anniversary alone injector is controlled with four disciplinarian inputs. There are high- and low-side drivers to accessible and aing the braid of anniversary injector. On after 6.0L engines, the low-side disciplinarian is absolutely aggregate amid four injectors. This agency an injector abbreviate to arena on one of the low-side drivers could aftermath four adapted absurdity codes. The aboriginal (’03) engines had an alone low-side disciplinarian for anniversary injector.
Unlike a gasoline ammunition injector, the Adeptness Stroke HEUI arrangement requires both an accessible and a aing command for the bang cycle. In contrast, a gasoline agent uses alone an accessible command and, back shut off, the centralized bounce closes the injector. The aerial operating burden of the HEUI will not acquiesce for that. It needs to be remembered that the FICM and/or IDM (7.3L) is absolutely authoritative the high-pressure agent oil on the top of the injector to accommodate ammunition delivery. The PCM and FICM acquaint through what is accepted as a CAN (controller breadth network) circuit.
6.4L SupercomputerWhen the 6.4L was introduced, the FICM was alone and the injector ascendancy drivers were now in an ECM (engine ascendancy module) instead of a PCM. The piezo architecture acclimated a capricious command arresting from 42 to 96 volts DC. The all-important voltage is created in the 6.4L’s ECM.
In summation, the aboriginal Adeptness Stroke (7.3L) active an HEUI injector from Caterpillar that operated with 115 volts and was controlled through a aggregate of a PCM and an IDM. The 6.0L adaptation had an HEUI arrangement advised by Sturman for Siemens instead of a Caterpillar arrangement (it’s been appropriate this was done to get about Caterpillar’s patents) and was run via an FICM and PCM on 48 volts. The 6.4L alone the HEUI arrangement and replaced it with a common-rail piezo injector operating amid 42 and 96 volts application aloof a distinct ECM.
Data GatheringRegardless of the appearance of ammunition delivery, for the PCM and ECM to activate the requirements of the engine, sensors are required. A sensor is a accessory that translates a concrete state, or condition, into an electrical signal. In all the Adeptness Storke applications, the PCM and ECM use a 5-volt advertence arresting for most, if not all, sensors. This is a accepted argumentation active amid controllers for both gasoline and agent engines. The sensor produces an achievement voltage that is again beatific to the PCM or ECM.
Due to the stricter ascendancy on emissions with every casual year, the 6.4L Adeptness Stroke has added sensors than any antecedent version. The ECM is additionally amenable for authoritative the burn-off about-face of the agent chapped clarify (DPF), so added abstracts is appropriate that the beforehand systems did not need. The afterward are the accepted Adeptness Stroke sensors, but not all were acclimated in all applications
AP Sensor (Accelerator Pedal Position)The AP sensor incorporates three potentiometers to clue burke position. Throughout the movement of the AP, the attrition ethics of the three potentiometers charge agree. If not, the Check Agent ablaze will illuminate, and the agent will abide to accomplish as normal. If two signals from the AP are lost, the ECM will alone acquiesce the agent to idle.
Baro Sensor (Barometric Pressure)A 5-volt advertence arresting is is supplied to the baro sensor and it produces an analog achievement signal. In the 6.4L, the sensor is amid in the ECM, while the beforehand engines use a alien sensor. The primary action of the baro sensor is to accommodate distance advice so the timing, ammunition quantity, afterglow bung on time, and turbocharger addition can be altered.
CKP Sensor (Crankshaft Position)The CKP sensor arresting is created by a alluring auto army to the advanced of the agent block. It reacts to a activate caster positioned on the crankshaft. The sensor produces a sine beachcomber that is adapted by the ECM or PCM to a agenda signal. Crankshaft acceleration is bent by the abundance of the arresting output.
CMP Sensor (Camshaft Position)The CMP sensor arresting is the aftereffect of a alluring auto army on the agent block. The sensor reacts to a activate placed on the camshaft. Camshaft position is acclimated in affiliation with the CKP to account agent battlefront position.
ECT Sensor (Engine Coolant Temperature)The ECT sensor is a thermistor, which is the adverse of a resistor. As it is heated, its attrition drops. It is acclimated for ammunition commitment modification based on the agent temperature.
EGRVP Sensor (EGR Valve Position)The EGRVP sensor is a three-wire potentiometer. The agent ambassador uses the EGRVP sensor to clothier the bulk of recirculated bankrupt gas, based on agent operating conditions.
EOT Sensor (Engine Oil Temperature)The EOT sensor is a two-wire sensor, agnate to the ECT. The ECM and PCM adviser the agent oil temperature to aid in authoritative ammunition abuse burden and fan control. This allows the agent ambassador to atone for oil bendability variations due to temperature changes and ensure able agent adeptness is produced for all operating conditions.
IAT1 Sensor (Intake Air Temperature, Cardinal 1)This sensor is a two-wire thermistor amid central the accumulation airflow sensor. Its primary action is to admeasurement assimilation air temperature to aid in authoritative the variable-vane turbocharger and the afterglow bung system.
IAT2 Sensor (Intake Air Temperature, Cardinal 2)Also a thermistor, the IAT2 looks adapted than IAT1. Its action is to adviser the air temperature in the assimilation manifold.
FRP Sensor (Fuel Abuse Pressure)The FRP is a three-wire capricious capacitance sensor. Its action is to accommodate abstracts to the ambassador advertence the burden in the ammunition rail. The ECM and PCM adviser the FRP sensor as the agent is operating to attune the burden ascendancy valve. The FRP is additionally acclimated to command the able bang timing.
MAF Sensor (Mass Airflow)The MAF sensor uses a hot-wire analysis aspect to admeasurement the bulk of admission air to the engine. The airflow cools the analysis wire, and the accepted appropriate to accumulate it at 392 degrees greater than the IAT1 temperature is again measured.
MAP Sensor (Manifold Absolute Pressure)A three-wire capricious capacitance sensor is acclimated to abetment in the adding of EGR control, ammunition delivery, and burke anatomy position, forth with addition pressure.
EP Sensor (Exhaust Pressure)The EP sensor additionally uses a three-wire design. It measures the bankrupt backpressure for EGR and high-pressure turbocharger control.
FTS Sensor (Fuel Temperature)The FTS sensor is a two-wire thermistor, and its achievement is tailored to the ammunition temperature. It is acclimated to ascendancy ammunition delivery.
EGRT Outlet Sensor (EGR Cooler Outlet Temperature)This is a two-wire thermistor sensor. The agent ambassador monitors bankrupt temperature with this sensor to aid in authoritative both the EGR valve and burke bowl position.
Maintenance is KeyHEUI-equipped Adeptness Stroke engines are absolute affected to poor injector achievement acquired by continued agent oil cesspool intervals, abnormal oil, and low-quality fuel. Unlike a automated injector, the HEUI assemblage can not be taken afar for charwoman and account by a agent shop. If it fails-it charge be replaced. Remanufactured HEUI injectors are offered, but it is abundant beneath cher to accumulate the agent oil afflicted and use a acceptable affection ammunition accretion in the catchbasin on every fill-up.
The piezo injectors are not advantageous at this time and charge to be replaced if there is a problem. Admitting agent oil does not affect piezo designs, acceptable ammunition clarify account practices are appropriate for a continued and trouble-free activity of any engine.
In abounding ways, the Adeptness Stroke agent has accustomed a atramentous eye for reliability. Some of that may be justified, but added is based on not compassionate the system-which leads to artlessly replacing apparatus that are not the account of the problem. Hopefully, you will now accept a bigger compassionate of what is activity on beneath the awning of your Ford diesel.
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