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Research and development assignment in abounding disciplines - biochemistry, actinic and automated engineering – and the enactment of plantations, which provided the befalling for all-embracing absolutely mechanised processing, resulted in the change of a adjustment of processing accomplish designed to extract, from a harvested oil approach bunch, a aerial crop of a artefact of adequate affection for the all-embracing comestible oil trade. The oil winning process, in summary, involves the accession of beginning bake-apple bunches from the plantations, antibacterial and agriculture of the bunches to chargeless the approach fruit, mashing the bake-apple and acute out the awkward approach oil. The awkward oil is further advised to absolve and dry it for accumulator and export.

Large-scale plants, featuring all stages appropriate to produce approach oil to all-embracing standards, are about administration from 3 to 60 tonnes of FFB/hr. The ample installations accept automated administration systems (bucket and spiral conveyers, pumps and pipelines) and accomplish continuously, depending on the availability of FFB. Boilers, fuelled by fibre and shell, aftermath superheated steam, acclimated to accomplish electricity through agent generators. The lower accountability beef from the agent is acclimated for heating purposes throughout the factory. Best processing operations are automatically controlled and routine sampling and assay by activity ascendancy laboratories ensure smooth, efficient operation. Although such ample installations are basic intensive, extraction ante of 23 – 24 percent approach oil per agglomeration can be able from acceptable quality Tenera.

Conversion of awkward approach oil to aesthetic oil involves removal of the articles of hydrolysis and oxidation, colour and flavour. Afterwards refining, the oil may be afar (fractionated) into aqueous and solid phases by thermo-mechanical agency (controlled cooling, crystallization, and filtering), and the aqueous atom (olein) is acclimated abundantly as a aqueous affable oil in close climates, aggressive auspiciously with the added big-ticket groundnut, corn, and sunflower oils.

Extraction of oil from the approach kernels is about separate from approach oil extraction, and will about be agitated out in mills that process added oilseeds (such as groundnuts, rapeseed, cottonseed, shea basics or copra). The stages in this activity comprise acerbic the kernels into baby particles, heating (cooking), and extracting the oil appliance an oilseed expeller or petroleum-derived solvent. The oil again requires description in a clarify press or by sedimentation. Abstraction is a absolute industry, with large numbers of all-embracing manufacturers able to activity accessories that can process from 10 kg to several tonnes per hour.

Alongside the development of these all-embracing fully mechanised oil approach mills and their accession in plantations bartering the all-embracing comestible oil adorning industry, small-scale apple and artisanal processing has connected in Africa. Ventures ambit in throughput from a few hundred kilograms up to 8 tonnes FFB per day and accumulation awkward oil to the calm market.

Efforts to mechanise and advance acceptable chiral procedures accept been undertaken by analysis bodies, development agencies, and private breadth engineering companies, but these activities accept been piecemeal and uncoordinated. They accept about concentrated on removing the banality and backbreaker from the mashing or anguish date (digestion), and convalescent the adeptness of oil extraction. Baby mechanical, motorised digesters (mainly scaled-down but unheated versions of the all-embracing units declared above), accept been developed in best oil approach cultivating African countries.

Palm oil processors of all sizes go through these unit operational stages. They alter in the akin of mechanisation of anniversary unit operation and the aing abstracts alteration mechanisms that accomplish the adjustment accumulation or continuous. The calibration of operations differs at the akin of activity and artefact affection ascendancy that may be able by the adjustment of mechanisation adopted. The abstruse agreement referred to in the diagram aloft will be declared later.

The accepted breeze diagram is as follows:


Harvesting address and handling effects

In the aboriginal stages of bake-apple formation, the oil agreeable of the bake-apple is actual low. As the bake-apple approaches adeptness the accumulation of oil increases rapidly to about 50 percent of mesocarp weigh. In a beginning ripe, un-bruised bake-apple the chargeless blubbery acerbic (FFA) agreeable of the oil is beneath 0.3 percent. However, in the able bake-apple the bark becomes bendable and is added easily attacked by lipolytic enzymes, abnormally at the abject back the bake-apple becomes alone from the bunch. The enzymatic advance after-effects in an access in the FFA of the oil through hydrolysis. Analysis has apparent that if the bake-apple is bruised, the FFA in the damaged allotment of the bake-apple increases rapidly to 60 percent in an hour. There is accordingly abundant aberration in the agreement and affection within the bunch, depending on how abundant the agglomeration has been bruised.

Harvesting involves the acerbic of the agglomeration from the timberline and acceptance it to abatement to the arena by gravity. Fruits may be damaged in the activity of pruning approach fronds to betrayal the agglomeration abject to facilitate bunch cutting. As the agglomeration (weighing about 25 kg) avalanche to the arena the impact bruises the fruit. During loading and auction of bunches into and out of carriage containers there are added opportunities for the bake-apple to be bruised.

In Africa best bunches are conveyed to the processing armpit in baskets agitated on the head. To alight the load, the addiction is to dump adaptation of the bassinet assimilate the ground. This after-effects in added bruises. Sometimes trucks and advance carts, clumsy to set bunches bottomward gently, back the accountability from the villages to the processing site. Again, aerobatics the bake-apple bunches from the carriers is rough, consistent in able-bodied of the bendable exocarp. In any case care should be acclimatized in administration the bake-apple to abstain boundless bruising.

One acknowledgment to the abounding agency in which harvesting, busline and administration of bunches can account bake-apple to be damaged is to activity the bake-apple as aboriginal as accessible afterwards harvest, say aural 48 hours. About the columnist believes it is bigger to leave the bake-apple to agitate for a few canicule afore processing. Connoisseurs of acceptable comestible approach oil apperceive that the added FFA alone adds ‘bite’ to the oil flavour. At worst, the high FFA agreeable oil has acceptable laxative effects. The chargeless blubbery acerbic agreeable is not a affection affair for those who blot the awkward oil directly, although it is for oil refiners, who accept a botheration with abatement of aerial FFA agreeable palm oil.

Fresh bake-apple arrives from the acreage as bunches or apart fruit. The beginning bake-apple is frequently emptied into board boxes acceptable for belief on a calibration so that quantities of bake-apple accession at the processing armpit may be checked. Ample installations use weighbridges to counterbalance abstracts in trucks.

The affection accepted able is initially abased on the affection of bunches accession at the mill. The comminute cannot advance aloft this affection but can anticipate or minimise added deterioration.

The acreage factors that affect the agreement and final affection of approach oil are genetic, age of the tree, agronomic, environmental, agriculture technique, administration and transport. Abounding of these factors are beyond the ascendancy of a small-scale processor. Perhaps some ascendancy may be exercised over agriculture address as able-bodied as post-harvest carriage and handling.

The beginning bake-apple agglomeration consists of bake-apple anchored in spikelets growing on a basic stem. Chiral agriculture is able by acerbic the fruit-laden spikelets from the agglomeration axis with an axe or machete and again amid the bake-apple from the spikelets by hand. Children and the age-old in the apple earn assets as accidental labourers assuming this activity at the factory site.

In a mechanised adjustment a alternating boom or anchored boom equipped with rotary beater confined abstract the bake-apple from the bunch, abrogation the spikelets on the axis (Fig. 3).

Most small-scale processors do not accept the adaptation to accomplish beef for sterilization. Therefore, the threshed fruits are adapted in water. Able bunches which accommodate spikelets blot a lot of baptize in the affable process. High-pressure beef is added able in heating bunches afterwards accident abundant water. Therefore, best small-scale operations bang bunches afore the fruits are cooked, while high-pressure sterilization systems thresh bunches afterwards heating to allay the fruits.

Small-scale operators use the agglomeration decay (empty bunches) as affable fuel. In above mills the agglomeration decay is incinerated and the ash, a rich antecedent of potassium, is alternate to the acreage as fertilizer.

Sterilization or affable agency the use of high-temperature wet-heat analysis of apart fruit. Affable frequently uses hot water; sterilization uses pressurized steam. The affable activity serves several purposes.

· Calefaction analysis destroys oil-splitting enzymes and arrests hydrolysis and autoxidation.

· For all-embracing installations, breadth bunches are adapted whole, the wet calefaction weakens the bake-apple axis and makes it accessible to aish the bake-apple from bunches on afraid or aerobatics in the threshing machine.

· Calefaction helps to solidify proteins in which the oil-bearing beef are microscopically dispersed. The protein alliance (coagulation) allows the oil-bearing beef to come calm and breeze added calmly on appliance of pressure.

· Bake-apple affable weakens the pulp structure, abatement it and authoritative it easier to abstract the abject actual and its adaptation during the assimilation process. The aerial calefaction is abundant to partially agitate the oil-containing beef in the mesocarp and permits oil to be released added readily.

· The damp alien by the beef acts chemically to breach bottomward gums and resins. The gums and resins cause the oil to cream during frying. Some of the gums and resins are acrid in water. Others can be fabricated acrid in water, back burst bottomward by wet beef (hydrolysis), so that they can be removed during oil clarification. Starches present in the bake-apple are anatomize and removed in this way.

· Back high-pressure beef is acclimated for sterilization, the calefaction causes the damp in the basics to expand. When the accountability is bargain the abbreviating of the nut leads to the disengagement of the atom from the carapace wall, appropriately alleviation the kernels aural their shells. The disengagement of the atom from the carapace bank abundantly facilitates afterwards nut arise operations. From the foregoing, it is accessible that sterilization (cooking) is one of the best important operations in oil processing, ensuring the success of several added phases.

· However, during sterilization it is important to ensure aborticide of air from the sterilizer. Air not only acts as a barrier to calefaction transfer, but oil blaze increases appreciably at aerial temperatures; appropriately blaze risks are aerial during sterilization. Over-sterilization can additionally advance to poor achromatize adeptness of the resultant oil. Sterilization is additionally the arch agency amenable for the discolouration of approach kernels, arch to poor achromatize adeptness of the extracted oil and reduction of the protein bulk of the columnist cake.

Fig. 3 Agglomeration thresher (Centre de Accumulation Address Steinmetz-Benin)

Fig. 4 Bake-apple bactericide (Centre de Accumulation Address Steinmetz-Benin)

Digestion is the activity of absolution the approach oil in the bake-apple through the breach or breaking bottomward of the oil-bearing cells. The digester frequently acclimated consists of a steam-heated annular barge adapted with a axial alternating shaft accustomed a cardinal of beater (stirring) arms. Through the activity of the alternating beater accoutrements the bake-apple is pounded. Pounding, or digesting the bake-apple at aerial temperature, helps to abate the bendability of the oil, destroys the fruits’ alien accoutrement (exocarp), and completes the disruption of the oil beef already amorphous in the sterilization phase. Unfortunately, for affidavit accompanying to bulk and maintenance, best small-scale digesters do not accept the calefaction insulation and beef injections that advice to advance their adaptation at animated temperatures during this operation.

Contamination from adamant is greatest during assimilation back the able bulk of metal abrasion is encountered in the milling process. Iron contagion increases the accident of oil blaze and the access of oil rancidity.

There are two audible methods of extracting oil from the digested material. One adjustment uses automated presses and is alleged the ‘dry’ method. The added alleged the ‘wet’ adjustment uses hot baptize to bleed out the oil.

In the ‘dry’ adjustment the algid of the extraction date is to clasp the oil out of a admixture of oil, moisture, fibre and basics by applying automated accountability on the digested mash. There are a ample cardinal of altered types of presses but the assumption of operation is agnate for each. The presses may be advised for accumulation (small amounts of actual operated upon for a time period) or connected operations.

In accumulation operations, actual is placed in a abundant metal ‘cage’ and a metal plunger is acclimated to columnist the material. The main differences in accumulation columnist designs are as follows: a) the adjustment acclimated to move the plunger and administer the pressure; b) the bulk of accountability in the press; and c) the admeasurement of the cage.

The plunger can be confused manually or by a motor. The motorised adjustment is faster but added expensive.

Different designs use either a spiral cilia (spindle press) (Fig. 4, 5, 6) or a hydraulic adjustment (hydraulic press) (Fig. 7, 8, 9) to move the plunger. College pressures may be able appliance the hydraulic adjustment but affliction should be taken to ensure that poisonous hydraulic aqueous does not contact the oil or raw material. Hydraulic aqueous can blot damp from the air and lose its capability and the plungers abrasion out and charge common replacement. Arbor columnist spiral accoutrement are fabricated from adamantine animate and captivated by softer steel basics so that the basics abrasion out faster than the screw. These are easier and cheaper to alter than the screw.

The admeasurement of the cage varies from 5 kg to 30 kg with an average admeasurement of 15 kg. The accountability should be added gradually to acquiesce time for the oil to escape. If the abyss of actual is too great, oil will be trapped in the centre. To anticipate this, abundant plates’ can be amid into the raw material. The accumulation bulk of accumulation presses depends on the admeasurement of the cage and the time bald to fill, columnist and abandoned anniversary batch.

Hydraulic presses are faster than arbor spiral types and powered presses are faster than chiral types. Some types of chiral columnist require ample accomplishment to accomplish and do not allay drudgery.

The aboriginal centrifuges and hydraulic presses accept now accustomed way to distinctively advised screw-presses agnate to those acclimated for added oilseeds. These abide of a annular perforated cage through which runs a closely applicable screw. Digested bake-apple is continuously conveyed through the cage towards an aperture belted by a cone, which creates the accountability to belch the oil through the cage perforations (drilled holes). Oil-bearing beef that are not burst in the digester will abide unopened if a hydraulic or centrifugal abstraction adjustment is employed. Spiral presses, due to the turbulence and kneading activity exerted on the bake-apple accumulation in the columnist cage, can finer breach open the unopened oil beef and absolution added oil. These presses act as an additional digester and are able in oil extraction.

Moderate metal abrasion occurs during the acute operation, creating a antecedent of adamant contamination. The bulk of abrasion depends on the blazon of press, adjustment of pressing, nut-to-fibre ratio, etc. Aerial acute pressures are appear to accept an adverse aftereffect on the achromatize adeptness and oxidative absorption of the extracted oil.

The basic point of description is to abstracted the oil from its entrained impurities. The aqueous advancing out of the columnist is a admixture of palm oil, water, corpuscle debris, abject actual and ‘non-oily solids’. Because of the non-oily debris the admixture is actual blubbery (viscous). Hot baptize is accordingly added to the columnist achievement admixture to attenuate it. The concoction (addition of water) provides a barrier causing the abundant debris to abatement to the basal of the alembic while the lighter oil aerosol breeze through the adulterated admixture to the top back calefaction is activated to breach the chrism (oil abeyant in baptize with the aid of gums and resins). Baptize is added in a adjustment of 3:1.

The adulterated admixture is anesthetized through a awning to remove abject fibre. The buried admixture is above from one or two hours and then accustomed to achieve by force in the ample catchbasin so that the approach oil, being lighter than water, will abstracted and acceleration to the top. The bright oil is decanted into a accession tank. This antiseptic oil still contains traces of baptize and dirt. To anticipate accretion FFA through autocatalytic hydrolysis of the oil, the damp agreeable of the oil charge be bargain to 0.15 to 0.25 percent. Re-heating the decanted oil in a affable pot and anxiously bribery off the broiled oil from any engrained clay removes any antithesis moisture. Connected clarifiers consist of three compartments to amusement the awkward mixture, dry decanted oil and hold able oil in an alien carapace as a calefaction exchanger. (Fig. 10, 11, 12)

Fig. 5 Arbor columnist (Luapula, Zambia)

Fig. 6 Arbor columnist (Luapula, Zambia)

Fig. 7 Addition archetypal of spindle columnist (Nova Technologies Ltd., Nigeria)

Fig. 8 Hydraulic press (manual)

The wastewater from the clarifier is drained off into nearby carrion pits dug for the purpose. No added analysis of the carrion is undertaken in baby mills. The accumulated carrion is about calm in buckets and acclimated to annihilate weeds in the processing area.

In all-embracing mills the antiseptic and broiled oil is transferred to a catchbasin for accumulator above-mentioned to celerity from the mill. Since the bulk of blaze of the oil increases with the temperature of accumulator the oil is frequently maintained about 50°C, appliance hot baptize or low-pressure steam-heating coils, to anticipate alliance and fractionation. Iron contagion from the accumulator catchbasin may action if the catchbasin is not lined with a acceptable careful coating.

Small-scale mills artlessly backpack the broiled oil in acclimated petroleum oil drums or artificial drums and abundance the drums at ambient temperature.

The antithesis from the columnist consists of a admixture of fibre and approach nuts. The basics are afar from the fibre by duke in the small-scale operations. The sorted fibre is covered and accustomed to heat, appliance its own centralized exothermic reactions, for about two or three days. The fibre is then apprenticed in arbor presses to antithesis a added brand (technical) oil that is acclimated frequently in soap-making. The basics are usually broiled and awash to other operators who activity them into approach atom oil. The allocation operation is usually aloof for the adolescence and elders in the apple in a advised effort to advice them access some income.

Large-scale mills use the recovered fibre and nutshells to blaze the beef boilers. The super-heated beef is again acclimated to drive turbines to accomplish electricity for the mill. For this acumen it makes bread-and-er faculty to antithesis the fibre and to carapace the approach nuts. In the all-embracing atom recovery process, the basics independent in the columnist block are afar from the fibre in a depericarper. They are again broiled and absurd in centrifugal absurd to release the kernels (Fig. 13, 14, 15, 16). The kernels are frequently afar from the shells appliance a aggregate of winnowing and hydrocyclones. The kernels are then broiled in silos to a damp agreeable of about 7 percent before packing.

During the nut arise activity some of the kernels are broken. The bulk of FFA access is abundant faster in burst kernels than in whole kernels. Breakage of kernels should accordingly be kept as low as possible, given added processing considerations.

Fig. 9 Chiral vertical press (O.P.C., Cameroon)

Fig. 10 Motorised accumbent screw columnist (Centre Songhai, Benin)

Fig. 11 Accumulated digester and motorised hydraulic columnist (Technoserve/Cort Engineering, Ghana)

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Fig. 12 Bloom extractor (Cort Engineering Services, Ghana)

Summary of Assemblage operations

Unit operation



Fruit fermentation

To allay bake-apple abject from spikelets and to acquiesce ripening processes to abate


Bunch chopping

To facilitate chiral abatement of fruit


Fruit sorting

To aish and arrangement bake-apple from spikelets


Fruit boiling

To alter and stop enzymatic spoilage, coalesce protein and betrayal diminutive oil cells


Fruit digestion

To breach oil-bearing beef to acquiesce oil breeze during abstraction while amid fibre from nuts


Mash pressing

To absolution aqueous approach oil appliance activated accountability on ruptured cellular contents


Oil purification

To abscess admixture of oil and baptize to aish water-soluble gums and resins in the oil, dry decanted oil by added heating


Fibre-nut separation

To abstracted de-oiled fibre from approach nuts.


Second Pressing

To antithesis balance oil for use as soap stock


Nut drying

To sun dry basics for afterwards cracking

Fig. 13 Clarifier catchbasin (O.P.C., Cameroon)

Fig. 14 Clarifier catchbasin (Nova Technologies Ltd., Nigeria)

Fig. 15 Oil clarify (Faith Engineering Workshop, Nigeria)

Fig. 16 Approach nut cracker (AGRICO, Ghana)

Fig. 17 Approach nut cracker (NOVA, Technologies, Nigeria)

Fig. 18 Approach nut cracker (Ogunoroke Steele Construction Works Ltd, Nigeria)

Fig. 19 Approach nut cracker combined with Kernel/Shell separator (Hormeku Engineering works, Ghana)

In designing accessories for small-scale oil abstraction one of the key factors to accede is the affection required. ‘Quality’ is absolutely abstract and depends on the demands of the ultimate consumer. For the comestible oil adorning industry the best important affection belief for awkward oil are:

The best analytical stages in the processing adjustment for a processor gluttonous to amuse these belief are: agglomeration sterilization as anon as accessible afterwards harvest; and able description and dehydration of the awkward oil afterwards extraction.

By contrast, for the calm customer of awkward approach oil, flavour is the primary affection factor. This is added by the beverage that takes abode aural the bake-apple back the bunches are accustomed to blow for three or added canicule afterwards harvesting. Appropriately sterilization anon afterwards agriculture is not a acute consideration. Herbs and spices for flavour are alien during the oil-drying appearance of operations to affectation off-flavours. Accordingly adamant process ascendancy during oil description charge not be assigned or congenital in the design.

The chargeless blubbery acids and the trace tocopherols independent in the awkward approach oil afterwards accustomed beverage additionally accept a laxative effect, which is adorable for African consumers for whom constructed substitutes are a luxury. The acidity imparts a ‘bite’ to the oil which some consumers prefer. Appropriately the affection requirements of one market, arch to assertive processing imperatives, may battle with those of addition market.

The acceptable chiral methods are frequently referred to as ‘low technology’ production. The mechanised units are likewise referred to as ‘intermediate technology’ production.

The apple acceptable adjustment of extracting approach oil involves abrasion formed bake-apple brew in balmy baptize and duke binding to abstracted fibre and basics from the oil/water mixture. A colander, bassinet or a barge with fine perforated holes in the basal is acclimated to clarify out fibre and nuts. The wet admixture is again put on the blaze and brought to a active boil. Afterwards about one or two hours, depending on the aggregate of actual actuality boiled, the firewood is taken out and the above admixture accustomed to cool. Herbs may be added to the admixture at this point aloof afore abbreviation the heat. On cooling to about blood temperature, a calabash or bank basin is acclimated to brush off the approach oil. Because of the ample quantities of baptize acclimated in abrasion the lurid this is called the ‘wet’ method.

A automated improvement, based on the acceptable wet method process, is able by appliance a vertical digester with perforated basal plate (to acquittal the aqueous phase) and a ancillary channel for absolution the solid appearance components. The adjustment combines digestion, acute and hot water concoction into one automated assemblage operation.

The ‘dry’ adjustment uses a digester to batter the boiled fruit, which is a ample labour-saving device. The oil in the digested or formed lurid is afar in a columnist that may be chiral or mechanical. Motorised automated presses are preferred, whether hydraulic or spiral type.

Most medium- and all-embracing processing operations accept the ’dry’ adjustment of oil extraction. This is because the fibre and nut shells may anon acclimated to blaze the boiler to accomplish beef for sterilization and added operations, including electricity generation. If the huge volumes of fibre and shells are not acclimated as boiler fuel, serious ecology abuse problems may result. Too abundant baptize in the fibre increases the bulk and bulk of beef appropriate to dry the fibre. Appropriately the alternative for the dry adjustment in plants administration added than six tonnes FFB per hour.

Processing accouterment manufacturers tend to accomplish machines to fit alone processing operations. However, contempo developments accept been against the accomplish of chip machines, accumulation several process operations such as digestion, acute and fibre/nut break into one assembly. It is activate that these machines fit into two key activity groupings: accumulation and semi-continuous processes.

Schematic of processing models and associated machinery

NB: NOS = Non -oily debris entrained in oil such as coagulated protein, gums and resins, etc.

The abstraction of approach oil from above approach bake-apple can be able by administration alternating batches of abstracts or continuously feeding actual to the machines.

The accumulation systems assignment anon on alternating endless of boiled bake-apple to abstract oil in one operation for clarification. The ‘wet’ adjustment uses a vertical digester (Fig. 11) with a perforated basal bowl to batter a accumulation of bake-apple and again even out the oil and added non-oil debris from the mashed lurid with hot water. The absolute screw-press is advised to batter a accumulation of above bake-apple in the access area of the apparatus while exerting accountability on the mashed lurid in addition area to belch the approach oil in one operation.

The advantage of the wet adjustment is that it is simple and absolutely leaches all oil and non-oily solid substances that can be agitated in the aqueous beck out of the digested brew to accord apple-pie and afar basics and fibre. The aqueous arising from the vertical digester goes anon to the description date of processing. The bulk of baptize bald to even the pulp is frequently the aforementioned as that appropriate for diluting the adhesive oil that comes from the automated columnist in alertness for clarification. An inexperienced abettor may use too abundant hot baptize to bleed out the oil and appropriately consume accidental copse fuel.

The ‘wet’ adjustment crop of approach oil is severely bargain back the ablution baptize is cold. In the advance of digesting the bake-apple mash, in the attendance of water, there is added addiction to anatomy an oil/water chrism that is difficult to abstracted from the fibre mass. The blurred oil accident in the fibre can be abundant if affliction is not taken to ensure abounding loading of the digester. Vertical bloom digesters, acute loading and discharging of a specific bulk of material, can appropriately alone be acclimated in a batch operation.

Continuous systems assignment sequentially, with one operation agriculture anon into another, accompanying to the adjustment and timing of machine operations. Careful engineering of assemblage operations is appropriate to minimise discontinuities in the agriculture of one date into another. Otherwise some machines accept to be chock-full periodically for added stations to t up. When there are discontinuities in the breeze of abstracts amid activity stations the operations are accepted as semi-continuous. The dry abstraction systems with abstracted assimilation and acute stations are usually semi-continuous.

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Also back assimilation and acute stations are accumulated into an chip assemblage and there is alternate agriculture of above bake-apple to the digester basin the operation is termed “semi-continuous”. Once operations accept been chip to attain abounding alternation the basic investment adaptation of small-scale operators has been surpassed, because both accouterment and alive basic for raw actual increases abundantly with the added akin of mechanisation.

The dry systems do not charge abundant baptize for processing, although they accept the disadvantage of abrogation abundant antithesis oil in the columnist cake. The oil agreeable of the columnist block can be absolutely ample (2-3 percent), depending on the blazon of columnist acclimated and the backbone of manual operators.

The adeptness with which the assorted presses can abstract oil ranges from 60 to 70 percent for arbor presses, 80-87 percent for hydraulic presses and 75-80 percent for the Caltech screw-presses. The first-pressing oil abstraction ante additionally ambit from 12 to 15 percent for the spindle-presses, 14-16 percent for hydraulic presses and 17-19 percent for the motorised screw-presses. (Rouziere, 1995)

In abounding instances the aboriginal columnist block is again sorted to aish the nuts, and the fibre is afterwards subjected to a added acute to access added oil (an added 3 to 4 percent on FFB). The added columnist oil is about of lower quality, in agreement of chargeless blubbery acerbic agreeable and rancidity. Such low-grade oil is acclimated in soap-making. Some apple processors undertake the acceptable hot baptize abrasion of the absolute columnist block anon after acute instead of allocation fibre and added pressing.

Local manufacturers accept developed a advanced ambit of machinery and accessories for processing approach oil and approach atom to fit any budget. All the accordant assemblage operational machines can be produced to assorted degrees of finish and affection in the Sub-Region. It is the aggregate of the assemblage operation into an affordable activity alternation that distinguishes the manufacturers and their supplies.

From acceptable technologies that await alone on manual labour and simple affable utensils, adopting the akin of mechanization depends abundantly on a antithesis amid the abundance of bunches accessible for processing in a accustomed belt and the money accessible for advance in machines.

The aboriginal application should be the availability of raw abstracts and how to compute the processing scale. Knowing the optimum calibration of operations, it is again accessible to accede the blazon of processing techniques. The college the technology, the added accomplished operators will be appropriate to handle the machines. These abstruse considerations should advance to the equipment alternative and assay of the basic investments bald to access the all-important machines.

Assume a Apple Accumulation decides to bulb oil approach and establishes a affairs to bulb a assertive cardinal of seedlings anniversary year over a seven-year period. In the third year the aboriginal set of copse activate to buck fruit. The association wants to authorize a processing comminute and they alarm an expert. How is the admiration fabricated of the admeasurement and blazon of processing assemblage appropriate by the community?

Start by establishing the block of buried areas by year so the age of the copse may be determined. The oil approach timberline begins to buck fruit from the third year and the crop per timberline increases progressively with age until it peaks about 20 years. The crop begins to abatement from year 25 through 40 back the bread-and-er activity of the timberline ebbs.

Table 3 describes the abeyant yields of approach bake-apple bunches (in metric tonnes) from the buried hectares per year. Estimates in Table 3 are acclimated to account the accepted anniversary crop for anniversary anniversary block. For example, 8 700 seedlings buried in 1998 began to crop bake-apple in 2000 at the bulk of 3 tonnes per hectare to accord 198 tonnes for the year. By Year 7 all buried areas will be in production, at altered crop rates. The estimated anniversary crop per burying block is affected and again the cavalcade for the year is added to give the abeyant raw abstracts accessible for processing. For example, in Year 7, back all buried blocks are acquiescent fruit, the absolute is 8 919 metric tonnes (see the row appointed ‘TOTAL’). How the anniversary crop is distributed over the absolute year needs to be bent in adjustment to apperceive which period demands the absorption of processors.

The oil approach timberline crop is broadcast over the absolute year. Best of Axial and West Africa acquaintance two condensate seasons. The oil palm bears bake-apple in acknowledgment to the condensate arrangement and appropriately there are two peak agriculture periods in these regions. Southern hemisphere close monsoon regions such as Malawi, Zambia and South East Asia acquaintance alone one long backing division and accordingly tend to accept a distinct peak-harvesting season.

For Axial and West Africa the anniversary account distribution arrangement for aftermath is accepted to appearance the afterward variations:


Percent yield

Seasonal contribution







50 %









34 %












In the aiguille agriculture ages it is estimated that 12 to 16 percent of the anniversary crop is about accessible for processing. The plant that is installed charge be able of processing the aiguille ages output, which is about estimated as 15 percent of the anniversary output. Conservatively, it is estimated that the bulb will assignment two accouterment during the aiguille season.

Table 3: Estimated anniversary crop per hectare (from year of planting)
















Estimated yield






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Table 4: Estimated FFB yields afterwards burying and related bulb capacity

Year/yield in metric tonnes

































1 045

1 140

1 378

1 558

1 634

1 805

1 995

2 375

2 565


2 400

3 400

4 400

4 800

5 800

6 560

6 880

7 600

8 800

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10 000


1 200

1 700

2 200

2 400

2 900

3 280

3 440

4 400

5 200


1 200

1 700

2 200

2 400

2 900

3 280

3 440

5 000




3 571

6 041

8 919

10 619

12 526

14 121

15 558

17 041

19 840

23 656

Peak Month





1 338

1 593

1 879

2 118

2 334

2 556

2 976

3 548


Capacity/hr Plant













Source: Poku, K. Feasibility abstraction on Malawi approach oil comminute establishment

In Year 3 there is the abeyant of processing 198 tonnes of beginning bake-apple bunches. Assuming that the absolute abundance were to be candy in one area over a 20-day aeon appliance 8 hours in the day, we would charge a processing assemblage that handles 186 kg per hour, or 93 kilos/hr if the best was fabricated to accomplish 16-hours per day. Table 4 shows adaptation based on a 16-hour alive day. For this adaptation a wet blazon digester or the dry spindle-press operation would be recommended. By Year 5 the association would crave a fully mechanised comminute appliance motorised digesters and presses.

Before the sixth year the association would accept to decide whether they appetite to break in the small-scale milling class or move up to a medium-scale operation appliance a connected adjustment of machines. If the advantage is to break small-scale again the association will charge to abode orders for additional small-scale processing modules. The new set of processing machines can be placed to run alongside the absolute ability or amid in addition apple to minimise agglomeration busline costs.

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The best bulb admeasurement advantage for rural Africa is still unknown. All-embracing operations frequently crave high-skilled labour and management expertise. Best villages do not accept such a basin of accomplished labour. The villages additionally abridgement the amusing basement such as acceptable accommodation, schools and hospitals that would allure high-skilled labour. Thus, in adjustment to authorize a all-embracing processing operation, labour needs to be alien from added parts of the country. To advance these ‘alien’ workers and managers a accouterment charge be fabricated in the basic advance for housing, schools and clinics a the processing estate. Some of the ancestry and medical services charge be continued to the able association or there will be acerbity appear the ‘alien’ workers.

Large-scale operations additionally crave accelerated busline of harvested bunches to the processing site, appropriately the charge for advance in roads and civilian works. The enactment of all-embracing operations creates an overhead accountability that is above the adaptation of a apple community.

Many of the all-embracing operations accustomed in the early 1970s accept beneath forth with the civic economies of African nations. The bulk anatomy of these establishments has rendered the achievement products non-competitive on the all-embracing market.

Today decentralised small-scale processing operations are adopted in best genitalia of Africa.

Once the appropriate bulb admeasurement has been determined, the next account to accede is the bulk of money appropriate to buy the all-important machinery. The added money available, the added units can be bought, to minimise the drudgery of processors.

The advanced arrangement of accouterment options makes it accessible for a processor to alpha operations with a chiral spindle-press acclimated to batter the palm fruit. Addition may alpha with a distinct motorised vertical wet activity digester. Added up the advance calibration are those who can allow the combination accumbent digester and screw-press or aggregate accumbent digester and hydraulic columnist forth with the associated sterilizers, threshers, and oil clarifiers. Addition aggregate that is yet to be approved is the aggregate of a accumbent motorised screw-press in aggregate with a added date vertical bloom digester for best approach oil abstraction and fibre/nut separation.

Type of unit

Key machines

Rated capacity

(k g FFB/hr)

Extraction efficiency


Capital investment


Single accumulation unit









5 000-7 000




1 500-6 000


Vertical digester



1 500-2 500


Motorised accumbent digester




2 500-3 000

Dual abstracted units


Digester Arbor presses



3 000-5 000

Digester hydraulic press



7 000-10 000

Semi-continuous accumulated units

Motorised digester



10 000


hydraulic spindle-press

-15 000

Digester screw-press



12 000-15 000

Source: Compiled from assorted sources

The abstraction adeptness refers to the allotment of oil that the apparatus can abstract in affiliation to the absolute oil in the above fruit. The blazon of bake-apple mix (Dura/Tenera) presented for processing abundantly influences the abstraction adeptness of all units.

Many of the installations that use distinct arbor and manual hydraulic columnist units crave chiral anguish with board mortars and pestles, bottom stomping, etc. Appropriately the throughput adaptation of such a comminute is bent by the chiral anguish rate. The presses are usually not mechanised and appropriately the processing adaptation of the columnist is additionally bound by the admeasurement of the columnist cage and the operator’s activity akin for axis the columnist spiral or pumping the hydraulic aqueous mechanism.

Another attached action is the affordability of capital equipment. Breadth the basic accessories bulk exceeds a assertive bulk villagers will shy abroad from demography loans to acquirement the aggregate of operations. The artist charge buck in apperception that until the rural/urban clearing of apple youth is antipodal the villages will be mainly busy by the elderly. These elders are artlessly afraid to booty up abiding loans and the bounded banks are afraid to accommodate to a predominantly age-old association group. In Ghana, for instance, basic accessories costs should be about US$10 000 to be affordable to village-based individuals or groups.

Because of the charge to accumulate antecedent basic advance to a bald minimum it is acute that accidental mechanised assemblage operations are eliminated. Assignment that can be done manually – afterwards ever demanding profitability – should be, thereby demography advantage of surplus labour and creating a beck of accomplishment and salaries in the bounded community. Operations that are usually associated with backbreaker by processors, such as bake-apple assimilation and oil extraction, can be mechanised. Added beneath arduous tasks, such as fruit break and fibre/nut separation, can be apprenticed out to age-old women and unemployed youth.

“Small-scale” does not necessarily beggarly a cogent abatement in efficiency. It does, however, beggarly a abridgement in alive basic and operating costs. The baby mills can be placed at the heart of bounded communities, minimising assurance on vehicular carriage that is frequently bare in rural communities, accustomed the poor action of road networks and added infrastructure. This added accessibility serves to badly abate bake-apple accident and consistent post-harvest losses.

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Culturally, men breed or aftermath while women activity and sell. Traditionally, women adjudge the anatomy in which the aftermath is to be traded and appropriately actuate the amount of processing they are accommodating to undertake. These decisions anatomy the base of acceptable technologies aloft which innovations are to be derived.

The operating aesthetics for accessories addition should accordingly be an attack to advance accouterment to allay the backbreaker of female processors while accouterment added avenues for the application of those displaced by the bigger technologies, befitting some operations labour-intensive. It is accordingly important to mechanise the key drudgery-alleviation accessories that can be calmly handled by women.

Prime mover ability is additionally a above consideration. Best villages do not accept electricity and appropriately the agent agent is the basic antecedent of power. Thus, for bulk affidavit there cannot be a complication of these engines to drive the appropriate assemblage operations. Breadth there is the charge to drive several machines the acknowledgment could be to use agent ability to accomplish electricity. The bulk and aliment of this ability antecedent would annihilate best small-scale processors and communities. The ability antecedent in such instances acts as a limitation to the cardinal of assemblage operations that can be mechanised and powered. Systems of pulleys and apparatus to drive operational machines should be actively advised when designing for apple based groups.

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