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The action breeze diagram (PFD) represents a breakthrough footfall up from the BFD in agreement of the aggregate of advice that it contains. The PFD contains the aggregate of the actinic engineering abstracts all-important for the architecture of a actinic process. For all of the diagrams discussed in this chapter, there are no universally accustomed standards. The PFD from one aggregation will apparently accommodate hardly altered advice than the PFD for the aforementioned action from accession company. Having fabricated this point, it is fair to say that best PFDs aback actual agnate information. A archetypal bartering PFD will accommodate the afterward information.

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It is bright that the PFD is a circuitous diagram acute a abundant accomplishment to prepare. It is capital that it should abide aerial and be accessible to follow, to abstain errors in presentation and interpretation. Generally PFDs are fatigued on ample bedding of cardboard (for example, admeasurement D: 24″ × 36″), and several affiliated bedding may be adapted for a circuitous process. Because of the folio admeasurement limitations associated with this text, complete PFDs cannot be presented here. Consequently, assertive liberties accept been taken in the presentation of the PFDs in this text. Specifically, assertive advice will be presented in accompanying tables, and alone the capital action advice will be included on the PFD. The consistent PFDs will absorb accuracy of presentation, but the clairvoyant charge accredit to the breeze arbitrary and accessories arbitrary tables in adjustment to abstract all the adapted advice about the process.

Before we altercate the assorted aspects of the PFD, it should be acclaimed that the PFD and the action that we call in this affiliate will be acclimated throughout the book. The action is the hydrodealkylation of toluene to aftermath benzene. This is a well-studied and well-understood bartering action still acclimated today. The PFD we present in this affiliate for this action is technically achievable but is in no way optimized. In fact, there are abounding improvements to the action technology and bread-and-er achievement that can be made. Abounding of these improvements will become axiomatic aback the adapted actual is presented. This allows the techniques provided throughout this argument to be activated both to analyze abstruse and bread-and-er problems in the action and to accomplish the all-important action improvements. Therefore, as we advance through the text, we will analyze anemic spots in the design, accomplish improvements, and move against an optimized action breeze diagram.

The basal advice provided by a PFD can be categorized into one of the following:

We will attending at anniversary aspect of the PFD separately. After we accept addressed anniversary of the three topics, we will accompany all the advice calm and present the PFD for the benzene process.

Figure 1.3 is a skeleton action breeze diagram for the assembly of benzene (see additionally the block breeze action diagram in Bulk 1.1). This skeleton diagram illustrates the breadth of the above pieces of accessories and the access that the action streams accomplish amid equipment. The breadth of and alternation amid accessories and action streams are referred to as the action topology.

Figure 1.3 Skeleton Action Breeze Diagram (PFD) for the Assembly of Benzene via the Hydrodealkylation of Toluene

Equipment is represented symically by “icons” that analyze specific assemblage operations. Although the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) [2] publishes a set of syms to use in advancing flowsheets, it is not aberrant for companies to use centralized syms. A absolute set of syms is additionally accustomed by Austin [3]. Whatever set of syms is used, there is hardly a botheration in anecdotic the operation represented by anniversary icon. Bulk 1.4 contains a account of the syms acclimated in action diagrams presented in this text. This account covers added than 90% of those bare in aqueous (gas or liquid) processes.

Figure 1.4 Syms for Drawing Action Breeze Diagrams

Figure 1.3 shows that anniversary above allotment of action accessories is articular by a cardinal on the diagram. A account of the accessories numbers forth with a abrupt anecdotic name for the accessories is printed forth the top of the diagram. The breadth of these accessories numbers and names almost corresponds to the accumbent breadth of the agnate allotment of equipment. The assemblage for formatting and anecdotic the action accessories is accustomed in Table 1.2.

Process Equipment

General Architecture XX-YZZ A/B

XX are the identification belletrist for the accessories classification

C – Compressor or Turbine

E – Calefaction Exchanger

H – Fired Heater

P – Pump

R – Reactor

T – Tower

TK – Storage Tank

V – Vessel

Y designates an breadth aural the plant

ZZ is the cardinal appellation for anniversary account in an accessories class

A/B identifies alongside units or advancement units not apparent on a PFD

Supplemental Information

Additional description of accessories accustomed on top of PFD

Table 1.2 provides the advice all-important for the identification of the action accessories icons apparent in a PFD. As an archetype of how to use this information, accede the assemblage operation P-101A/B and what anniversary cardinal or letter means.

The 100 breadth appellation will be acclimated for the benzene action throughout this text. Added processes presented in the argument will backpack added breadth designations. Forth the top of the PFD, anniversary allotment of action accessories is assigned a anecdotic name. From Bulk 1.3 it can be apparent that Pump P-101 is alleged the “toluene augment pump.” This name will be frequently acclimated in discussions about the action and is alike with P-101.

During the activity of the plant, abounding modifications will be fabricated to the process; generally it will be all-important to alter or annihilate action equipment. Aback a allotment of accessories wears out and is replaced by a new assemblage that provides about the aforementioned action action as the old unit, again it is not aberrant for the new allotment of accessories to accede the old equipment’s name and cardinal (often an added letter suffix will be used, e.g., H-101 ability become H-101A). On the added hand, if a cogent action modification takes place, again it is accepted to use new accessories numbers and names. Archetype 1.1, taken from Bulk 1.3, illustrates this concept.

The E-102 appellation is retired and not reassigned to the new equipment. There can be no aberration that E-107 and E-108 are new units in this action and that E-102 no best exists.

Referring aback to Bulk 1.3, it can be apparent that anniversary of the action streams is articular by a cardinal in a architecture box amid on the stream. The administration of the beck is articular by one or added arrowheads. The action beck numbers are acclimated to analyze streams on the PFD, and the blazon of advice that is about accustomed for anniversary beck is discussed in the aing section.

Also articular in Bulk 1.3 are account streams. Utilities are bare casework that are accessible at the plant. Actinic plants are provided with a ambit of axial utilities that accommodate electricity, aeroemism air, cooling water, air-conditioned water, steam, condensate return, apathetic gas for blanketing, actinic sewer, decay baptize treatment, and flares. A account of the accepted casework is accustomed in Table 1.3, which additionally provides a adviser for the identification of action streams.

Process Streams

All conventions apparent in Table 1.1 apply.

Diamond attribute amid in breeze lines.

Numerical identification (unique for that stream) amid in diamond.

Flow administration apparent by arrows on breeze lines.

Utility Streams

lps

Low-Pressure Steam: 3–5 barg (sat)‡

mps

Medium-Pressure Steam: 10–15 barg (sat)‡

hps

High-Pressure Steam: 40–50 barg (sat)‡

htm

Heat Transfer Media (Organic): to 400°C

cw

Cooling Water: From Cooling Tower 30°C Returned at Less Than 45°C†

wr

River Water: From River 25°C Returned at Less Than 35°C

rw

Refrigerated Water: In at 5°C Returned at Less Than 15°C

rb

Refrigerated Brine: In at −45°C Returned at Less Than 0°C

cs

Chemical Decay Baptize with High COD

ss

Sanitary Decay Baptize with High BOD, etc.

el

Electric Calefaction (Specify 220, 440, 660V Service)

ng

Natural Gas

fg

Fuel Gas

fo

Fuel Oil

fw

Fire Water

Each account is articular by the brand provided in Table 1.3. As an example, let us locate E-102 in Bulk 1.3. The notation, cw, associated with the nonprocess beck abounding into E-102 indicates that cooling baptize is acclimated as a coolant.

Electricity acclimated to ability motors and generators is an added account that is not articular anon on the PFD or in Table 1.3 but is advised separately. Best of the utilities apparent are accompanying to accessories that adds or removes calefaction aural the action in adjustment to ascendancy temperatures. This is accepted for best actinic processes.

From the PFD in Bulk 1.3, the identification of the action streams is clear. For baby diagrams absolute alone a few operations, the characteristics of the streams such as temperatures, pressures, compositions, and flowrates can be apparent anon on the figure, adjoining to the stream. This is not applied for a added circuitous diagram. In this case, alone the beck cardinal is provided on the diagram. This indexes the beck to advice on a breeze arbitrary or beck table, which is generally provided beneath the action breeze diagram. In this argument the breeze arbitrary table is provided as a abstracted adapter to the PFD.

The beck advice that is commonly accustomed in a breeze arbitrary table is accustomed in Table 1.4. It is disconnected into two groups—required advice and alternative information—that may be important to specific processes. The breeze arbitrary table, Bulk 1.3, is accustomed in Table 1.5 and contains all the adapted advice listed in Table 1.4.

Required Information

Stream Number

Temperature (°C)

Pressure (bar)

Vapor Fraction

Total Accumulation Flowrate (kg/h)

Total Mole Flowrate (kmol/h)

Individual Component Flowrates (kmol/h)

Optional Information

Component Mole Fractions

Component Accumulation Fractions

Individual Component Flowrates (kg/h)

Volumetric Flowrates (m3/h)

Significant Physical Properties

Thermodynamic Data

Stream Name

Stream Number

1

2

3

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4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Temperature (°C)

25

59

25

225

41

600

41

38

654

90

147

112

112

112

38

38

38

38

112

Pressure (bar)

1.90

25.8

25.5

25.2

25.5

25.0

25.5

23.9

24.0

2.6

2.8

3.3

2.5

3.3

2.3

2.5

2.8

2.9

2.5

Vapor Fraction

0.0

0.0

1.00

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

1.0

0.0

1.0

Mass Breeze (tonne/h)

10.0

13.3

0.82

20.5

6.41

20.5

0.36

9.2

20.9

11.6

3.27

14.0

22.7

22.7

11

11 | water treatment plant process flow diagram

8.21

2.61

0.07

11.5

0.01

Mole Breeze (kmol/h)

108.7

144.2

301.0

1204.4

758.8

1204.4

42.6

1100.8

1247.0

142.2

35.7

185.2

290.7

290.7

105.6

304.2

4.06

142.2

0.90

Component Mole Breeze (kmol/h)

0.0

0.0

286.0

735.4

449.4

735.4

25.2

651.9

652.6

0.02

0.0

0.0

0.02

0.0

0.0

178.0

0.67

0.02

0.02

0.0

0.0

15.0

317.3

302.2

317.3

16.95

438.3

442.3

0.88

0.0

0.0

0.88

0.0

0.0

123.05

3.10

0.88

0.88

0.0

1.0

0.0

7.6

6.6

7.6

0.37

9.55

116.0

106.3

1.1

184.3

289.46

289.46

105.2

2.85

0.26

106.3

0.0

108.7

143.2

0.0

144.0

0.7

144.0

0.04

1.05

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36.0

35.0

34.6

0.88

1.22

1.22

0.4

0.31

0.03

35.0

0.0

With advice from the PFD (Figure 1.3) and the breeze arbitrary table (Table 1.5), problems apropos actual balances and added problems are calmly analyzed. Archetype 1.2 and Archetype 1.3 are provided to action acquaintance in alive with advice from the PFD.

The final aspect of the PFD is the accessories summary. This arbitrary provides the advice all-important to appraisal the costs of accessories and accouter the base for the abundant architecture of equipment. Table 1.6 provides the advice bare for the accessories arbitrary for best of the accessories encountered in aqueous processes.

Equipment Type

Description of Equipment

Towers

Size (height and diameter), Pressure, Temperature

Number and Blazon of Trays

Height and Blazon of Packing

Materials of Construction

Heat Exchangers

Type: Gas-Gas, Gas-Liquid, Liquid-Liquid, Condenser, Vaporizer

Process: Duty, Area, Temperature, and Burden for both streams

Number of Shell and Tube Passes

Materials of Construction: Tubes and Shell

Tanks and Vessels

Height, Diameter, Orientation, Pressure, Temperature, Materials of Construction

Pumps

Flow, Discharge Pressure, Temperature, ΔP, Driver Type, Shaft Power, Materials of Construction

Compressors

Actual Inlet Flowrate, Temperature, Pressure, Driver Type, Shaft Power, Materials of Construction

Heaters (Fired)

Type, Tube Pressure, Tube Temperature, Duty, Fuel, Actual of Construction

Other

Provide Analytical Information

The advice presented in Table 1.6 is acclimated in advancing the accessories arbitrary allocation of the PFD for the benzene process. The accessories arbitrary for the benzene action is presented in Table 1.7, and capacity of how we appraisal and accept assorted accessories ambit are discussed in Affiliate 11.

Heat Exchangers

E-101

E-102

E-103

E-104

E-105

E-106

Type

Fl.H.

Fl.H.

MDP

Fl.H.

MDP

Fl.H.

Area (m2)

36

763

11

35

12

80

Duty (MJ/h)

15,190

46,660

1055

8335

1085

9045

Shell

Temp. (°C)

225

654

160

112

112

185

Pres. (bar)

26

24

6

3

3

11

Phase

Vap.

Par. Cond.

Cond.

Cond.

l

Cond.

MOC

316SS

316SS

CS

CS

11

11 | water treatment plant process flow diagram

CS

CS

Tube

Temp. (°C)

258

40

90

40

40

147

Pres. (bar)

42

3

3

3

3

3

Phase

Cond.

l

l

l

l

Vap.

MOC

316SS

316SS

CS

CS

CS

CS

Vessels/Tower/Reactors

V-101

V-102

V-103

V-104

T-101

R-101

Temperature (°C)

55

38

38

112

147

660

Pressure (bar)

2.0

24

3.0

2.5

3.0

25

Orientation

Horizn’l

Vertical

Vertical

Horizn’l

Vertical

Vertical

MOC

CS

CS

CS

CS

CS

316SS

Size

Height/Length (m)

5.9

3.5

3.5

3.9

29

14.2

Diameter (m)

1.9

1.1

1.1

1.3

1.5

2.3

Internals

s.p.

s.p.

42 clarify trays 316SS

catalyst arranged bed-10m

Pumps/Compressors

P-101 (A/B)

P-102 (A/B)

C-101 (A/B)

Heater

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H-101

Flow (kg/h)

13,000

22,700

6770

Type

Fired

Fluid Density (kg/m3)

870

880

8.02

MOC

316SS

Power (shaft) (kW)

14.2

3.2

49.1

Duty (MJ/h)

27,040

Type/Drive

Recip./Electric

Centrf./Electric

Centrf./Electric

Radiant Breadth (m2)

106.8

Efficiency (Fluid Power/Shaft Power)

0.75

0.50

0.75

Convective Breadth (m2)

320.2

MOC

CS

CS

CS

Tube P (bar)

26.0

Temp. (in) (°C)

55

112

38

Pres. (in) (bar)

1.2

2.2

23.9

Pres. (out) (bar)

27.0

4.4

25.5

Key:

MOC

Materials of construction

316SS

Stainless animate blazon 316

CS

Carbon steel

Vap

Stream actuality vaporized

Cond

Stream actuality condensed

Recipr.

Reciprocating

Centrf.

Centrifugal

Par

Partial

F.H.

Fixed head

Fl.H.

Floating head

Rbl

Reboiler

s.p.

Splash plate

l

Liquid

MDP

Multiple bifold pipe

Up to this point, we accept kept the aggregate of action advice displayed on the PFD to a minimum. A added adumbrative archetype of a PFD for the benzene action is apparent in Bulk 1.5. This diagram includes all of the elements begin in Bulk 1.3, some of the advice begin in Table 1.5, added added advice on the above ascendancy loops acclimated in the process.

Figure 1.5 Benzene Action Breeze Diagram (PFD) for the Assembly of Benzene via the Hydrodealkylation of Toluene

Stream advice is added to the diagram by adhering “information flags.” The appearance of the flags indicates the specific advice provided on the flag. Bulk 1.6 illustrates all the flags acclimated in this text. These advice flags comedy a bifold role. They accommodate advice bare in the bulb architecture arch to bulb architecture and in the assay of operating problems during the activity of the plant. Flags are army on a agents affiliated to the adapted action stream. Added than one banderole may be army on a staff. Archetype 1.4 illustrates the altered advice displayed on the PFD.

With the accession of the action ascendancy loops and the advice flags, the PFD starts to become cluttered. Therefore, in adjustment to bottle clarity, it is all-important to absolute what abstracts are presented with these advice flags. Fortunately, flags on a PFD are accessible to add, remove, and change, and alike acting flags may be provided from time to time.

The advice provided on the flags is additionally included in the breeze arbitrary table. However, generally it is far added acceptable aback allegory the PFD to accept assertive abstracts anon on the diagram.

Not all action advice is of according importance. General guidelines for what abstracts should be included in advice flags on the PFD are difficult to define. However, at a minimum, advice analytical to the assurance and operation of the bulb should be given. This includes temperatures and pressures associated with the reactor, flowrates of augment and artefact streams, and beck pressures and temperatures that are essentially college than the blow of the process. Added needs are action specific. Examples 1.5–1.7 allegorize area and why advice should be included anon on a PFD.

Of accessory accent is the actuality that flags are advantageous in abbreviation the admeasurement of the breeze arbitrary table. For pumps, compressors, and calefaction exchangers, the accumulation flows are the aforementioned for the ascribe and achievement streams, and complete entries in the beck table are not necessary. If the ascribe (or output) beck is included in the beck table, and a banderole is added to accommodate the temperature (in the case of a calefaction exchanger) or the burden (in the case of a pump) for the added stream, again there is no charge to present this beck in the breeze arbitrary table. Archetype 1.8 illustrates this point.

More advice could be included in Bulk 1.5 had amplitude for the diagram not been bound by argument format. It is best important that the PFD abide aerial and accessible to chase in adjustment to abstain errors and misunderstandings. Adding added actual to Bulk 1.5 risks sacrificing clarity.

The breeze table presented in Table 1.5, the accessories arbitrary presented in Table 1.7, and Bulk 1.5 taken calm aggregate all the advice independent on a commercially produced PFD.

The PFD is the aboriginal absolute diagram fatigued for any new bulb or process. It provides all of the advice bare to accept the actinic process. In addition, acceptable advice is accustomed on the equipment, energy, and actual balances to authorize action ascendancy agreement and to adapt amount estimates to actuate the bread-and-er activity of the process.

Many added assets are bare to body the plant. All the action advice adapted can be taken from this PFD. As declared in the anecdotal at the alpha of this chapter, the development of the PFD is best generally agitated out by the operating company. Subsequent activities in the architecture of the bulb are generally apprenticed out.

The amount of the PFD does not end with the architecture of the plant. It charcoal the certificate that best describes the process, and it is acclimated in the training of operators and new engineers. It is consulted consistently to analyze operating problems that appear and to adumbrate the furnishings of changes on the process.

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