June 30, 1948: The Postwar PeriodThe aboriginal allotment of legislation to lay bottomward federal adjustment of baptize quality, the Federal Baptize Abuse Ascendancy Act, is anesthetized by Congress. This act, accepted as the FWPCA , will go through amendments in 1956, 1965, and 1972 to augment the government’s ascendancy in baptize abuse control.
October 30-31, 1948In Donora, PA, 20 bodies die and over 600 go to the hospital afterwards sulfur dioxide emissions from a adjacent animate and wire bulb afire in the anatomy of smog, fabricated worse by a temperature antagonism that trapped the sulfuric adulteration in the basin of the town. The chance will advance to the aboriginal U.S. appointment on air abuse in 1950, sponsored by the Accessible Bloom Service.
September 1949Paul Ehrlich (future columnist of The Citizenry Bomb) enters the University of Pennsylvania and studies zoology. He addendum the dematerialization of collywobbles in New Jersey, which he attributes to the spraying of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) during the architecture of subdivisions. The shrinking citizenry of collywobbles leads Ehrlich to anticipate about abeyant agnate repercussions in the animal population.
October 22, 1951The Nature Conservancy is accustomed in Washington, D.C. as a nonprofit alignment with the mission to assure ecologically important acreage and amnion about the world. Over the aing several decades, the Nature Conservancy will assure added than 119 actor acreage of acreage and 5,000 afar of rivers worldwide. It will abound to added than 1 actor members, and accomplish added than 100 abyssal absorption projects.
November 1953Heavy billow in New York City exacerbates asthma and added lung conditions, killing 170-260 people. Added New Yorkers will die afresh in 1962 and 1966 with added “smog episodes.”
November 20, 1952The Paley Bureau releases Resources for Freedom which capacity the United States’ accretion assurance on adopted sources of accustomed assets and argues for the alarm to alteration to renewable energy. This certificate was one of the aboriginal to altercate both for the acute charge for Americans to stop their assurance on oil and for the abeyant of solar activity to accomplish that chasm. William Paley, armchair of the presidential commission, establishes Assets for the Aing afterwards in 1952, an alignment committed to absolute ecology research.
February 1953: A Growing Accessible AwarenessThe Silent World by Jacques Cousteau introduces the apple to underwater adventure, and ushers in a new all-around absorption in amphibian life. In 1956, Cousteau’s documentary blur of the aforementioned appellation will win the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.
January 1955President Eisenhower speaks on the botheration of air abuse in his State of the Union address, and in a Special Message to Congress he calls on the Accessible Bloom Service to abstraction “effective methods of control.”
July 14, 1955The Air Abuse Ascendancy Act passes Congress, acceptable the aboriginal allotment of legislation to abode air pollution. Despite its acknowledgment to action air contamination, the act puts adjustment abundantly in the easily of alone states and gives no bureau of administering to the federal government.
April 1956The Sierra Club assets civic acceptance for agitation architecture of the Echo Park Dam in Dinosaur Civic Monument in Utah. Afterwards able lobbying, Congress removed the Echo Park Dam from the Colorado River project.
July 9, 1956An alteration to the Federal Baptize Abuse Ascendancy Act of 1948 strengthens the government’s adeptness to accomplish regulations and gives the Federal government ascendancy over alone states’ accord area bloom is endangered.
1960Worldwide levels of carbon dioxide will ascend aloft 300 genitalia per million.
1962Congress apology the Air Abuse Ascendancy Act of 1955 to armamentarium a abstraction conducted by the U.S. Surgeon Accepted to investigate the bloom furnishings acquired by auto exhaust. In the United States alone, there are 74 actor cars on the road.
June 1962: “Silent Spring”Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring is published. Acclaimed as the agitator of the avant-garde ecology movement, Silent Spring condemns the overuse of pesticides. Amid 1950-1962 the bulk of DDT found in animal tissue had tripled.
After the actinic industry denounces Carson’s book as a “gross baloney of absolute facts,” Preisdent John F. Kennedy charges his Science Advisory Committee to assay the book’s claims. The Committee letters that the abstracts in Silent Spring are about correct, and by 1972 DDT will be banned in the U.S.
196383 actor Americans own claimed automobiles. In acknowledgment to added affirmation of a articulation amid billow and car emissions, California allowable crankcase blowby accessories that acknowledgment unburned gases to the agitation accommodation in all cars in 1961. California has amorphous its administering as a baton in emissions standards, as this affirmation was the aboriginal such acute in the country.
November 1963Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall publishes The Quiet Crisis, an aboriginal alarm to accoutrements on ecology abuse with an accession by Admiral Kennedy. Udall will go on to become a avant-garde for ecology legislation.
December 1963The Bright Air Act passes, allocating $95 actor for the abstraction and cleanup of air and baptize pollution. The act gives the federal government ascendancy to abate artery air pollution, adapt discharge standards for anchored abuse sources, and advance in technologies that will aish sulfur from atramentous and oil.
October 2, 1965The Baptize Affection Act passes, acceptable Federal ascendancy over baptize affection initially set by the Federal Baptize Abuse Ascendancy Act of 1948. These federal standards will become the baseline for statewide baptize affection levels.
October 20, 1965The Motor Vehicle Air Abuse Ascendancy Act sets the aboriginal federal auto discharge standards.
October 15 1966The aboriginal legislation apropos Endangered Breed passes, acceding the Secretary of the Interior to account endangered calm angle and wildlife and allocation $15 actor a year in the aegis of such species.
The aboriginal account of Endangered Breed – appear in 1967 – will accommodate the United States’ civic sym, the American Bald Eagle.
August 1968: Changing PerspectivesIn The Citizenry Bomb, Paul Ehrlich argues that the world’s ecology problems are acquired by overpopulation. At 3.5 billion people, the citizenry of the apple had added than angled in the accomplished bisected century. Despite the actuality that his acute predictions of blow will never appear to pass, Ehrlich’s apocalyptic warnings comedy a cardinal role in bringing the issues of ancestors planning, contraception and legalized aborticide to the alpha of calm and all-embracing politics.
Fall 1968Stewart Brand publishes The Whole Earth Catalog , which lists a array of articles accessible for self-sustainable living.
Stewart Brand will advice advance a “back-to-the-land” movement that encourages bodies to acknowledgment to amoebic living. “Rural communes” bounce up, consisting abundantly of liberal, accomplished academy acceptance who try to alive apart off the land. While the communes ultimately will not last, the agreement reflects an arising acceptance of ecology issues in the accepted culture.
October 2, 1968The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act provides a arrangement that identifies and adds rivers beyond the United States to a adequate list. By 1989, over 1,385 afar of rivers will be adequate in Alaska alone.
On this aforementioned day, Congress passes the Civic Trails Arrangement Act, acceding a agnate set of affairs to assure U.S. trails.
December 24, 1968The aggregation of Apollo 8 takes the aboriginal photograph of the Earth from space. The photograph, alleged “Earthrise,” will become the iconic angel of the ecology movement.
January 28, 1969The Santa Barbara oil able-bodied blast spills over 200,000 gallons of oil into the ocean for 11 canicule straight. Due to the aition and acute abuse of the California coastline, the discharge leads anon to reforms in the activity industry.
June 22, 1969Ohio’s Cuyahoga River appears to access into bonfire back oil and chemicals amphibian on the apparent afire and account bonfire over bristles belief high.
December 1969Gaylord Nelson, a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, hires 25-year-old Denis Hayes to absolute a civic “teach-in” about ecology issues. Hayes recruits a scattering of adolescent academy graduates to appear to Washington, D.C. and begins planning what will become the aboriginal Earth Day.
January 1, 1970Congress passes the Civic Ecology Action Act (NEPA), acute every federal bureau to adapt an Ecology Appulse Statement (EIS) for any legislation.
The Act’s access is due in ample allotment to the accessible clamor that resulted from the Santa Barbara oil discharge the year before.
January 14, 1970General Motors’ admiral Edward Cole promises “pollution free” cars by 1980, citation the abatement of advance from gasoline and the accession of catalytic converters as bureau to stop baleful emissions.
January 22, 1970In acceptance of the growing media absorption accustomed to the aing Earth Day, Admiral Richard Nixon stresses the accent of ecology issues in his State of the Union Address.
January – March 1970In the months arch up to Earth Day, advertisements amplify the direness of the ecology problems adverse the world, reading: “It can be the alpha of the end of pollution. Or the alpha of the end.”
Some opponents adjudge the movement to adapt a civic Earth Day as an alienated angle from the war in Vietnam. Others point out the actuality that April 22, 1970 is the 100th ceremony of the bearing of Vladimir Lenin, and acquaint Americans that Earth Day could be a able antipathetic plot.
April 22, 1970: Earth DayThe aboriginal civic Earth Day. Co-chaired by Congressman Pete McCloskey and accommodating by Denis Hayes, the aboriginal Earth Day takes the anatomy of a civic beef adjoin ecology ignorance. An estimated 20 actor bodies participate beyond the country, in what will ultimately be the better affirmation anytime in American history.
June 1970The Accustomed Assets Defense Council (NRDC) is accustomed to accommodate citizens with the accoutrement to abstract ecology laws and antechamber for their passage.
July 9, 1970President Nixon works with Congress to authorize the Ecology Aegis Bureau (EPA), a new Federal bureau primarily amenable for United States ecology policy. In its aboriginal year of operation, the bureau will apply over 4,000 Americans.
The EPA will be amenable for the access of ecology legislation, ecological programs, and research.
October 2, 1970
The Civic Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administering (NOAA) is created to adviser and advance the altitude of the oceans. NOAA enforces the acceptable use of assets of littoral and abyssal ecosystems and aliment ecology advice to the public.
November 1970During the acclamation aeon afterwards Earth Day, Denis Hayes organizes a movement to bound “The Dirty Dozen” – a account of 12 associates of Congress with abominable annal on ecology policy. The movement will auspiciously aish seven of the incumbents, and acquire the ecology movement cogent political ascendancy in the legislature.
October 18, 1972: A Beachcomber of LegislationThe Apple-pie Baptize Act (CWA) becomes the primary legislation administering baptize abuse in the country. The ambition of the CWA is to annihilate baneful substances in baptize and to advocate apparent baptize to a civic accepted of cleanliness. The act, an alteration to the Federal Baptize Abuse Ascendancy Act of 1948, bestows administering ascendancy on the EPA and restructures antecedent baptize affection regulations.
October 21, 1972The Abyssal Mammal Aegis Act (MMPA) protects all abyssal mammals from importation, exportation, hunting, capture, or any anatomy of harassment, appropriately auspicious accustomed ability administering in the United States.
Two canicule later, on October 23, the Abyssal Mammal Aegis Act (MMPA) protects all abyssal mammals from importation, exportation, hunting, capture, or any anatomy of harassment, appropriately auspicious accustomed ability administering in the United States.
October 27, 1972The Littoral Zone Administering Act mandates littoral states to advance administering affairs to account the abrogating appulse of bodies on littoral areas.
October 31, 1972Dennis Meadows co-authors The Banned to Growth, a abstraction of the alternation amid population, automated growth, aliment assembly and ecosystem limits. In the book, Meadows demonstrates with bright diagrams and beeline models that Earth’s assets are actuality steadily acclimated up, and as these assets drop, animal citizenry is accretion exponentially. The Banned to Growth predicts that by the average of the 21st century, Earth’s citizenry will no best be acceptable and the ecosystem will absolutely collapse.
December 31, 1972DDT is banned in the United States, the aftereffect of about 10 years of aldermanic battles. Back Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring first brought DDT into the spotlight in 1962, the government formed analytic panels and committees to actualize the crisis of the pesticide. With the ban, the Administrator of the EPA , William D. Ruckelshaus, declared his confidence that “the connected massive use of DDT posed unacceptable risks to the ambiance and abeyant abuse to animal health.”
October 1973 – March 1974During the Arab Oil Embargo, activity demands beat aliment in the United States for aboriginal time. The ammunition curtailment after-effects from the abeyance of oil shipments to the U.S., with gas prices skyrocketing and the amount of a accretion 400% from $3 to $12 a barrel. The activity crisis fuels actual assay into another activity and creates a new chat about activity aegis for the United States.
December 28, 1973Congress passes the Endangered Breed Act in adjustment to anticipate the afterlife of animals in the United States. This act restructured the 1966 legislation apropos endangered breed and directed the U.S. Angle and Wildlife Service and the NOAA to backpack out its stipulations.
June 26, 1974President Nixon signs the Activity Accumulation and Ecology Coordination Act, the aboriginal attack to antithesis the nation’s activity demands with adapted ecology regulations.
June 28, 1974Chemists Frank Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina affirmation that Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) can abort blast molecules and may abrade the Earth’s careful blast layer.
A address appear two years afterwards by the U.S. Academy of Sciences will accommodate added accurate affirmation to abutment the antecedent of blast depletion. In 1978 the United States will ban the use of CFCs in aerosol cans, but is not until the aboriginal 1990s that CFCs will activate to be phased out of artefact production.
August 17, 1974The Backwoods and Rangeland Renewable Assets Planning Act of 1974 (RPA) is allowable in an accomplishment to adviser backwoods assets in the United States. The RPA mandates absolute assessments in adjustment to administer backwoods supply.
December 12, 1974The EPA is answerable with clearing and ecology baptize affection standards with the Safe Drinking Baptize Act (SDWA), accoutrement every accessible baptize arrangement beyond the country.
January 3, 1975The Eastern Wilderness Areas Act protects over 200,000 acreage of Civic Forests. This legislation is the aboriginal to assure acreage that were already logged or ahead inhabited.
October 11, 1976The Baneful Substances Ascendancy Act mandates the EPA to ascendancy all new and absolute actinic substances actuality acclimated in the United States. The act controls polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and added baneful products, although the administering of absolute chemicals are grandfathered and clear by the act.
October 21, 1976The EPA is accustomed complete ascendancy over chancy decay in the Ability Absorption and Recovery Act, which mandates the bureau administer all aspects of baneful decay management.
The afterward day, Civic Backwoods Administering Act requires the Secretary of Agriculture to adviser forestlands and to advance a accepted to administer ceremony assemblage of the Civic Backwoods System.
1977Architects of Governor Jerry Brown’s Appointment of Adapted Technology architecture the aboriginal energy-conserving, self-ventilating architecture in Sacramento, the Bateson Building.
April 18, 1977In a televised speech, Admiral Jimmy Carter announces his activity plan, including goals to lower U.S. activity demand, abate gasoline consumption, cut the allocation of oil alien into the U.S., access calm atramentous production, and access the use of solar energy. Carter additionally proclaims his ambition of accepting 20% of the nation’s activity from renewable activity assets by the year 2000 during his 1979 Solar Message to Congress.
August 4, 1977: Carter’s AmbitionsPresident Carter establishes the Department of Activity (DOE), answerable with accustomed out a absolute civic activity plan that reflects the federal legislation. The DOE takes accountability for abiding assay and abstruse development, activity regulation, nuclear weapons, and activity abstracts accumulating and analysis.
June 15, 1978The Supreme Court uses the 1973 Endangered Breed Act as acumen to stop the architecture of the Tellico Dam in the Tennessee Basin Ascendancy vs. Hill case. The accommodation upholds the rights of an endangered breed over complete expansion, and reflects growing American action to dam construction.
July 1978: Successes and FailuresReporter Michael H. Brown raises questions that advance to the analysis of abiding dioxin contagion at Love Canal, a adjacency in Niagara Falls, NY. Up to 21,000 bags of baneful decay had been dumped in the aqueduct by the Hooker Actinic Company from 1942-1952 and acquired cogent numbers of bearing defects, abnormalities in children, and miscarriages.
The civic media fallout from the Love Aqueduct adversity leads to the Absolute Ecology Acknowledgment Compensation and Liability Act, added frequently accepted as the “Superfund” legislation, which mandates apple-pie up of alone chancy decay sites by the parties responsible. Superfund will be active into law on December 11, 1980.
October 25, 1978The Nimbus-7 aircraft is launched as the aboriginal accessory with the technology to booty absolute common abstracts of the blast layer.
November 9, 1978The Activity Tax Act creates an allurement for booze use. This is the aboriginal instance of application tax credits to animate ammunition ability and renewable energy.
President Carter appoints Earth Canicule organizer Denis Hayes as arch of the Federal Solar Activity Assay Institute (SERI) and allocates billions for solar technology research. The SERI is one of the alone federal programs committed to rethinking our accepted activity system, but its account will be cut badly in 1981 beneath the Ronald Reagan administration.
March 28, 1979The blow of the Three Mile Island nuclear ability bulb in Middletown, PA, causes the aborticide of 140,000 people. It will booty added than ten years to apple-pie up fully.
June 20, 1979Solar heaters are installed on the White House roof in abutment of Carter’s Federal Solar Assay Institute. Admiral Carter heralded the solar panels, arguing that “we charge antithesis our appeal for activity with our rapidly shrinking resources.”
In 1980, the amount of oil will jump to $30 a barrel.
September 25, 1979In adjustment for the Tellico Dam to be built, the U.S. Congress exempts the Tellico Dam from the Endangered Breed Act, the antecedence of which the Supreme Court had argued the year before. The breed at risk, a baby angle alleged the snail darter, is relocated to the Hiwassee River. This barring sets a antecedent that will acquiesce specific projects to be afar from the Endangered Breed Act.
Early 1980sThe apple citizenry hits 4.5 billion, the absolute bread-and-er blow acquired by abundant acclimate and flood catastrophes increases about 55% in the 1980s compared to the antecedent decade, and the chill ice cap continues to melt. CO2 absorption hits 335ppm, up from 315ppm in 1960.
Despite the absolute changes in legislation and a new administering bureau set up in the antecedent decade, no cogent advance can be detected on best ecology fronts.
July 24, 1980Commissioned by Admiral Carter in 1977, The All-around 2000 Address to the President is appear by the Council on Ecology Affection and the U.S. Department of State. This abstraction echoes statistics aboriginal apparent in Limits to Growth that acicular to accepted trends in the ambiance and what that will beggarly in the advancing decades.
February 17, 1981: Reagan’s initiativesNew Admiral Ronald Reagan issues an Executive Adjustment that gives the Appointment of Administering and Account (OMB ) the ability to adapt ecology proposals afore they become public. Reagan additionally cuts the account of the Ecology Aegis Bureau by 12% and agents by 11%. The solar baptize heating arrangement on the White House roof, installed by Admiral Carter, will be dismantled in Reagan’s additional appellation in August 1986.
September 1981President Reagan cuts the EPA’s account to 44% of its 1978 level, and the cardinal of administering cases submitted to the EPA during the budgetary year will abatement by 56%.
May 1985Nature magazine publishes an commodity accouterment affirmation that confirms the blast aperture over the Antarctic. This commodity creates a new beachcomber of media absorption on the now-stalled ecology movement. The blast is estimated to accept been crumbling at about 4% of the absolute aggregate per decade back the 1970s. This abstraction and acceptance by the Nimbus-7 accessory catalyzes a torrent of studies investigating the after-effects of blast depletion.
October 17, 1986Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), a subset of the Superfund Amendments and Reorganization Act (SARA), requires industries to address baneful releases to the accepted public. The federal law creates the new State Emergency Acknowledgment Bureau (SERC) to accomplish these new requirements.
September 16, 1987The Montreal Protocol is active by the U.S., Japan, Canada, and 21 added countries, accordant to appearance out ozone-depleting CFCs by the year 2000.
June 23, 1988NASA scientist James Hansen warns Congress about the after-effects of all-around warming, and argues that the blast band is acerbic abundant faster than was predicted.
November 18, 1988President Reagan signs the Ocean Auctioning Ban Act of 1988, a law that prohibits all decay auctioning in the ocean starting in 1992.
December 6, 1988The Apple Meteorological Alignment and the United Nations Ecology Program authorize the Intergovernmental Console on Altitude Change (IPCC). The IPCC provides counterbalanced accurate advice apropos altitude change and will absolution Assessment Letters in 1990, 1995, 2001, and 2007. The console will be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for its aftermost Assessment Address in 2007.
March 24, 1989The Exxon Valdez tanker spills 11 actor gallons of oil, killing added than 250,000 birds and accoutrement over 1,300 aboveboard afar of ocean with oil. The blow is the better oil discharge in the history of the U.S.
April 22, 1990: The AnniversaryMore than 140 countries bless the 20th ceremony of Earth Day, calling absorption to ecology issues for the 1992 United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
The Apple-pie Air Act is adapted for tighter restrictions on air abuse emissions, and the Abuse Prevention Act provides incentives to corporations to abate pollutants. In a 1989 Gallup poll, 76% of Americans alarm themselves “environmentalists.”
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