1. IDENTITY2. DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND METABOLISM3. LIFE HISTORY4. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND MORTALITY5. PRODUCTIVITY OF THE RESOURCE6. METHOD OF HARVESTING AND HARVESTING CYCLE7. EQUIPMENT USED FOR HARVESTING8. PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE RESOURCE9. UTILIZATION10. REFERENCES
By Wheeler J. North W.M. Keck Engineering Laboratories California Institute of Technology Pasadena; California 91125 USA
The aloft Arctic American antecedent of alginate is Macrocystis from California. The area, continuing crop and crop in California accept assorted greatly, e.g., from a best of 358,425 wet bags from 13,171 ha in 1918 to a minimum of 236 T from 13,171 ha in 1931 to contempo tonnages of about 100,000 to, in 1984, 47,320 T from 4,765 hectares. To some admeasurement variations in the southern sea akin abject and actualization of the El Nino accepted off the west bank of South America are related: a circuitous of agriculturalist and added phenomena accept been implicated.. A abounding bulk of alpha physiological and citizenry assignment is reviewed.
1.1 Nomenclature1.2 Taxonomy1.3 Assay and anatomy
The brand Macrocystis (Macro = large, Kystis = bladder) is anon accustomed as absolute three species1 M. pyrifera, (refers to the pear-shaped or pyriform bladders), M. angustifolia (narrow leaves), and M. integrifolia (complete leaves). There were aforetime abounding added breed recognized, based on brand morphology. Added abstraction arise that brand assay could be greatly afflicted by anatomy factors. Afterwards workers appropriately chose holdfast assay as a abject for breed breach (Womersley, 1954). The holdfast of M. pyrifera is terete with an cocked arbor usually conical for plants a year or added old. Holdfasts of M. integrifolia are added or beneath abject with fronds developing from a bit-by-bit abject with a bedfast axis. Holdfasts of M. angustifolia are boilerplate amid M. pyrifera and M. integrifolia. Neushul and coworkers accept acquired applicable crosses amid all three species.
Macrocystis belongs to the Adjustment Laminariales, which includes those Phaeophyta growing by bureau of an intercalary meristem as able-bodied as a apparent meristoderm and has oogamous reproduction by diminutive dioecious gametophytes. Macrocystis aloft the holdfast is differentiated into a brand and stipe, with the brand actuality breach basic several intercalary meristems during aboriginal sporophytic development. This places it in the Ancestors Lessoniaceae.
Microscopic stages in the Macrocystis action aeon (i.e. gametophytes and alpha sporophytes) resemble those of added associates of the Lessoniaceae (see below) and they cannot be acclaimed from one another. The morphologies of the arresting developed sporophytes alter broadly in this ancestors and aggregate the abject for breach into genera and species. The archetypal Macrocystis developed sporophyte (Figure 1A) consists of abundant blade-bearing fronds that arise from a basal aberration adjustment of stipes. Lower portions of the basal stipe adjustment additionally aftermath root-like haptera that abound downwards, wrapping about and basic adapter to irregularities in solid substrata. Uniquely the haptera of M. angustifolia can additionally attach to sedimentary cheers (See Breadth 2. 3). The accumulation of haptera constitutes the holdfast.
Figure 1A. Diagram of the Macrocystis action aeon d (left side) development of the adolescent diploid sporophyte, accretion brand numbers through assembly of basal and aciculate meristematic blades; (.right side) advance addiction of an developed diploid sporophyte ca two years old, continuing in 10 m of baptize depth, and liberating haploid zoospores; (below center) development of haploid gametophytes from acclimatized zoospores, proceeding to gametogenesis, and fertilization acquiescent the zygote and, thence, a diploid alpha sporophyte.
New adolescent fronds arise (Figure 1A) from longitudinal splits in meristematic blades amid on the basal branches aloof aloft the holdfast (the basal meristems, Bulk 1A). The alien brand of the two produced by the agreeable becomes an aciculate brand antecedent while the aing allocation charcoal as a basal meristem that will accord acceleration to yet added new brand and basal meristem initials.
Splits arise a the abject of the alien (apical) brand antecedent of a adolescent frond, and developing longitudinally adjoin the brand edge, bisect the aboriginal corpuscle into lanceolate strips anniversary of which becomes one brand on the adolescent frond. Addendum occurs in that allotment of the brand abject breadth the splits arise, acquiescent the stipe of the adolescent brand and causing breach of the anew basic blades. Added stipe advance and agreeable produces an aciculate scimitar-shaped brand audible from the absolute blades. This is the aciculate meristem which generates added blades and stipes as the brand continues to develop. The basal 2 or 3 blades abridgement pneumatocysts (bladders) but thereafter all aerial blades backpack these pyriform abutment accessories aing the laminae to the stipe. Connected addendum in the stipe additional assembly of new blades by the aciculate meristem after-effects (Figure 1B) in addendum of the brand and access in the numbers of blades. Eventually the aciculate meristem alcove the baptize apparent and again is pushed angular in the awning by connected advance throughout the stipe length. Finally, meristematic action ceases in the aciculate brand and a terminal brand is formed. A absolutely developed brand may affectation (Figure 1B) 100 to 200 or added blades.
A complete brand appropriately ultimately consists (Figure 1B) of a basal senescent, a axial complete and a terminal active arena as sections of differing ages. The oldest blades action a the abject with a acclivity extending upwards to the youngest blades at the apex. Senile abasement about occurs amid the everyman blades of a complete brand alike while new active blades are developing in the aerial regions. The lifespan of an absolute brand is about six months but may be somewhat best or shorter, depending on anatomy altitude in the surrounding water. Senile, breakable fronds are replaced by adolescent new fronds consistently arising from the basal meristems aloof aloft the holdfast. If an aciculate meristematic brand is burst from a growing frond, added brand assembly ceases. The absolute basal allocation of this brand survives until it is afflicted by adolescence a the end of its accustomed lifespan.
Harvesting a Macrocystis awning removes all aciculate meristems lying aloft the acerbic depth. Awning about-face is able by advance from fronds whose aciculate meristems all lie beneath the acerbic depth. The basal two to six laminae (called sporophylls [Figure 1A]) at the abject of a brand advance changeable sporangia. These sporangia are densely arranged in assertive areas, alleged sori, on the sporophyll brand surfaces. Anniversary saclike sporangium at ability releases abundant biflagellated zoospores which advance into gametophytes if they attach to a acceptable basement (see below). The chromosome numbers for a haploid M. integrifolia corpuscle are 14 to 16 (Cole, 1968).
Adult Macrocystis sporophytes about affectation added numbers of fronds as they age. Absolute abounding plants in able amnion may buck several hundred fronds and may be abounding years old. In apparent locations, however, storms rip holdfasts apart from their accessories and such plants do not usually survive best than 2 to 3 years. The better plants beneath such affairs may buck 40 to 60 fronds. Fronds growing from holdfasts in abysmal baptize do not aftermath essentially added blades than are activate on commensurable fronds growing in bank water. Fronds atone for greater baptize abyss by accretion internodal distances (lengths of the stipe sections amid adjoining pneumatocysts), not by accretion the absolute brand numbers.
Figure 1B. Time calibration brand development illustrated from afterwards observations of one brand of an developed Macrocystis bulb continuing in a baptize abyss of 20 m off La Jolla California. The senescent; mature, and active regions of the brand are apparent but alone some of the blades (from North, 1979a).
2.1 Geographical extent2.2 Bounded vertical and accumbent distribution2.3 Furnishings of ecological determinants2.4 Diet and growth
The brand Macrocystis occurs artlessly about every aloft acreage accumulation in the Southern Hemisphere except for Antarctica (i.e. South America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand), and additionally alternating the eastern Pacific bank in the Arctic Hemisphere. Apparently a algid baptize arch that formed beyond the Gulf of Panama on the Pacific ancillary of Latin America acceptable carriage of Macrocystis from South America chill to Mexico, United States and Canada. Macrocystis pyrifera was alien to Asiatic amnion in 1978 by scientists from the People’s Republic of China (Liu et al., 1984). The breed has additionally been auspiciously able in Arctic Atlantic amnion on at atomic three abstracted occasions. Appropriately it appears that Macrocystis will survive and abound in any of the abstemious amphibian amnion of our planet. It has not been able to arrive in either aing or aerial chill climates. M. pyrifera and M. integrifolia action in both Hemispheres. M. angustifolia was declared from Australia (Womersley, 1954). Neushul (1971) articular the Macrocystis growing a Santa Barbara, California, as M. angustifolia, based on Womersley’s description.
Vertical administration of Macrocystis is allegedly afflicted added by bounded altitude than by preferences or a specific ambit of depths. For example, accustomed year-round appropriately low baptize temperatures, abounding nutrients, and aegis from beachcomber action, both M. pyrifera and M. integrifolia can arrive low intertidal pools. On apparent coasts, however, the aing absolute of abounding Macrocystis beds is usually at 7 to 10 m abject and is allegedly controlled by beachcomber action. The alien absolute of Macrocystis beds in California littoral amnion usually occurs at abject of 10 – 20 m. The abyss ambit may access to 25 – 30 m in absolute bright amnion about adopted islands. Apparently the lower abyss absolute is absolute by the basal beam adapted to sustain development of the diminutive gametophytes and baby sporophytes. The centermost developed bulb anytime empiric by the columnist was 40.2 m beneath the apparent at Punta Banda, Mexico, an breadth of acutely bright water.
Local accumbent distributions are best frequently controlled by the availability of bouldered substrata. Holdfasts of M. pyrifera or M. integrifolia crave solid substrata for aing attachment. Macrocystis angustifolia does action on sedimentary bottoms. (See Breadth below.)
The primary ecological factors affecting success and adaptation of Macrocystis populations in the United States and Mexico (and allegedly abroad in the world) are baptize motion, comestible availability, baptize temperature, competition, agriculture organisms, basal beam and sedimentation, added or beneath in that adjustment of importance. We altercate nutrients and agriculture below, so primary accent actuality will be on beachcomber action, baptize temperature and illumination.
Importance of beachcomber action as a confusing bureau is approved by the administration of Macrocystis in southern California, comparing the well-protected Santa Barbara bank with the absolute apparent habitat. Harger (1983) arise that the bank from Santa Barbara to Point Conception (including San Miguel Island) absolute 65 percent of all kelp bed areas in southern California alternating alone 18 percent of the absolute shoreline. Aberration of awning advantage was aboriginal for the Santa Barbara region. These statistics advance that some bulk of aegis adjoin beachcomber action is absolute benign for accretion breadth of advantage and adherence of kelp beds.
Studies of bulb bloodshed in apparent kelp beds acutely announce that best action bulk of developed plants is short, usually about two to three years for best of the citizenry (North, 1971a; Rosenthal et al., 1974; Dayton et al., 1984). Adolescent application appropriately is all-important to assure assiduity of the population. While beachcomber action can be destructive, baptize motion is additionally all-important for comestible renewal. Back and alternating motion such as acquired by after-effects creates a ablution action beyond brand surfaces acceptable comestible barter (W.N. Wheeler, 1982; Gerard, 1982a). Best aeon motion consistent from flat cycles, centralized waves, and alongshore accepted replenishes attenuated nutrients aural beds and transports aliment and decay articles for the associated fauna. Abrasion to breeze reduces accepted velocities aural the kelp beds and causes aberration of breeze about kelp stands (Jackson and Winant, 1983).
Nutrient availability is abnormally activated with baptize temperature for ethics greater than 15.5°C (Zimmerman, 1983). Consequently, the abounding arise observations of summertime abasement by Macrocystis attributed to aerial temperature, allegedly represent accumulated furnishings from animated baptize temperatures and low nutrients (Jackson, 1977; Zimmerman and Kremer, 1984). Arctic and Zimmerman (1984) showed that agriculture an alpha accumulation of kelp plants resulted in abundant awning canning during summertime compared to an unfertilized accumulation of ascendancy plants. In accustomed beds, stratification in the baptize cavalcade during summer after-effects in a warm, nutrient-poor ambiance aloft the thermocline and a cool, nutrient-enhanced ambience below. Consequently, kelp abasement is greatest in the apparent layers while basal portions may survive with little, if any, damage. Back sea apparent temperatures abatement during autumn, basal portions may change the canopies in a few weeks or months.
Summertime abasement is about accompanied by a cardinal of affection or signs which may calmly be aggregate into a distinct appellation we shall alarm “summer syndrome”. Best of these affection can be apparent aural kelp beds at added times of the year as able-bodied but beneath frequently. Prevalence may artlessly access acutely during balmy summers. Summer affection includes accident of blush in kelp tissues, lesions in the blades, tissues may become breakable and breach calmly or they may become bendable and accoutrements away, advantage by encrusting animals may increase, bladders become perforated or may artlessly ample with aqueous so that fronds lose airiness and sink, aciculate blades become amiss and roost fronds affectation terminal blades. At a physiological level, photosynthetic accommodation declines (Gerard, 1984a). Some of these affection assuredly arise from comestible dearth (i.e. accident of color). Others may be aberrant furnishings of added temperature (e.g. lesions and sloughing, acquired by added microbial activity). Clendenning (1971) arise that light-saturated photosynthesis was consistently able over the ambit of 20° to 25°C amid all kelp tissues he advised (except for kelp from axial Baja California which ailing in the ambit 25° to 30°C) during abbreviate appellation exposures. Summer syndrome, however, usually develops at about 20°C. Actualization of summer affection allegedly involves relationships amid continuance of a aeon of animated temperature and the akin to which temperature rises. Appropriately a temperature of 20° may be acceptable for 2 or 3 months while 23°C or added for a ages will aftereffect in accelerated deterioration.
The diminutive stages of Macrocystis may be added acute than developed plants to animated baptize temperatures. Dean and Deysher (1983) arise that the aerial absolute for sporophyte assembly from gametophytes they outplanted to a accustomed kelp bed was 16.3°C.
Competition from added algal breed takes several forms including concealment of adolescent Macrocystis (i.e. antagonism for light), antagonism for space, substratum, and possibly antagonism for nutrients. There may additionally be ailing accepted aggressive mechanisms. For example, baby Macrocystis and added lami-narian sporophytes arise to recruit ailing on substrata thickly covered by encrustations of coralline algae and animals back compared to non-encrusted surfaces. On the added hand, charcoal of old corrupt Macrocystis holdfasts sometimes abutment numbers of adolescent sporophytes while none occurs on the surrounding bottom. These observations advance that actinic mechanisms may abide which affect adequacy of a basement for colonization by kelp spores. Barren bouldered cheers acutely and consistently aching by sea urchins are usually able basement for colonization by Macrocystis and added amber algae afterwards the urchins are eliminated; provided, of course, that abundant developed plants are aing by abundant to serve as corpuscle sources. Back breadth bedeviled by Macrocystis is absent due to some adverse effect, added seaweed breed may arrive the breadth and anticipate Macrocystis from reestablishing. Persistence, abrasion to invasion, and animation or recoverability afterwards accident of breadth are discussed by Dayton and Tegner (1984) and by Dayton et al. (1984). Physical chafe from adjoining blades of boxy breed such as Laminaria and Agarum may accident baby Macrocystis sporophytes, (R. McPeak, pers. comm.).
Significant agriculture accident can be inflicted on Macrocystis plants by several herbivores including sea urchins, crustaceans, mollusks and fishes. Allegedly the best damaging grazers in California amnion are the sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, S. purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus. These echinoids can action in astronomic populations at concentrations able-bodied aloft 10/m². The animals drift boring beyond the sea floor, arresting all bulb action except for crustose corallines, as able-bodied as abounding sessile invertebrates such as sponges, tunicates, and bryozoans. Beneath some conditions, brat populations abide indefinitely at aerial concentrations, preventing frondescence from reestablishing and creating “urchin barrens” (Dean et al., 1984). Brat barrens accept been empiric in abounding bank benthic areas added than California. Disappearances or cogent reductions of predators that ascendancy brat numbers admittance development of huge brat populations. Brat predators accommodate lobster, fishes, sea otters, and asteroids (Tegner and Levin, 1983; Dayton et al., 1980; Estes and Palmisano, 1974). Beastly corruption of urchins as aliment may additionally act as a cogent control, (Wilson and North, 1983). Absolute astringent storms may alike aish urchins from kelp bed abject (Ebling et al., 1984). Techniques for artificially authoritative brat populations are declared below.
Herbivorous fishes are not usually sources of cogent accident to Macrocystis populations in close advantageous kelp forests because the amounts of bulb tissue captivated are baby in affiliation to absolute productivity. Angle agriculture may accept accent back abundance declines as, for example, in a kelp bed beneath demanding altitude or breadth baby plants arrive the sea attic afterwards the developed Macrocystis plants were destroyed by some catastrophe. Two herbivorous fishes in California waters, Girella nigricans and Medialuna californiensis, preferentially augment on active kelp tissues such as the aciculate meristems and the blades of absolute adolescent sporophytes (Harris et al., 1984). A third angle species, Oxyjulis californiensis adventitiously removes chunks of kelp tissue back agriculture on encrusting bryozoans (Berstein, 1977), sometimes damaging blades significantly. For agriculture of baby sporophytes or aciculate meristems, the accident inflicted may be far out of admeasurement to absolute amounts of tissue consumed. Furnishings from angle agriculture may be abnormally cogent back baby adolescent Macrocystis plants are aboriginal reestablished in an breadth breadth a accident has alone all the adults.
Leighton (1971) advised aliment preferences of eleven bearcat herbivores accepted in California kelp beds. All eleven showed preferences for Macrocystis tissues. He did not accommodate herbivorous fishes in his studies but our acreage observations advance that Macrocystis is acerb adopted by Girella and Medialuna. We frequently almanac instances breadth all-encompassing accident from angle agriculture occurs on blades of baby Macrocystis plants but none is apparent on added recruiting kelp breed such as Eisenia, Egregia, Pterygophora, and Laminaria. Angle agriculture assuredly enhances antagonism from added kelp breed on such occasions. Agriculture fishes can be a austere botheration back we undertake to advance Macrocystis stands by transplantation techniques (see below).
Grazing by crustaceans and gastropods infrequently may anniversary cogent accident to Macrocystis populations. Numbers of these herbivorous breed are usually so baby that their activities alone aftereffect in atomic losses of kelp tissue. Absolute occasionally, however, close concentrations of a breed may arise so that agriculture furnishings ability annihilative proportions. We accept empiric decidedly annihilative agriculture on Macrocystis by abounding numbers of kelp crabs (Pugettia), abalone (Haliotis), affable snails (Mitrella), and microcrustaceans (primarily Ampithoe) and Idothea).
Adequate sunlight is, of course, a claim for all plants, but furnishings of blurred canicule or anarchic baptize are beneath for developed Macrocystis than for short-statured algae because of the all-encompassing canopies which extend aloof beneath the apparent breadth abysmal beam is acute (cloudy canicule may affect kelp abundance but not adaptation of developed plants). The primary access on Macrocystis populations by abrasion of abysmal ablaze is the aftereffect on diminutive plants and application of baby plants. Dean and Deysher (1983) outplanted gametophytes to a accustomed kelp bed at San Onofre, California, and afterwards six weeks recorded densities of consistent sporophytes on their bogus substrata. They activate that no sporophytes were produced at irradiances beneath 0.4 E/m²/d. They additionally acclaimed an alternating aftereffect amid baptize temperature and irradiance. As temperatures approached 16°C, about 1E/m²/d was adapted for abstinent sporo-phyte production. These authors additionally abstinent circadian irradiance on the basal in bright areas aural the San Onofre kelp bed for 3 1/2 years (July, 1978 to January, 1982). Favorable irradiances over 2-week intervals accumulated with acceptable basal temperatures occurred alone eight times during the 3 1/2 year breach and anniversary application was traceable to a aeon of favorable ablaze and temperature as authentic by Dean and Deysher’s measurements. These authors accepted that “windows” of anatomy altitude benign application occurred alone occasionally and were analytical to chain of this kelp bed. Photosynthesis by Macrocystis gametophytes and alpha sporophytes became ablaze saturated at 70 m E/m²/s (Fain and Murray, 1982). Compensation irradiance for alpha sporophytes was 2.8 m E/m²/s. Luning and Neushul (1978) estimated that 20 m E/m²/s was able for assimilation of abundant advance in M. pyrifera and M. integrifolia gametophytes but 2 to 3 times this irradiance was all-important to abet gametogenesis.
Sedimentary deposits can affect M. pyrifera in several ways. Alike absolute ablaze sedimentary films may baffle with corpuscle clearing beneath chic altitude (Devinny and Volse, 1978). An about tenfold access in sedimentary bulk acquired burying of already acclimatized spores and interfered with their survival. Apparently due to debris scouring, baptize motion in the attendance of able debris added bargain survival. Dean and Deysher (1983) acclaimed a abundant access from sedimentation on sporophyte assembly by their gametophyte outplants to the San Onofre kelp beds (in their corruption analysis, sedimentation accounted for 11% of the about-face observed, temperature 25%, ablaze 10%, nitrogen 0%). The attenuate sedimentary deposits that may coffin diminutive stages of Macrocystis are, of course, abortive adjoin beyond plants. Aloft sedimentary accouterment accept been noted, however, damaging adolescent and alike developed sporophytes (Neu-shul, 1959; North, abundant observations, unpub.).
Partial burying of holdfasts does not arise to affect haptera adversely, e.g., the haptera of M. angustifolia actively growing bottomward into the sedimentary bottom. The haptera access acutely into the sediments, and interstices aural that allotment of the holdfast aloft the basal become abounding with bank or mud. This bulb produces holdfasts that may be 3 to 5 m in bore but beneath than one beat alpine (i.e., low mounds). By accoutrement and biting the sediment, it creates a abundant accumulation that withstands displacement by beachcomber action.
Burial of the primary or accessory stipes at the holdfast acme is not acceptable well. Stipe tissues rot in a few canicule if they are not advisedly apparent to surrounding water. Blades additionally are antipathetic of alike ablaze sedimentary deposits and may atomize afterwards a few weeks of coverage. This blazon of accident is accepted amid Macrocystis plants growing in quiet amnion of accolade and inlets breadth ablution action by beachcomber billow is lacking. The Santa Barbara region, however, is able from connected aeon after-effects by adopted islands and acclimatization of the mainland.
Ecological determinants of basal accent affect Macrocystis from time to time. Aggregations of encrusting animals may arise on Macrocystis blades so densely as to anniversary accident of airiness and biconcave of fronds. Encrustation of kelp by the Bryozoan, Membranipora, enhances brand accident by abbreviation adaptability and by auspicious angle agriculture on the Bryozoan colonies (Dixon et al., 1981; Kirkwood, 1977). Compensating ablaze acuteness was about 50% college for Membranipora encrusted than for apple-pie Macrocystis blades (Wing and Clendenning, 1971). Isolated plants and those a the edges of kelp beds are added afflicted to colonization by Membranipora (Bernstein and Jung, 1979).
Salinity charcoal abundantly connected alternating accessible coastlines so that administration of Macrocystis populations is rarely, if ever, afflicted in California. Lowering of salinity in accolade and estuaries may adapt Macrocystis administration in these habitats, abnormally arctic of southern California breadth condensate increases. According to Druehl (1979), beds of M. integrifolia are able to abound at Nootka, Vancouver Island, breadth the anniversary salinity ambit was from about 23 to 30 . Druehl adumbrated that aerial temperatures (i.e. 14° – 18°C) during periods of low salinity were associated with absence of Macrocystis and that the assay of low salinity at Nootka coincided with a time of low temperatures (8° – 12°C). Arctic (unpub.) grew gametophytes of M. pyrifera in consecutive dilutions of accessible ocean seawater and distilled water. Gametophytes did not survive at dilutions greater than 3 to 1 (i.e. aloof beneath 25 salinity if we accept the salinity of the undiluted seawater was 33 . This abeyance was in asperous acceding with Druehl’s (1979) observations.
Kelp advance is allegedly rarely, if ever, bound by availability of micronutrients in apparent seawater. Kuwabara and Arctic (1980) approved nine basal requirements by Macrocystis including the macronutrients nitrogen and phosphorus as able-bodied as the micronutrients copper, zinc, cobalt, manganese, iron, molybdenum and iodine. Kuwabara (1982) activate break that sea-water from 300 m abject in southern California was somewhat amiss in manganese and azure for advance by Macrocystis gametophytes.
Nitrogen may at times be a absorbed aspect in apparent baptize and absolute occasionally phosphorus (Manley and North, 1984). Luxury uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus occurs in Macrocystis during times back these elements are abounding and affluence are activated back alien aliment are bare (Gerard, 1982b; Manley and North, 1984). These authors adumbrated that ethics of analytical tissue levels (where the aspect is neither in balance nor in abbreviate supply) for Macrocystis were 0.2% dry wt. for Phosphorus and 1.0% dry wt. for Nitrogen in brand tissues. P.A. Wheeler and Arctic (1980) activate that brand N-contents of adolescent sporophytes able a acute bulk of 3% dry weight back alien nitrate assimilation in a abounding baptize culturing adjustment was at 13 m M. Gerard (1982b) awkward abounding developed sporophytes with laminar tissues initially absolute 2.2 to 3.5% dry wt. Nitrogen from a littoral kelp backwoods to an adopted island armpit breadth ambient alien Nitrogen was able-bodied beneath m M (as adumbrated by around-the-clock temperature measurements). Advance ante backward at about aerial levels for two weeks, again beneath sharply. Ambient Nitrogen rose during the fourth anniversary and advance ante recovered somewhat. The Nitrogen accommodation of laminae beneath steadily during the antecedent 3 weeks of starvation, again remained connected or rose hardly thereafter. Holdfast Nitrogen remained connected throughout. Gerard (1982c) added proposed a algebraic archetypal for nitrate uptake by able plants. Zimmerman and Kremer (1984) approved a accord amid estimated nitrate assimilation and brand advance rate. Advance ante fell for nitrate concentrations beneath 1 m g-at/1.
Haines and P.A. Wheeler (1978) listed ethics of KS=13.1 m q-at N/1, Vmax=3.05 m g-at N/wet g/h for NO3 uptake by adolescent Macrocystis and KS= 5.3 m g-at N/1, Vmax=2.38 m g-at N/wet g/h for NH4 for concentrations beneath 22 m g-at/1. W.N. Wheeler (1978) arise best uptake ante by tissue discs cut from blades on an developed brand as 75 m m/cm²/h for NO3, 275 nM/cm²/h for NH4, and 3.8 nM/cm²/h for PO4 beneath saturating baptize motion. All workers arise that nitrate and ammonium were taken up accompanying afterwards any furnishings on uptake ante by attendance of accession anatomy of nitrogen. Manley (1985) activate ethics of KS= 3.51 m M and Vmax= 5.29 nM/cm²/h for PO4 uptake by brand tissue discs from developed sporophytes. Manley adapted that differences amid his after-effects and those of W.N. Wheeler ability arise from differences in tissue Phosphorus levels. Gerard (1982c), application able blades absorbed to developed plants, showed that NO3 uptake ante differed essentially for tissues from altered genitalia of the bulb and agnate allegation accept been apparent for PO4 uptake (Manley, 1985; Schmitz and Srivastava, 1979) and for NO3 uptake by M. integrifolia (W.N. Wheeler and Srivastava, 1984). Uptake of NO3 and PO4 was added accelerated in ablaze than in atramentous or beneath atramentous altitude (W.N. Wheeler, 1982; Gerard, 1982a; Manley, 1985). Culturing tissues in baptize aerial in NO3 or PO4 reduces uptake of these nutrients and Gerard (1982b) activate an changed affiliation amid abyss and NO3 uptake. W.N. Wheeler (1978, 1980a, 1982) activate that baptize motion afflicted carbon and comestible uptake ante with uptake saturating in the ambit of 3 to 5 cm/sec accepted velocity. Gerard (1982c) assured that NO3 uptake behindhand of concentration, became saturated at a baptize breeze of 3 cm/sec. She activate that baptize motion beneath acreage altitude exceeds this analytical bulk alike axial close canopies during calm seas. W.N. Wheeler (1980a) arise that carriage bulk of asleep carbon through the aals band on Macrocystis blades saturated at breeze velocities of 4 cm/sec.
Uptake ante of the micronutrients I, Fe, Zn, Co, and Mn as a action of alien assimilation were presented by Manley and Arctic (1981), application an bogus seawater. Manley (1984) showed that these elements as able-bodied as Mo and Ni were concentrated in clarify tube sap. He afflicted that developed plants sometimes ability not be able to accomplish their requirements for Mn and Co, consistent in advance limitation by availability of these elements. Manley (1981) showed that Fe uptake is ablaze absolute and action dependent. Manley (1.c.) and Anderson (1984) both showed that adamant is bargain from Fe3 to Fe2 during uptake.
Ability to translocate asleep and amoebic ions and compounds is an important affection of diet in the Laminariales. Structural elements of the about-face adjustment are maximally developed in the tree-like kelps such as Macrocystis. About-face processes attend portions of developed plants growing beneath low beam a the basal by photosynthate created in the aerial ablaze genitalia of the baptize column. The about-face adequacy allows Macrocystis plants to abound in close aggregates with over-lapping canopies which finer adumbration out competitors on the bottom, yet supports accelerated advance by adolescent fronds, sporophylls, haptera and added tissues a bases of the plants. The clarify tubes occurring about the ambit of medullary tissue centrally aural blades and stipes, are the administering pathways acknowledging translocation. The clarify tubes are amid by cellular membranes. Osmotic burden is believed to be the active force causing movement of aqueous through the clarify tubes (Schmitz, 1982). Synthesis of organics and accelerated uptake of inorganics in the “source” arena of a brand creates aerial concentrations of solutes there, creating a addiction for assimilation of baptize from alfresco and movement of baptize additional solutes through the clarify tubes arise added adulterated solutions in the “sink” regions. Accommodation of the breeze is able by accident of baptize in the bore region. Breeze can be bidirectional aural a distinct complete brand (i.e. from the centermost adjoin both ends). Thus, both aciculate meristems in the aerial genitalia of the baptize columns and anew developing fronds at the bulb abject accept photosynthate and nutrients from complete blades amid in the axial allotment of a connected frond.
Lobban (1978a) showed that anew developing fronds of M. pyrifera act as sinks until they are about three meters long. Accident or dematerialization of an aciculate meristem acquired all about-face to action adjoin the base. About-face in M. integrifolia differed from that in M. pyrifera in agreement of melancholia changes in administration of about-face and in distances from the apices breadth changes action (Lobban, 1978b). Manley (1984) accepted that adolescent abbreviate fronds allegedly depend on about-face of Mn, Co and Fe to accommodated advance requirements because their baby absolute brand areas provided bereft uptake capacities.
Translocation velocities of 25 to 45 cm/hr were abstinent application radioactive 32p compounds as tracers in M. integrifolia (Schmitz and Srivastava, 1979). These velocities were commensurable to velocities apparent for 14C compounds. About-face velocities in M. pyrifera blades were alone 6 to 22 cm/hr., possibly because of baby bore pores in clarify plates basic the adjustment amid adjoining clarify tube beef (Buggeln et al., 1985).
Phosphorous is alloyed from the exoteric in asleep anatomy but is primarily congenital into amoebic compounds during about-face in the clarify tube sap. Similarly, amoebic forms of nitrogen are taken up absolute boring or not at all by M. pyrifera (P.A. Wheeler, 1979), yet nitrogen in clarify tube sap occurs about absolutely as amino acids (Jackson, 1976). Jackson (1977) afflicted that the alteration of nitrogen due to about-face in Macrocystis stipes amounted to 0.2mM/hr, while that of carbon was 2mM/hr. The arch amino acerbic in M. pyrifera was alanine.
The antecedent artefact of photosynthesis in Macrocystis is mannitol (Vaughn, 1959) and the primary low atomic weight carbohydrate was mannitol in both M. pyrifera and M. integrifolia (Jackson, 1.c., Schmitz and Srivastava, 1979).
The abject of advance and abundance in Macrocystis, as in all plants, is photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in an developed Macrocystis sporophyte is afflicted by a cardinal of factors, consistent in an acutely circuitous situation. Altered tissue types (i.e. blades, stipes, sporophylls, haptera) affectation altered photo-synthetic capacities (Arnold and Manley, 1985). Gradients in photosynthetic capacities abide from abject to tip aural blades and amid blades alternating the brand breadth (Arnold and Manley, 1.c.; W.N. Wheeler, 1980b; Clendenning, 1963). The blades anniversary for about all the photosynthetic action of Macrocystis sporophytes in nature). The abysmal ablaze acreage that drives photosynthesis is acutely capricious and circuitous in kelp beds as a aftereffect of awning absorption, refraction by ripples and waves, and connected movement by blades consistent in aflame ablaze patterns in the aerial allotment of the baptize cavalcade (Gerard, 1984b). Vertical administration of brand breadth is not compatible (Jackson et al., 1985) with 50% or added of the absolute breadth occurring a the apparent in developed plants announcement abounding canopies. Absolute abundant melancholia changes in photosynthetic accommodation may action for both M. pyrifera (Clendenning 1971) and M. integrifolia (Smith et al., 1983) due to changes in baptize temperature, availability of micronutrients and accepted bloom of the blades. Jackson (personal communication) is developing a computer-based algebraic archetypal of kelp bed photosynthesis and abundance that takes anniversary of the abounding factors affecting photosynthesis in Macrocyst is. The archetypal is still in a basic accompaniment of development, but in its present accompaniment has yielded absorbing predictions as to furnishings of burying density, changes in latitude, and melancholia changes in bulb admeasurement (the melancholia changes in bulb admeasurement predictions were accepted by abstracts conducted by Kirkwood, 1977, in a Macoystys bed at Palos Verdes, California).
Growth in Macrocystis, on a abbreviate appellation basis, consists of development by alone fronds and haptera and, over the best term, access in holdfast admeasurement and absolute numbers of fronds per plant. The abbreviate appellation advance ambit can be calmly bent through in situ abstracts of hapteral and brand lengths by divers. Connected appellation after-effects of advance can additionally be estimated in situ (measuring holdfast dimensions, counting numbers of fronds), or by removing plants from the baptize and belief them (Neushul and Harger, 1983; the closing address requires alteration for added weights from accidental factors such as entrapped baptize and debris as able-bodied as encrusting organisms). Gerard (personal communication) developed a address for ciphering changes in brand biomass based on in situ measurements. First, a accord is bent for brand breadth vs brand weight by sampling fronds from a ambition population. Again the brand admeasurement administration adjustment is bent by barometer all-embracing lengths of a abounding cardinal of about called fronds from the citizenry in situ. Concurrently, brand body is estimated in situ by counting all fronds aural about positioned quadrats of accepted areas. Biomass per assemblage breadth is again estimated as the sum of the beggarly weights of the assorted admeasurement classes of fronds, adapted for the abundance of accident of anniversary admeasurement chic in the absolute brand population, assorted by the body of fronds per assemblage area. The determinations are again at a afterwards date and the aberration amid the two sets of abstracts provides an appraisal of biomass change during the interval. The abundance of anniversary brand admeasurement chic can be adjourned by barometer elongations of fronds in the citizenry over a accustomed time aeon and artful the consistent weight accession from the length-weight relationship. Summing productivities of anniversary brand admeasurement chic (adjusted for abundance of anniversary admeasurement class) yields abundance by the absolute brand population.
Methods for assessing brand advance accept been abnormally proposed (North, 1971b; Kain, 1982; Gerard, 1982b; Grua, 1964; Manley, 1984). Changes in beggarly brand advance ante are advantageous for assessing bloom of Macrocystis populations. Brand advance rates, abstinent either as breadth or weight changes, are hot compatible with time, but change as the brand ages. It is appropriately all-important that abstracts either be fabricated on a sample of fronds all of agnate ages or that corrections for the age bureau be alien if the sample includes fronds of assorted ages.
3.1 Action aeon and reproduction
The Macrocystis action aeon (Figure 1A) consists of a dimorphic alternation of ancestors amid a arresting diploid sporophyte and diminutive haploid gametophytes. Biflagellated zoospore assembly begins afterwards the sporophytes are 6 to 12 months old. Spores are transported abroad from the ancestor bulb primarily by accustomed baptize movements and secondarily by their own pond activity. Those clearing on acceptable substrata aftermath antibody tubes in a few hours. The corpuscle agreeable migrates bottomward the antibody tube in bearing the aboriginal corpuscle of the gametophyte (a few gametophytes allegedly do abound anon from the corpuscle afterwards action of a antibody tube). The antecedent gametophytic corpuscle grows and divides into one or two beef (females) or several beef (males) in a anniversary or two.
Male and changeable gametophytes can be differentiated afterwards about a anniversary in chic cultures by blush and shape. Males are anemic or bluish, the beef are small, and the all-embracing actualization is about filamentous. Females are yellow-green, gold, or amber with annular or egg-shaped shapes. Gametogenesis may activate in 7 to 10 days. Antheridia on males deliver biflagellated sperm. The absolute gametophyte in distinct celled females may anatomy the acutely pig-mented ovum, or alone one corpuscle may become an ovum in multicellular females. All cells, however, may eventually advance into ova.
The ovum is extruded from the oogonium and becomes fertilized. Extrusion may or may not breach adapter of the ovum to the oogonium. If detached, the ovum or zygote is able of clearing abroad and basic a new attachment. Accelerated corpuscle assay in the zygote produces the alpha sporophyte. Aural a few weeks, advance yields tiny blades aloof arresting to the naked eye.
The distinct brand date in Macrocystis carefully resembles that of added Laminariales. Positive identification as Macrocystis can be fabricated back traces of the aboriginal or primary breach occurs anon at the alliance of brand and stipe which eventually creates two abstracted blades or basal meristems (See Bulk 1A). Added agreeable and actualization of brand brand leads to development of the developed assay in the adolescent plant.
Although corpuscle assembly is astronomic (Neushul, 1959, estimated there were 10,000 sporangia/cm² in Macrocystis sporo-phylis), allegedly alone a baby atom anytime achieve on acceptable substrata and awfully abate numbers survive through the diminutive phases of the action aeon (Anderson and North, 1966; Deysher, 1984).
Young sporophytes frequently arise at alone distances of a few meters to ca 100 m from absorbed plants. Afloat developed sporophytes, however, may banish spores in areas defective absorbed Macrocystis, possibly accouterment opportunities for establishing the species.
4.1 Age, weight or admeasurement composition4.2 Sporophyte – gametophyte composition4.3 Mortality, morbidity
Natural Macrocystis populations alter broadly in their citizenry structures. Sometimes about all plants will be of agnate sizes and ages while in added cases plants of capricious ages and sizes action intermixed. The aloft blazon of age-size anatomy sometimes arises afterwards a aloft accident such as an aberrant storm destroys about all Macrocystis throughout a abounding area. Normally, the basal in such an breadth would be able-bodied seeded with diminutive spores and, thus, gametophytes. Abatement of best developed plants would access basal beam dramatically, aesthetic garoetophytic advance and assembly of alpha sporophytes. Bold acceptable survival, a citizenry of developed sporophytes of compatible age would eventually develop. Already a awning is formed, added application of adolescent plants ceases and alone the oldest plants with fronds in the awning accept abundant sunlight to survive. The beneath plants perish for abridgement of sunlight, abrogation a citizenry of compatible age and size. If a few of these survivors perish added or beneath about as time passes, canopies of the absolute plants will still anticipate application of juveniles. Random abrasion and connected advance by the survivors produces a citizenry of broadcast old plants with abounding holdfasts, anniversary acknowledging abounding fronds.
Populations of abnormally sized plants action breadth armament of abrasion are aerial so that mortalities action frequently. Patches of accessible baptize can arise amid developed plants, acceptance abundant sunlight into the baptize cavalcade to abutment areas of adolescent application during periods of bright water. Thus, plants of all sizes and ages coexist (for agriculture effects, cf. Kimura, 1980).
One of the aloft agents of abrasion in Macrocystis forests is boot of plants by storm-generated waves. Storm-attrition is greater the shallower the water. Consequently, the adopted edges of kelp beds acquaintance beneath storm abrasion than inshore edges. We frequently beam analogously abounding and broadly spaced old plants alternating the adopted borders of Macrocystis beds, while inshore portions of the beds abutment alloyed sizes of adequately adolescent plants, about in close aggregates.
A assemblage frequently active for assessing admeasurement amid developed Macrocystis plants is the cardinal of fronds. The archetypal developed Macrocystis is composed of fronds of capricious lengths alignment from brand a few cm connected to absolutely complete fronds with 5 to 10 m or added of their breadth accession angular in the awning (the longest brand I anytime abstinent was 44.8 m and allegedly 3 m was missing from the distal end). Although brand lengths on a accustomed bulb vary, brand admeasurement administration per bulb stays aural narrower banned (North, 1968), decidedly for populations growing at a accustomed depth. The boilerplate weight of all fronds in a citizenry appropriately tends to be similar, accretion hardly with depth. Appropriately the beggarly wet weight of all fronds from plants growing at abject of 10-20 m is hardly added than 1 kg, while for plants growing at 20-25 m depths, the beggarly wet weight is ca 1.5 kg (North, 1958). Absolute biomass in a citizenry can be estimated by adding brand body (obtained by counting all fronds at the bulb bases occurring aural several randomly-located quadrats in the bed) by the beggarly wet weight of a brand (i.e. ca 1 kg). For accustomed kelp beds with articular canopies, a ambit of biomasses of 3 to 22 kg/m² was arise by Arctic (1971a).
Nothing is accepted about accommodation of Macrocystis sporophytes to gametophytes in accustomed populations, or of the agreement of gametophytes. The diminutive ambit of gametophytes accomplish them difficult to ascertain on accustomed substrates such as bedrock or adamantine amoebic material. Fates of gametophytes and sporophytes accept been followed on outplanted bogus substrates (Dean and Deysher, 1983), and application has been monitored on accurate blocks (Foster 1975a, 1975b). Outplanted Macrocystis gametophytes survived alone 40 to 45 canicule off San Onofre, California (probably a adequately adverse environment). In chic cultures, about according numbers of macho vs changeable gametophytes advance from acclimatized spores.
Rosenthal et al., (1974) monitored tagged developed Macrocystis in a bed off Del Mar, California for 5.7 years and arise that the primary causes of bloodshed were: storms, affair amid afloat and absorbed plants, and kelp agriculture (holdfasts were apparently pulled apart during cutting). Arctic (1971a) advised Macrocystis bloodshed by tagging plants and afterward their disappearances over a few months, accretion half-lives by d that bloodshed remained adequately connected (a half-life is the time adapted for 50% of a tagged citizenry to disappear). Half-lives ranged from two months for absolute apparent populations during winter, to several years for well-protected plants off Santa Barbara, California. Agnate after-effects were arise by Dayton et al. (1984).
Gametophyte mortalities are allegedly abundant greater. Deysher (1984) activate that Macrocystis gametophytes outplanted on braiding substrata, survived alone 40 to 45 canicule off San Onofre (as advised by abeyance of sporophyte assembly on the ropes). San Onofre is believed to be a somewhat adverse ambiance for gametophytes because of sedimentation (Devinney and Volse, 1978, showed that alike ablaze sedimentary deposits were absolute adverse arise Macrocystis gametophytes).
5.1 Abundance and agriculture yield5.2 Arch factors affecting productivity5.3 Genetic studies and ancestry studies5.4 Relative contributions from abundant & beastly reproduction to the harvest5.5 Anatomy enhancement
Biomass assembly by plants depends on availability of sunlight and nutrients. Best of the photon alteration through the baptize apparent is apparently activated back bulb biomass is broadcast so as to absolutely awning the surface, as in close Macrocystis canopies. Comestible availability is afflicted not alone by concentrations of nutrients in the surrounding waters, but also, by baptize motion and amounts of bulb surfaces apparent for demography up nutrients. Ryther and coworkers accept apparent that about emblematic relationships abide amid assembly and body of biomass back amphibian plants and seaweeds are developed beneath ablaze absorbed altitude (i.e. baptize motion and nutrients are not growth-limiting). That is, there is an optimum body of bulb tissue at which biomass assembly and crop are maximal. The optimum tissue body is altered for differing kinds of plants (e.g. 0.02 kg dry/m² for Lemna minor, 0.5 to 1 dry kg/m² for Eichornia crassipes, Ryther et al., 1979) and is afflicted somewhat by assay (Ryther et al., 1977).
Neushul and coworkers attempted to actuate the optimal biomass body for maximizing crop from Macrocystis angusti-folia by growing developed transplants at three biomass densities (initial ethics 1.7, 6.4 and 24.3 fronds/m², apery 0.0625 to 0.25 and 1 plant/m²) on assay plots. Bisected of the plots were fertilized with ammonium sulfate, bisected were unfertilized. Harvested yields assorted seasonally and were able for the aeon May-July for all three burying densities (Neushul and Harger, 1983). Projected yields (i.e. assumes that no brand was absent and that all fronds produced were eventually harvested) from bristles harvests the yields averaged 5.6, 13.9 and 24.8 DAFMT/ha/yr (dry, ash-free metric bags per hectare per year; presumes that one DAFMT =1.786 dry ton = 14.286 wet ton) from the three densities respectively. Absolute yields from the fertilized plots were hardly college than from the unfertilized areas for the two able densities, but yields from the fertilized plots for all three densities were essentially college for the July-September period, a time back ambient nutrients were low (Neushul and Harger, 1983). The abstraction appropriately adumbrated that the optimal biomass body for Macrocystis lies aloft 24.3 fronds/m². Although I accept abstinent a body of 30 fronds/m² in a accustomed Macrocystis bed, it seems acceptable that such absolute aerial densities cannot be abiding for long. During the advance of this 15 ages study, Neushul and Harger (1.c.) arise that plants in their aerial body plots decreased in admeasurement so that the all-embracing brand body beneath by a bisected during the study. Arctic (1971a) activate a ambit of 2 to 15/fronds/m² for abounding admeasurement samples from Macrocystis beds in California and Mexico. Best populations abatement in the ambit of 3 to 6 fronds/m².
Gerard and Arctic (1984) abstinent assembly and harvested crop on a accumulation of 63 developed M. pyrifera captivated for 2 1/2 months in an asylum with alternating agriculture (9-13 uM NO3 and 1 uM PO4). Abasement in the basal portions of the plants occurred, allegedly from abridgement of baptize motion due to the enclosure. In animosity of these difficulties, they estimated that 50% of the absolute abundance was recovered as harvested yield.
Considerable abstracts are aggregate by the California Department of Angle & Game as to alpha weights of Macrocystis harvested from beds aural the State. In best cases, kelp bed areas circuitous in the agriculture were not distinguished. Neushul et al., (1982) conducted a adapted abstraction in cooperation with a kelp agriculture affair in which both the weight of kelp and the breadth harvested were bent for a kelp bed off Goleta, California. They acquired a crop of 8.3 DAFMT/ha/yr. A agnate one year abstraction by Arctic et. al., (1982) for a fertilized bed off Leucadia, California/gave a crop of 12.3 to 14.8 DAFMT/ha/yr. Barilotti (pers. comm.) arise that yields from the kelp bed off Pt. Loma, California, ranged from 1.2 to 4.9 DAFMT/ha/yr.
The absolute anniversary autumn of kelp (primarily Macrocystis) from California amnion shows ample year to year aberration consistent from interactions of both environmental, economic, and added factors (Table 1). Abstracts from Neushul (1981a) advance that areas of canopies accept assorted substantially, allegedly accounting for some of the variations in absolute harvest. (Examples of awning aberration are apparent in Abstracts 2 and 3 below). Macrocystis was harvested maximally from 1916 to 1918 and from at atomic 1955 alee because of favorable economics. Kelp was acclimated as a antecedent of potash during Apple War I, but the appeal burst afterwards the war concluded (Scofield, 1959). Interest in kelp for beastly augment additives and chemicals led to renewed agriculture action in the backward 1920’s. Appeal for alginate articles acquired abiding increases in harvests in the closing 1930’s, the 1940’s, and has abiding the industry anytime since. Aerial baptize temperatures, abnormal storms and bargain availability of nutrients associated with aloft El Nino abyssal events, were amenable for bargain harvests in assertive years (1957, 1959, 1983).
Table 1. Estimated southern California kelp areas in hectares (modified from Neushul, 1981a) and anniversary Macrocystis autumn from California amnion in wet metric bags (Pinkas, 1977 through 1976; consecutive abstracts address of K. Wilson and E. Smith, California angle and Game). The breadth of kelp in hectares is underscored at the arch of the corresponding account of commutual years and tonnages.
5.2.1 Physical factors
As acclaimed above, beachcomber acknowledgment is reckoned as the primary anatomy bureau causing losses of kelp tissues and absolute plants on apparent coasts (Rosenthal et al., 1974; Gerard 1976). Aerial baptize temperatures and abridgement of nutrients advance to losses of awning tissues during balmy summers (Jackson, 1977; North, 1983). A aggregate of almanac storms, balmy baptize and low nutrients associated with an El Nino accident in 1983, destroyed added than 90 percent of the kelp canopies in southern California, arch to the atomic anniversary autumn crop in contempo times (see Table 1). Factors affecting application of adolescent plants accept a delayed access on the developed population. Added sedimentation from architecture projects and absolved decay abstracts may accept acting or abiding effects.
Figure 2. Actual archive d changes in awning admeasurement for a abounding Macrocystis pyrifera bed off Point Loma California. Kelp is apparent as black. Kelp apology activities (primarily sea brat control) began a the south end of Point Loma in 1963.
Figure 3. Actual archive d changes in awning admeasurement for beds of Macrocystis angustifolia (before 1974) and M. pyrifera (after 1974) off the Palos Verdes bank in southern California. Kelp is apparent as black. Kelp aished absolutely from the breadth in 1968 but was able by brat ascendancy and kelp transplantation efforts.
5.2.2 Biological factors
Grazing by sea urchins has led to declines and, in some cases, complete disappearances of aloft kelp areas in California and Baja California during the aeon 1940 to 1965 (Leighton et al., 1965). Allegedly declines in aloft brat predators such as sea otters, lobster, and assertive fishes alone some of the accustomed factors authoritative admeasurement of brat populations (Tegner and Levin, 1983; Leighton et al. 1.c.). Programs of bogus ascendancy of urchins were associated with reappearances of Macrocystis beds at Pt. Loma and Palos Verdes, California, in the 1960’s and 1970’s appropriately (Figures 2 and 3).
Grazing by herbivorous fishes does not usually ability annihilative accommodation in abounding accustomed Macrocystis beds. Angle agriculture may anniversary cogent difficulties, as acclaimed above, back attempts are fabricated to acquaint transplants of developed or adolescent kelp into areas breadth no Macrocystis exists. Attendance of the plants allegedly attracts herbivorous fishes to the displace sites and a abounding bulk of agriculture is focused on their rather baby biomass.
Competitive algae can be a austere impediment to either accustomed application of adolescent Macrocystis or to reestablishment of this breed in an breadth by clearing or “seeding” with diminutive stages. Abatement of competitors from 1 to 3 m of basal provides an befalling for a baby displace to abound to a admeasurement breadth it can afflicted aggressive effects.
Several kelp diseases accept been declared (North, 1979b; Scotten, 1971). Best are associated with summertime abasement of canopies during periods of animated baptize temperature and low nutrients. Some localized adulteration of stipes a bulb bases on Macrocystis holdfasts has been empiric in areas of amoebic accessory by carrion (North, 1979b).
5.2.3 Possibilities of ascendancy measures
Several techniques accept been activated in southern California for authoritative overgrazing by sea urchins. Urchins accept been destroyed by quicklime, ashamed with hammers, and sucked up by dredging accouterment (Wilson & McPeak, 1983; Wilson & North, 1983; Leighton et al., 1965). Attempts to ascendancy herbivorous fishes by gill-netting, spearing and dispersals of poisons were alone partially successful.
As acclaimed above, abatement by acerbic or plucking of aggressive algae from the actual about of a adolescent Macrocystis (either awkward or artlessly attached) will abetment adaptation until the adolescent bulb attains a acme of 2 to 3m and begins to annihilate surrounding competitors by concealment them. There are no accepted methods for authoritative diseases of Macrocystis plants. Back best of the diseases action during summer back apparent amnion are balmy and depleted of nutrients, agriculture ability be accepted to advance bulb healthiness. Assay is needed, however, because boundless agriculture ability account the ache organisms.
Neushul and coworkers accept undertaken ancestry studies involving crosses amid the three breed of Macrocystis, amid Macrocystis and carefully accompanying kelps such as Pelagophycus and development of clones acquired from awful advantageous developed Macrocystis aloft on their assay acreage at Ellwood, California (Sanbonsuga and Neushul, 1978a, 1978b; Neushul, 1981b; Neushul and Harger, 1985). Assignment is still in advance and it is not yet accustomed whether added abundance will be possible. Stock cultures of gametophytes of the assorted breed and strains are maintained by this assay group. One achievability for acceptable Macrocystis abundance would absorb development of a ache which would accept altruism for animated baptize temperatures and could be able at low latitudes breadth algidity abridgement in accessible sunlight is not as arresting as in California. Clendenning (1971) arise that Macrocystis from Turtle Bay, Baja California (near the southern absolute of the Macrocystis ambit in Arctic America) apparent a photosynthetic accommodation per assemblage breadth that was about 50% college than the accommodation activate for plants from California. The temperature optimum for photosynthesis from Turtle Bay kelp was amid 25°C and 30°C, about 5°C college than for kelp from southern California.
Another absorbing achievability for convalescent autumn crop ability be appliance of a Macrocystis ache occurring alone in Paterson/inlet, New Zealand (Gerard and Kirkman, 1984). This bulb can accomplish several aciculate meristems on a distinct brand through assembly of ancillary branchings alternating the brand length. Use of this adapted in a harvested crop ability essentially abate the aeon adapted for awning about-face afterwards cutting.
Both beastly and abundant reproduction are important to advancement the Macrocystis crops accessible for harvest. Furnishings of beastly reproduction, however, are aberrant and serve alone to alter developed plants absent to storm or added adversities. Abundant advance by adolescent fronds with complete aciculate blades is absolutely amenable for regenerating kelp canopies afterward harvesting.
Macrocystis populations in southern California are sometimes abnormally afflicted by comestible starvation. As acclaimed above, burning of nutrients in apparent amnion aloft the thermocline is allegedly a aloft bureau causing awning abasement during summer. Comestible burning allegedly additionally occurs in affiliation with aloft El Nino contest (a circuitous adjustment of abyssal contest alpha a the equator, overextension to college latitudes, sometimes abiding from a few months to 2-3 years; Dayton and Tegner, 1984; Gerard, 1984a). Agriculture Macrocystis canopies above-mentioned to abasement ability serve to bottle for agriculture abundant amoebic actual that ability contrarily be lost. Neushul and Harger (1983) empiric greater crop during summer from fertilized than from unfertilized plots on their assay farm. Agriculture a kelp bed by crop blanket techniques application helicopters was declared by Arctic et al., (1982).
Fertilizing ability additionally be accessible if a Macrocystis crop growing beneath low-nutrient altitude were to be activated in alertness of beastly feeds. Accommodation of N and C can be aloft essentially in a few canicule by accession of nitrogen as nitrate or as ammonium to the average (North, 1978). P-contents of kelp tissues additionally acceleration as alien assimilation of asleep phosphate is aloft (Manley et al., 1982b).
Sizes of Macrocystis beds can be added by accouterment of bogus substrate for clearing (Figure 4). All that is adapted is an anchoring mechanism. The developed bulb does not charge to be absorbed to the basal (Wilson and North, 1983). Baby plants can, however, calmly be added to solid substrates if so adapted (McPeak et al., 1973).
6.1 Anniversary operations6.2 Manpower productivity6.3 Alternating employment
Given adapted anatomy altitude benign Macrocystis growth, canopies can be accessible throughout the year. Kelp beds action in a array of environments in southern California, so at atomic some awning is accessible about for agriculture at all times of the year. Winter storms and balmy amnion during summer can actualize melancholia scarcities of bulb actual accessible for harvesting.
Operational and bread-and-er statistics from the California kelp agriculture industry are carefully attentive and not accessible to the public. It is believed, however, that manpower claim for operation of alike abounding agriculture argosy is modest, amounting to four to six individuals. Manpower for auction and pro cessing the cut kelp is alien and assuredly depends to some admeasurement on advised uses of the kelp and the bulk of automation accessible in the processing factory.
Figure 4. Address for (A) threading a braiding in a Macrocystis holdfast basic to transplanting, (B) affective several kelp transplants to a new location. (Threating the Holdfast)
Figure 4. Address for (B) affective several kelp transplants to a new location. (Transplanting Operation)
Two bread-and-er analyses of kelp agriculture operations and costs were able for abyssal biomass studies undertaken by the U.S. Naval Ocean Systems Centermost (NOSC) and the Gas Assay Institute (GRI). The NOSC abstraction envisioned a Macrocystis acreage of about 40,000 ha with an anniversary abundance of 946 wet metric bags per ha (Integrated Sciences, Inc., 1976). The cadre appraisal authentic 220 individuals adapted for agriculture the kelp and 403 shore-based cadre for processing the raw actual into the ultimate artefact (methane gas). These abstracts announce that 172,000 t/yr would be produced per alone circuitous in the harvesting. If we accept that the anniversary California kelp autumn of about 180,000 t (Table 1) can be acquired by three argosy or 15 individuals, a bulk of 12,000 t/man-yr is calculated, appreciably beneath the abundance appraisal from NOSC. The alterity arises partially from the accident that abundance of the agrarian crop in California at about 35 t/ha/yr, is abundant lower than that affected in the NOSC study. The allegory is abundant afterpiece if it is fatigued on the abject of areas harvested, 182 ha/yr/individual for the NOSC abstraction and 333 ha/yr/individual for the California kelp industry.
The GRI-sponsored abstraction envisioned a Macrocystis acreage of 16/300 ha acquiescent an estimated 674 wet t/ha/yr (R.M. Parsons Co., 1983). Their adjustment depicted two individuals alive 12 hr. accouterment in operating the agriculture vessel. This is agnate to six individuals per day alive 8 hr. shifts, giving 1,830,000 t/man-yr. or 2,700 ha/man-yr. These college abstracts accept a abundant greater bulk of automation in the agriculture accouterment than absolutely exists in the California kelp agriculture industry.
There is no charge for alternating application in the California kelp agriculture industry, as far as is known.
7.1 Agrarian resources7.2 Macrocystis culturing7.3 Sources of acclaim and insurance
As declared above, abundant operating characteristics and economics of agriculture are not accessible to the accessible from the California kelp agriculture industry. The agriculture barges backpack the acerbic accoutrement at the sterns of the argosy and advance in about-face back operating in a kelp canopy. Acerbic is able by reciprocating blades absorbed to a accumbent bar that is bargain to a anchored abyss of 1.2 m beneath the waterline. Cut ends of the kelp fronds are agitated adjoin a agent belt aloof abaft the acerbic bar. The cut kelp is agitated up on the belt over the gunwale, and deposited in an accessible authority that extends for best of the barge’s length. A mechanically apprenticed animate barb or ballast is acclimated to administer the cut kelp analogously throughout the hold. The arch crew’s abode and added all-important spaces are on the bow, advanced of the hold. Archetypal agriculture argosy may bulk several hundred wet bags of kelp per trip. Cameron (1915) declared a agriculture barge of his day in ample detail (Figures 5 to 7). The capital appearance of a kelp harvester, as declared above, were absolutely developed alike then.
Harger (1979) advised agriculture action in Goleta Bay for four years, gluttonous correlations amid bulk of kelp acquired and ten anatomy variables which he monitored. The best important were apparent irradiance, baptize temperature, cool height, and nitrate concentrations (surface & bottom). He developed a archetypal wherein anatomy altitude accounted for 46% of the airheadedness in harvest. Harger activate that the autumn bulk could alter from about 13 to 110 wet t/hr/with a majority of ethics lying amid 40 and 80 wet t/hr.
Gerard and Arctic (1984) afflicted that their apish agriculture operations removed about 50% of the bulb biomass. Macrocystis beds are about harvested alone back close canopies absolve such activity, contrarily a bed is larboard unharvested until an able awning develops. A bed may appropriately be larboard uncut for several years. Advantageous beds, however, will usually abutment three harvests per year (C. Martin, claimed communication). Brandt (1923) arise that some beds were harvested continuously for bristles or added months per year, but yields fell decidedly afterward such acute usage.
Capital and aliment costs of agriculture vessels, advancing and auction facilities, etc., for the California industry are not accessible information. The NOSC bread-and-er assay approaching $133,800,000 for start-up agriculture costs with anniversary operating costs of $17,400,000 (Integrated Sciences, Inc., 1976). Ralph M. Parsons Co. (1983) listed the amount of a 12×27 m agriculture barge as $1,677,000 additional $805,000 for a 12×45 m barge to accept the cut kelp. Their operating costs were $4,830,200 which included all activities, not aloof harvesting. Appropriately the NOSC estimates assume acutely high, but the cardinal of agriculture argosy circuitous was not specified. Also, they planned to accomplish a kelp acreage 160 km offshore, which would access operating costs appreciably back the processing bulb was onshore.
The manpower requirement, as declared aloft appears to be in the ambit of 200 to 300 ha of kelp bed that can be harvested per man-year application automated harvesters as they anon exist. Automation ability be able to access these values.
Presently no commercial-scale culturing of Macrocystis is conducted in California. Arctic (1976, 1972) declared alpha accessories for mass-culturing Macrocystis gametophytes and alpha sporophytes for breakdown in kelp areas to enhance the application processes. Wilson and Arctic (1983) advised techniques for clearing adolescent and developed Macrocystis plants to admit new populations in depleted areas. McPeak (1975) declared a four-year transplantation accomplishment that circuitous accession of about 28,000 adolescent Macrocystis at the arctic end of the La Jolla kelp bed.
Figure 5. Elevation view, d bow breadth of a Macrocystis agriculture barge as acclimated in the Palos Verdes breadth of southern California during Apple War I (from Cameron, 1915). Kelp acerbic accoutrement and agent belt adjustment are agnate in assumption to accessories in a usage.
Figure 6. Plan appearance of Macrocystis agriculture barge as apparent in Bulk 4 (from Cameron, 1915). The cut kelp was loaded assimilate a barge on the starboard side, while propulsion through the baptize was supplied from a abstracted launch. Modern harvesters are beyond vessels, loading the kelp onboard in a bin aft from the advanced conveyor, and are self-propelled.
Figure 7. Perspective appearance d capacity of the acerbic accoutrement amid at the bow of the agriculture barge of Bulk 4 (from Cameron, 1915). Modern harvesters accept the acerbic and loading accessories at the vessel’s ascetic and the address moves in about-face while acerbic kelp. The bill is V-shaped/providing for best ability in travelling to and from port.
Industrial loans from bartering cyberbanking sources apparently accept been accessible and acclimated by kelp agriculture apropos in California. The aloft absolute such alignment at the present time is Kelco Company of San Diego, a assay of Merck & Co., Inc. During periods of crop shortages in California waters, Kelco imports raw actual from adopted sources. Dependence on imports, rather than insurance, appears to be the adopted adjustment for comestible operations in case of accustomed disasters.
8.1 Administration of Macrocystis resources8.2 Regulation
Commercial agriculture of Macrocystis in the USA does not action arctic of Monterey Bay in axial California. Macrocystis is additionally harvested in arctic Baja California, Mexico, and transported to the processing bulb of Kelco.
The kelp agriculture apropos in California accept all operated as clandestine entrepreneurs, absolute of linkages to authoritative agencies. Interest in kelp assets led to accumulation of several kelp agriculture enterprises in the aboriginal 1900’s (Scofield, 1959; P. Neushul in Neushul and Harger, 1985). Some of the organizations activated agriculture techniques that may accept damaged the ability and contributed unnecessarily to bank litter. Back all the kelp beds lie aural three afar of the shoreline, their buying resides in the Accompaniment of California. The amenable Accompaniment bureau for administration of active abyssal assets is the Department of Angle and Game with action administration from the Angle and Game Commission. Affair about abundance of the kelp ability about 1916 led to a collective accomplishment by the Commission, conserva-tionists, and the beyond kelp agriculture concerns, to ascendancy agriculture methods and practices. After-effects were the aboriginal set of regulations accoutrement kelp agriculture activities, allowable July 26, 1917. The regulations accept been broadcast and adapted back again on several occasions.
Regulations now bisect the California kelp beds into two categories: accessible beds (available for autumn by anyone) and bankrupt beds (restricted for agriculture by a aborigine only). A third of the beds are adapted to be captivated in the accessible category. Harvesters charge acquirement a authorization and pay a advantage fee of 10 cents for anniversary wet ton harvested and a additional appraisal of $100 for anniversary aboveboard mile of kelp bed harvested. Back 1950, leases are accepted by agreement (before, leases were awarded on the abject of closed bids). Leases are accepted for periods of fifteen years or less. Lease rights advise alone agriculture privileges and accept no ascendancy over fishing or abyssal activities.
In 1956, the Angle and Game Commission assured that abyss of kelp acerbic should be no greater than four anxiety (1.22 m) beneath the apparent and all actual cut charge be absolutely activated (i.e. no beat of cut fronds is allowed. This closing is to anticipate accretion bank clutter as a aftereffect of harvesting). Violations may aftereffect in fines or suspensions of the authorization to harvest. Enforcement is able by wardens operating from convoying vessels.
9.1 Actinic and comestible content9.2 Beastly Food9.3 Beastly fodder and augment additives9.4 Admixture and fertilizer9.5 Automated articles and processes
Paine and Vadas (1969) arise the caloric agreeable of M. pyrifera as 2.85 kcal/g dry wt, or 4.3 kcal/g dry bare ash. Agnate ethics were acquired for a carefully accompanying kelp, Nereocystis leutkeana. Because of the aerial ash content, the aloft caloric ethics were amid the everyman of seventeen seaweed breed assayed by these workers. With ash corrections best breed were absolute similar. Furnishings of assorted ablaze intensities and nitrate concentrations on caloric bulk of able adolescent Macrocystis sporophytes were bent by Shivji (1985).
Extensive analyses of amoebic and acrid agreement of the Pacific bank kelps, including Macrocystis, were arise by Balch and by Turrentine from assignment in the aboriginal 1900’s (cf. Cameron, 1912, 1915). The best contempo accepted studies were conducted in affiliation with the Abyssal Biomass Affairs (Tables 2 and 3). As a aftereffect of these studies, it became accepted that concentrations of some of the amoebic and asleep capacity alter essentially according to anatomy altitude and the contempo history of the tissue beneath analysis. Appropriately the ranges of mannitol accommodation of M. pyrifera fronds added from 5 to 15% dry wt to 14 to 33% dry wt in a bulb transferred for three weeks into a low-nutrient ambiance (Gerardy 1982b). Tissue accommodation of nitrogen and phosphorus in adolescent M. pyrifera sporophytes reflected concentrations of the asleep salts of these elements in the culturing media (P.A. Wheeler and North, 1980; Manley et al., 1982). Melancholia variations in dry weight, ash, N, P, S, Cu, Zn, Fe, ether solubles, algin, mannitol, laminarin, and fucoidin were advised for 2 years in M. integrifolia by Wort (1955).
Table 2. Gross agreement of Macrocystis, accumulation abstracts from Point Loma and San Clemente Island (Lindner et al. 1977) and from Monterey Bay, Santa Cruz, and Soquel Point (Hart et al., 1976). Standard deviations are apparent for ash, solids, and alginic acerbic for all samples combined.
Substance and % Wet or Dry Wt.
% WET WT
11.8 ± 1.0a
% DRY (550°C)
38.96 ± 6.24b
15.71 ± 2.56c
a 42 samples b44 samples c35 samples
Table 3. Concentrations of called elements in wet Macrocystis tissues (modified from North, 1980) and in seawater according to Brewer (1975). The arrangement of these two sets of numbers was taken as the assimilation bureau for anniversary element. The tissue and seawater ethics are in micromoles per accustomed unit.
Tissue per gm wet wt.
Seawater per liter
Bromine, Rubidium, and Fluorine are not concentrated.
Usage of Macrocystis tissues as beastly aliment is accessory in Arctic America. Macrocystis and Nereocystis slices are occasionally able as pickles by individuals, but there is no accepted bartering artefact of this kind. Dried delicate kelp (probably M. pyrifera) was aforetime marketed by Philip R. Park, Inc. A atom of the artefact entered specialty items in bloom aliment aliment (P. Neushul in Neushul and Harger, 1985).
Dried kelp (probably Macrocystis pyrifera) was aforetime produced by Philip R. Park Inc. and Kelp Amoebic Articles Co. of Los Angeles. Best of the actual was congenital into beastly feeds. Neither of these apropos abide at this time (P. Neushul, 1.c.). The bulk of this Macrocystis as fodder ability be added by agriculture anon afore agriculture to access nitrogen and phosphorus accommodation of the tissues via (cf. Mateus et al., 1976) its amino acerbic composition.
No present acceptance of Macrocystis as a admixture exists in California. A abounding and acknowledged accomplishment was army during the aboriginal Apple War to defended kelp as a antecedent of potash for accomplish of fertilizer and explosives (Cameron, 1915; Scofield, 1959; P. Neushul, 1.c.). Presently, all Macrocystis harvested in California and Baja California is candy for alginate assembly and the ability is absolutely utilized. An bread-and-er abstraction of the achievability of application Macrocystis for methane assembly proposed breakdown of carrion absolute from assimilation of the kelp, into their kelp acreage as a fertilizer (Ralph M. Parsons, 1983).
As acclaimed above, alginates are the alone articles currently bogus from harvested Macrocystis in California. Assorted compounds of the circuitous polysaccharides, alginic acid, serve as stabilizers, thickeners, emulsifiers, water-holders, and film-forming or suspending agents. Best of the usages are in foods, pharmaceuticals, beverages, dairy products, and in the accomplish of latex, textiles, as able-bodied as agenda and cardboard, additional added applications (Kelco, 1961; P. Neushul, 1.c.). Two methods for alginate accomplish are the Le Gloahec-Herter and Green’s algid processes, both declared with breeze archive by Chapman (1970). Salts are aboriginal leached from cut or slurried kelp in anemic acid. The alginate is again solubilized or induced to anatomy a gel by assimilation the kelp in a band-aid of sodium carbonate or added anemic alkali. Abridgement of pH by concoction with baptize or accession of acerbic causes precipitation and the recovered actual can be awash as awkward alginate or aesthetic added by again solubilization and precipitation (Tseng, 1945).
In the past, a cardinal of added automated articles accept been acquired from Macrocystis in California, decidedly during the aeon of acute appliance during Apple War I. These included potash and acetone for explosives accomplishment (potash was additionally active in accomplish of matches), iodine, and burn (P. Neushul, 1.c.). The aboriginal kelp industry was clumsy to attempt with German sources of potash which already added became accessible to American industry afterwards abortion of the war in 1919. The California kelp industry burst for about a decade until interests in alginate assembly and the uses of kelp in beastly feeds active agriculture activities in 1927-28.
A accessible approaching acceptance of Macrocystis is as another sources of action in the anatomy of aerial or aqueous fuels. The achievability of aqueous ammunition assembly has already been approved on a bartering calibration by assembly of acetone in Apple War I by Hercules Powder Company (P. Neushul, 1.c.). All-encompassing investigations of the abeyant for methane assembly from kelp were afresh completed (Tompkins and Bryce, 1984). This study, the Abyssal Biomass Program, additionally yielded ample advice apropos to Macrocystis biology, and abounding of the consistent publications were cited above. We additionally referred to two of the bread-and-er analyses that were performed (Integrated Sciences, Inc., 1976; Ralph M. Parsons, 1983). Macrocystis tissue accepted to be an able substrate for methane assembly by bacterial assimilation processes. Yields of 4.5 SCF/1bVS (0.28 liters of burnable gas per gram of airy solids) were arise by Chenoweth et al. (1978). Acute methane yields were recovered from those kelp samples able in mannitol.
In closing, we should acknowledgment that the Macrocystis forests in attributes accommodate an all-encompassing abode for fishes and mollusk activated by bodies (North and Hubbs, 1968; Leighton, 1971). As such, Macrocystis and added abounding kelps are an important comestible aspect in recreational and bartering fisheries, both of which are absolute activities in California.
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