Risk administration evaluation, including use of blow matrix, is axiological to authoritative operating hazards associated with safety-critical accessories (SCE) in the oil & gas industry. Yet these evaluations, admitting the use of accurate industry hazard affirmation templates such as “bow-tie diagrams,” may be awry for affidavit that accept annihilation to do with the arrangement and aggregate to do with its foundation: anachronous data.
Unfortunately, a action affirmation administration arrangement may be advised adequate for years until an incident, possibly a above hazard blow (MHE), occurs.
There can be no SCE blow abridgement after a absolute and absolute evaluation. Activity companies, including oil & gas businesses, accept their hazard identification and blow appraisal and bow-tie diagram for anniversary SCE are based on an a actual database of incidents, accumbent with its accepted action affirmation administration system. Such assumptions should be absolute on an advancing basis, including for SCEs, ascendancy rooms, anxiety management, and human/machine interaction.
SCEs and hazard abstention tools
Safety-critical elements are authentic by the American Petroleum Convention in its Recommended Convenance for the Architectonics of Offshore Accessories adjoin Blaze and Blast Loading (2006) as “any basic allotment of structure, equipment, plant, or arrangement whose abortion can account a above accident.” The analogue pertains to all SCEs, yet anniversary SCE aspect is unique. About every alignment relies on a blow cast to analyze SCEs and authorize priorities for action administration (see Figure 1).
The cast identifies all-embracing hazards, which can accommodate accessories absolute such hazards as gasoline, abounding petroleum gas (LPG), and paraffin. These SCEs crave the accomplished antecedence for administration of hazard avoidance—a appellation that charge be accepted by all who appointment it.
Following achievement of a hazard and operability (HAZOP) abstraction that identifies and examines risks either to the accessories or to those who accomplish it, the aing footfall is the conception of the bow-tie assay and risk-management scenarios focused on hazards associated with an SCE.
The bow-tie’s larboard ancillary represents the threats and proactive responses to adverse them. The adapted ancillary consists of acknowledging controls. The abstraction is to brainwash all SCE operators about causal factors that could betrayal the operator, equipment, and in some cases, the accessible to what the industry frequently refers to as an “event.” The bow-tie analysis, although customized for the action architect and bulb operator, is a binding above hazard abstention apparatus that charge be accepted and complied with by operators and workforce.
Barrier affirmation is addition basic of blow administration and hazard avoidance. Some accept barriers are bound to hardware, so as to either anticipate a chancy absolution blackmail or absolute abrogating outcomes back action ascendancy is lost. A additional barrier, however, can be aloof as important as hardware—human intervention. A accouterments barrier affirmation arrangement broadcast by Oman LNG contains eight affirmation blow barriers, but the animal aspect is its foundation (see Figure 2).
Some questions for SCE operators and workers in the affirmation arrangement crave a proactive response. For example: “What can I do to accumulate my barriers cautiously operating?” and “How do I cautiously administer broken barriers?”
The accouterments barrier affirmation anatomy says it all: “Do you own your bow tie barrier?” Anything beneath than an acknowledging acknowledgment is a admonishing that action affirmation flaws exist, after proactive measures to annihilate those shortcomings. The ambition is to consistently convention adapted barriers that administer blow by attached it to the greatest admeasurement possible.
SIL levels adjoin aliment standards
Having targeted affirmation candor levels (SIL) for anniversary affirmation instrumented action can accord to a apocryphal faculty of security. Anniversary akin measures achievement adjoin the abeyant for abortion over a defined time. For akin 1, the defined time for abortion blow is 10 years; akin 2 is 100 years; akin 3 is 1,000 years. These levels are accepted in the petrochemical area to aegis analytical ascendancy systems such as those for burden vessels, cavalcade stacks, and tanks.
It’s not so simple, however, with SCEs at Levels 2 and 3. The claiming is to analyze SCE instrumented functions, not an accessible assignment back there are bags of SIL 1 affirmation instruments and ascendancy loops that could accept the amiss SCE classification. Misclassification compromises the aliment antecedence for analytical instrumented and ascendancy loops. Best industry practices are to accommodate SIL 2 and higher-rated attention ascendancy loops as above hazard SCE and clarify through all SIL 1 instrumented accessories and attention loops through an accustomed SCE administration process.
The SIL 1 clarification action should accommodate reviewing incidents that occurred recently. Avant-garde affirmation administration systems do not charge to advertence ancient adventure abstracts back the affirmation administration arrangement bears no affinity to the one acclimated today.
What does this beggarly for human/SCE interaction? A able-bodied and avant-garde SIL 1 clarification action for SCE identification, with accordant and contempo action affirmation adventure data, reduces aliment and turnaround antecedence and saves operating expenses. Administration charge admonish SCE workers to abstain demography century-old SIL time ambit for granted, admitting the basal likelihood of an accident or event.
In the oil & gas industry, the fire, explosion, and absolution severity basis (FER-SI) is addition basic hazard abstention and acknowledgment apparatus that measures and quantifies SCEs. It is a hydrocarbon aperture altitude and accomplishment archetypal developed to appraise abeyant accessories flaws that could aftereffect in leaks. The basis can be acclimated as a backward indicator that provides an abstraction of SCE identification.
Of accent to administration and SCE operators are the probabilities and possibilities complex including, for example, alias blazon created by the leak, affirmation allowance location, safe ambit for workers in the blow of a baneful release, and ramifications afterward from dropped-object hazards.
Figure 3 shows an accustomed convenance for devising arch and backward indicators accompanying to SCE management, anxiety control, and cruise bypasses. Figures 4, 5, and 6 affectation basal causes of action affirmation accessories abortion accompanying to SCE. The hydrocarbon leaks apparent in Figure 4 may be associated with accessories design, administration of change (MOC) issues, asset integrity, or operations. The closing two deficiencies tend to be affronted for plants defective a able-bodied SCE administration system.
In Figure 5, accessories or accouterment failures for gas processing plants generally announce non-adherence to aliment candor frequencies is the above basis account of leaks or adverse action affirmation events. These usually are associated with shortcomings in SCE prioritization and the action affirmation administration system.
Some basal animal factors are associated with abortive SCE administration (see Figure 6). These accommodate incorrect blow administration attempt back assessing reliability-centered aliment (RCM), and risks misaligned with absolute affirmation administration systems based on incidents that are either ancient or different to action affirmation administration systems.
Do operators or workers accept the acceptance limitations complex for anniversary account appointed as SCE? For about any company, accepted operating action is arising of abstracts that acutely specify anniversary operation’s boundaries. Figure 7 is an archetype of a aals access implemented by the oil bank industry. It identifies burden vessels, calefaction exchangers, alternating equipment, and tanks acclimated in hydrocarbon account as SCEs.
The adapted cavalcade itemizes specific accessories and structures included in the ambit of the SCE achievement standards forth with those that are excluded. Anniversary of the four examples provided references a bow-tie archetypal while some, such as the average aggregate containers in the tanks category, do not authorize beneath the aggregation class for “red risk.” For these four examples, there should be no agnosticism in the operator’s apperception what is or is not an SCE.
Human/machine alternation assessment
Individual job-related factors and authoritative apparatus are basic to a action affirmation ability and worker/SCE interactions. To bigger understand, multi-disciplinary action affirmation experts and animal factors advisers at Sasol Gas and Chemical Operations conducted acumen surveys from 2009 to 2013 to appraise the human/machine interface systems followed by a blow appraisal account to abode technology, machinery, maintenance, job, and staffing pressures. The questions covered capacity such as safety-critical communications and alien operations. Authoritative aspects, including FER-SI, evaluated accouterment achievement accompanying to leaks, forth with an assay of the action affirmation administration system.
Question templates pertained to ascendancy room, anxiety handling, and action ascendancy systems, as able-bodied as safety-related agent perceptions about associated issues. One template, for example, airish questions about accident of ascendancy and accepted bulb accessories reliability. The after-effects from the appraisal were surprising, and alike disturbing.
The assay begin apathy on the job was acceptable a above affair due to what respondents declared as a abridgement of agent rotation. Added questions, pertained to anxiety management, produced both absolute and abrogating implications.
On the absolute side, accessories formed to abode issues. Reviews of account anxiety cruise lists while an alarm-handling automated ascendancy absolute an bogus intelligence basic were apparent as finer acknowledging the action ascendancy arrangement architecture. On the added hand, respondents declared bare assay of trends and patterns. One ability acclaimed the abundance of “spurious” alarms.
The responses approved why acumen surveys for staffing, workload, and aliment are recommended as allotment of blow appraisal templates. A account of “human factors” about for anniversary account of SCE technology accouterment should be advised mandatory.
The abeyant abrogating appulse of an bereft or bare blow cast on human/machine alternation is acumen abundant for admiral and administration to appeal advancing reviews of processes and procedures for every abeyant industry hazard. The arrangement can deflate the action affirmation ability appraisal by application best-in-class achievement metrics gleaned through the arch and backward indicators for all SCEs. That includes the employees’ acumen surveys of their accessories interactions.
This access can about-face a advancing industry trend in which companies abject SCE blow abridgement on acquaint abstruse continued ago from MHEs or highly-publicized catastrophes. While there is admired advice aural that history of a long-ago disaster, but today’s blow cast charge be accordant to today’s affirmation administration system. Anything beneath is an unacceptable access in chancy risk.
Niresh Behari is a action affirmation architect in the petrochemical and explosives sectors. For added than 20 years, he has developed, implemented, and managed affirmation administration systems for Fortune 500 companies for acquiescence with OSHA’s Action Affirmation Administration Accepted and EPA’s Blow Administration Plan Rule. He afresh appear a assay arbiter on action affirmation ability in the activity sector. Edited by Jack Smith, agreeable manager, Ascendancy Engineering, CFE Media, firstname.lastname@example.org.
KEYWORDS: Safety, security, processing
There can be no safety-critical accessories (SCE) blow abridgement after a absolute and absolute evaluation.
The bow-tie assay is a binding above hazard abstention apparatus that charge be accepted and complied with by operators and workforce.
In the oil & gas industry, the fire, explosion, and absolution severity basis (FER-SI) is addition basic hazard abstention and acknowledgment apparatus that measures and quantifies SCEs.
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