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New cars are confusing. With all the computers, sensors, and gadgets, it may assume like there’s some array of bewitched abracadabra demography abode beneath the hood. We’re actuality to appearance you how avant-garde automotive computer ascendancy systems work. Aftermost week, we looked at capricious valve timing. Today’s topic: Cyberbanking Ammunition Injection.

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New cars are confusing. With all the computers, sensors, and gadgets, it may assume like there’s …

Back in the day, a acceptable ol’ carburetor was amenable for sending the adapted bulk of ammunition into the cylinders. Today, that job belongs to the ECU.

New cars are confusing. With all the computers, sensors, and gadgets, it may assume like there’s …

Let’s see how it works.

For a lot of you this is review, but if we appetite a new bearing of car enthusiasts to affliction about cars, it can’t aching to explain how they absolutely work.

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ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION

Photo Credit: Albertas Agejevas

If the affection of a car is its engine, again its academician charge be the Agent Ascendancy Assemblage (ECU). Also accepted as a Powertrain Ascendancy Bore (PCM), the ECU optimizes agent achievement by application sensors to adjudge how to ascendancy assertive actuators in an engine. A car’s ECU is primarily amenable for four tasks. Firstly, the ECU controls the ammunition mixture. Secondly, the ECU controls abandoned speed. Thirdly, the ECU is amenable for agitation timing. Lastly, in some applications, the ECU controls valve timing.

Before we allocution about how the ECU accomplishes its tasks, let’s chase the aisle of a gasoline atom that enters your gas tank. Times accept afflicted back the Down the Gasoline Trail video, so it’s time for an update. Initially, afterwards a gas atom enters your gas catchbasin (which is now fabricated of plastic), it gets sucked up by an electric ammunition pump. The electric ammunition pump usually comes in an in-tank bore that consists of a pump, a filter, and a sending unit. The sending assemblage uses a voltage affiliate to acquaint your gas barometer how abundant ammunition you accept larboard in your tank. The pump sends the gasoline through a ammunition filter, through adamantine ammunition lines, and into a ammunition rail.

New cars are confusing. With all the computers, sensors, and gadgets, it may assume like there’s …

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A vacuum-powered ammunition burden regulator at the end of the ammunition abuse ensures that the ammunition burden in the abuse charcoal affiliated about to the assimilation pressure. For a gasoline engine, ammunition burden is usually on the adjustment of 35-50 psi. Ammunition injectors affix to the rail, but their valves abide bankrupt until the ECU decides to accelerate ammunition into the cylinders.

Usually, the injectors accept two pins. One pin is affiliated to the array through the agitation broadcast and the added pin goes to the ECU. The ECU sends a beating arena to the injector, which closes the circuit, accouterment the injector’s solenoid with current. The allurement on top of the plunger is admiring to the solenoid’s alluring field, aperture the valve. Back there is aerial burden in the rail, aperture the valve sends ammunition at a aerial acceleration through the injector’s aerosol tip. The continuance that the valve is open- and appropriately the bulk of ammunition beatific into the cylinder- depends on the beating amplitude (i.e. how continued the ECU sends the arena arresting to the injector).

When the plunger rises, it opens a valve and the injector sends ammunition through the aerosol tip and into either the assimilation manifold, aloof upstream of the assimilation valve, or anon into the cylinder. The aloft arrangement is alleged multiport ammunition bang and the closing is absolute injection.

Diagram from Wikipedia

Controlling Ammunition Mixture

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We’ve already looked at how cyberbanking burke ascendancy works. We showed you that, back a disciplinarian pushes his or her gas pedal, an accelerator pedal position sensor (APP) sends a arresting to the ECU, which again commands the burke to open. The ECU takes advice from the burke position sensor and APP until the burke has accomplished the adapted position set by the driver. But what happens next?

Either a accumulation air breeze sensor (MAF) or a Assorted Absolute Pressor Sensor (MAP) determines how abundant air is entering the burke anatomy and sends the advice to the ECU. The ECU uses the advice to adjudge how abundant ammunition to inject into the cylinders to accumulate the admixture stoichiometric. The computer always uses the TPS to analysis the throttle’s position and the MAF or MAP sensor to analysis how abundant air is abounding through the assimilation in adjustment to acclimatize the beating beatific to the injectors, ensuring that the adapted bulk of ammunition gets injected into the admission air. In addition, the ECU uses the o2 sensors to bulk out how abundant oxygen is in the exhaust. The oxygen agreeable in the bankrupt provides an adumbration of how able-bodied the ammunition is burning. Amid the MAF sensors and the 02 sensor, the computer fine-tunes the beating that it sends to the injectors.

Controlling Idle

Photo Credit: Aidan

Let’s allocution about idling. Most aboriginal ammunition injected cartage activated a solenoid-based abandoned air ascendancy valve (IAC) to adapt air breeze into the agent during abandoned (see the white bung in the aloft image). Controlled by the ECU, the IAC bypasses the burke valve and allows the computer to ensure bland abandoned back the disciplinarian does not actuate the accelerator pedal. The IAC is agnate to a ammunition injector in that they both adapt aqueous breeze via a solenoid actuated pin.

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Most new cars don’t accept IAC valves. With earlier cable-controlled throttles, the air entering the agent during abandoned had to go about the burke plate. Today, that’s not that case, as Cyberbanking Burke Ascendancy systems acquiesce the ECU to accessible and aing the erfly valve via a stepper motor.

The ECU monitors the rotational acceleration of the agent via a crankshaft position sensor, which is frequently a Hall Effect sensor or optical sensor that reads the rotational acceleration of the crank pulley, agent flywheel, or the crankshaft itself. The ECU sends ammunition to the agent based aloft how fast the crankshaft rotates, which is anon accompanying to the bulk on the engine. Let’s say you about-face on your air conditioning or about-face your agent into drive. The acceleration of your crankshaft will abatement beneath the beginning acceleration set by the ECU due to the added load. The crankshaft position sensor will acquaint this decreased agent acceleration to the ECU, which will again accessible the burke added and accelerate best pulses to the injectors, abacus added ammunition to atone for the added agent load. This is the adorableness of acknowledgment control.

Why does your agent rev college at startup? Back you initially about-face on the vehicle, the ECU checks the agent temperature via a coolant temperature sensor. If it notices that the agent is cold, it sets a college abandoned beginning to balmy the agent up.

Controlling Agitation Timing

Photo Credit: AJ Hill

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Now that we’ve mentioned the ECU’s tasks of advancement agent abandoned speed, as able-bodied as advancement a able air/fuel mixture, let’s allocution about agitation timing. To accomplish optimum operation, the atom bung charge be provided with accepted at actual absolute moments, usually about 10 to 40 crankshaft degrees above-mentioned to top asleep centermost depending on agent speed. The exact moment that the atom bung fires about to the piston’s position is optimized to facilitate the development of aiguille pressure. This allows the agent to balance a best bulk of assignment from the accretion gas.

Older engines (up until the mid 2000s) acclimated distributors to ascendancy spark. Shown above, this arrangement consists of a rotor and a benefactor cap. The rotor is electrically affiliated to the agitation coil, which is basically a agent that accomplish 12v up to over 10,000 volts bare for spark. The rotor is mechanically affiliated to the camshaft via a gear. As the camshaft spins, so does the rotor. As the rotor spins, it comes actual aing to nut posts (one for anniversary cylinder). The accepted from the agitation braid all-overs the baby air gap amid the rotor and the posts, sending aerial voltage through atom bung wires, to anniversary cylinder’s atom bung at a specific time. Note that these systems bare a way to adapt timing. At aerial agent speeds, advancing atom is necessary. Aboriginal engines with distributors acclimated agent exhaustion or alternating weights to acclimatize timing. Later, transistor-based timing systems became added common.

Modern cartage don’t use a centrally amid agitation coil. Instead, these distributorless agitation systems (DIS) accept a braid amid on anniversary alone atom plug. Based on ascribe from the crankshaft position sensor, beating sensor, coolant temperature sensor, accumulation airflow sensor, burke position sensor, and others, the ECU determines back to activate a disciplinarian transistor, which again energizes the adapted coil.

The ECU is able to adviser the piston’s position via the crankshaft position sensor. The ECU always receives advice from the crankshaft position sensor and uses it to optimize atom timing. If the ECU receives advice from the beating sensor (which is annihilation added than a baby microphone) that the agent has developed a beating (which is generally acquired by abortive atom ignition), the ECU can arrest agitation timing so as to allay the knock.

Controlling Valve Timing

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The fourth above action of the ECU is to acclimatize valve timing. This applies to cartage that advance capricious valve timing, which allows engines to accomplish optimal ability at a aggregation of agent speeds. See aftermost week’s commodity for added on that.

Normally I don’t column home fabricated videos, but the one beneath is a abundant ability for acquirements the basics of ammunition bang systems:

Top Photo Credit: JAK SIE MASZ

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