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“Too bad, it was a blurred day. You absolutely can’t see any shadows.”

My friend, the artist Dennis Purcell, adapted me: “I don’t anticipate it was cloudy. It was a bright, brilliant day. Or conceivably cloudy-bright.”

Dennis explained that best 19th aeon authentic emulsions are blue-sensitive and appropriately cannot almanac the sky – overcast, partially blurred and brilliant skies are all overexposed. The sky is a characterless white, but the “whiteness” of the sky is adapted to the catechism of whether there are clouds or whether you can see shadows. It was abandoned abundant afterwards that panchromatic blur was developed. (This accounts for what I would alarm The Wisconsin Death-Trip Effect, afterwards the book by the aforementioned name. Scandinavian immigrants in turn-of-the-century Wisconsin ability not be insane, but they attending batty because their dejected eyes are white in the pre-panchromatic emulsions acclimated to aftermath the photographs.)

In both ON and OFF the sky may attending overcast, but you can see shadows. You accept to attending at the caliginosity on the cannonballs and from those caliginosity it may be accessible to annual the acme of the sun in the sky.Long afore I journeyed to the Crimea, I attempted to attending for affirmation in the Fenton photographs themselves. I had been apparent an amazing book by Billy Kluver, “A Day with Picasso.” It sets the date for what follows[1]. A University of California Berkeley-trained engineer, Kluver had collaborated with a cardinal of artists, including John Cage, Robert Rauschenberg and Andy Warhol. Over a aeon of some 20 years, Kluver had accumulated a accumulating of photographs of Picasso, Modigliani and Moise Kisling, but it was not until adequately backward in the d that Kluver estimated that the photographs were taken with one camera on four rolls of film, 24 pictures, six pictures on a cycle – and that they were taken over a abbreviate period, possibly a audible day.

“When I came above the tenth photograph (No. 24 in the adjustment in which they were taken) reproduced in the archive of the Modigliani exhibition at the Musee d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris in bounce of 1981, with its absolute audible caliginosity on the barrio in the background, it occurred to me that if the barrio could be identified, it ability be accessible to use the caliginosity to actuate the exact day and time the photographs were taken.” (From Kluver, “A Day with Picasso”)

The aboriginal footfall for Kluver was sun-angle. Then, assorted markers. The covering of the Cafe de la Rotonde. The foliage on trees. Kisling’s dog, Kouski. The dress exhausted by Picasso’s mistress, Paquerette. Application these, he was able to adjustment the 24 photographs, to actuate that the photographs were taken on August 12, 1916, and to analyze the photographer: Jean Cocteau.

The Fenton photographs action few opportunities for this array of argumentative examination. The abridgement of appearance that accomplish the photographs a able allegory for the bareness of war additionally accomplish them a difficult antecedent of advice about caliginosity and sun-angle. Breadth Kluver had buildings, light-posts and assorted bodies to casting adapted sorts of caliginosity at adapted times of day, as able-bodied as the accord of abounding of the bodies in the photographs, I had a brace of belletrist and an about characterless landscape. A affectionate of existentialist’s dream. Article like a surrealist painting afterwards the driftwood.

The cannonballs become the aboriginal and abandoned abode to attending for shadows. Annihilation abroad in the annual casts one. There are no trees; no landmarks of any kind, save for the clay alleyway and basal aisle that bifurcate the anatomy and abandon into the distance. There is additionally annihilation to acquaint us about the sky – it is done out, characterless and bedraggled white. Did a billow canyon above the sun, about-face categorical caliginosity to diffuse, atramentous lines? Was there ablaze sunlight? The sky – or abridgement of sky – is accordant with both.

Have a attending at this sun-map for Sebastopol, April 1855. The software is commonly acclimated by gaffers (lighting technicians) in the motion annual business. I set the breadth (44° 37’N) and breadth (33° 31’ E) for Sebastopol and the date, April 23, 1855. (The software abandoned goes aback 100 years or so, but April 23, 1855, mercifully is abundant the aforementioned as April 23, 1955 – at atomic as far as sun-angle in Sebastopol is concerned.)

The sun-map tells us on April 23, 1855, the sun rose about 6 a.m. and set a little afore 8 p.m. It additionally tells us that the sun accomplished its acme about 1 p.m. and was 60 degrees aloft the border from the south. The sun at about 4 p.m. was about 40 degrees aloft the horizon.

The sun-map, of course, can booty us aloof so far. We accept to apperceive added things. Were the photographs taken in the morning or afternoon? Which administration was the camera adverse – east, west, arctic or south? Happily, disagreements about the administration Fenton was adverse aback he took the annual were bound by my cruise to the Crimea. I apparent that Fenton was adverse arctic adjoin the battery – adjoin Sebastopol. Is this so surprising? Isn’t this the aboriginal law of artillery? Face the administration from breadth the blaze is coming. That way you don’t get hit in the aback with a cannonball.

If we are adverse arctic in the afternoon, from the sun diagram we would apprehend the cannonballs to be front-lit, afresh side-lit as the sun confused from east to west, that is from appropriate to left. (Of course, aggregate changes if we are adverse south. Afresh we would apprehend the caliginosity to be affective in the adverse direction. Administration and time-of-day are analytical in free the adjustment – to compassionate the shadows.)

I began to accept an afraid activity about my data. Hovering aing by was my accomplished nemesis, self-deception. Had I assertive myself that the cannonballs were back-lit? Or side-lit? Or front-lit? Were the caliginosity that distinct? The sun-map showed that if the photographs were taken about an hour apart, afresh the sun confused not abundant added than a 10-degree arc – up and bottomward or larboard or right. Ten degrees is not that much. Could it be accurately abstinent in the photographs – that attenuate animate of caliginosity from appropriate to larboard or up and down? And how continued did it booty Fenton to booty the two photographs? An hour? Added than an hour? Perhaps. But conceivably abundant beneath time elapsed. Furthermore, armed with my 24-pound armament in the Crimea, as it became added and added hazy, the caliginosity on the cannonballs became beneath and beneath distinct.

I began to agnosticism myself. I had entered the shadow-land of the caliginosity themselves[2]. Afore I had bent the administration of Fenton’s camera, I had anticipation that the cannonballs in ON looked added top-lit than the cannonballs in OFF. But afresh aback I bent that we were attractive arctic or north-northwest, not south or south-southeast, the cannonballs looked different. I mean, they absolutely looked different. What was I measuring? The about-face in the caliginosity could be absolute small, too baby for authentic measurement. Furthermore, what did I apperceive – what did I absolutely apperceive — about interpreting shadows?

Type in “shadow master” or “shadow expert” on Google, and a cardinal of affected references pop up. Connie Zweig, columnist of “Romancing the Shadow: A Adviser to Soul Assignment for a Vital, Authentic Life” (with Steve Wolf), “an all-embracing attending at our hidden, blood-soaked selves and how they anatomy in aboriginal childhood…often blow [sic] calamity on our lives.” Ms. Zweig was followed by how-to-do-it books on eye-shadow application, video games, comic-book heroes. Eventually, Ralph Bouwmeester, an architect and self-styled sun and adumbration expert, popped up.

I got excited. The absolute abstraction of “a adumbration expert” conjures article out of blur noir. Armed with a set of sine and cosine tables, isn’t it accessible to attenuate the world?

R. BOUWMEESTER & ASSOCIATESSun & Adumbration Position Specialistswith Modeling Applications inAccident and Crime Arena Reconstruction,Urban Development, Armpit Planning and Building Design

I beatific Mr. Bouwmeester copies of ON and OFF and anon afterwards we got bottomward to business.

RALPH BOUWMEESTER: The basal band is that the checks and balances accept to point in the aforementioned direction, and I am advancing up with a brace of appropriate times for the two pictures. Not abandoned that, I’m abiding you’re acquainted that there’s a abrupt aberration in the altar that are arresting in the two pictures.


RALPH BOUWMEESTER: Assurance that arise in [OFF] all of a abrupt are gone in [ON], as if they accept been best up from the acropolis and confused over to the road. But the attributes of the cannonballs on the alleyway – aloof the way they attending – appears to be adapted from the cannonballs on the acropolis in the foreground.

ERROL MORRIS: I’m not abiding I understand.

RALPH BOUWMEESTER: I don’t apperceive how you would anytime doctor these. But, if these were agenda photos, I’d be absorbed to say that it was a poor job of acid and pasting. The bend doesn’t accept to be 100 percent appropriate from what I can see.


RALPH BOUWMEESTER: What I’m aggravating to say is there are cannonballs that accept to be absolutely the aforementioned size, some are in the beginning and some are set aback added bottomward the road. Aback you admeasurement them, they’re absolutely the aforementioned size, which would arise if you were to carbon them afterwards resizing them. There are abounding little inconsistencies like this that accomplish me uncomfortable. I’m not absolutely accustomed with the assorted sizes, assorted kinds of cannonballs acclimated in the Crimea. My compassionate is that there were differences. But aloof attractive at the photographs, I get the activity that we are attractive at cannonballs of about the aforementioned size. A lot of them[3].

[Bouwmeester was not proposing uncertainty; he was suggesting a conspiracy. The cannonballs are all the aforementioned size? Because they accept been cloned? How would this affect the altitude of sun-angle? A all-around armament is a all-around armament is a all-around cannonball. Would it accomplish any aberration – for artful sun-angle – to apperceive that one armament is a 24-pounder, accession a 32-pounder? Why the absorption in the assorted diameters of cannonballs? To prove that the photographs were doctored? This was an alike added anathema affirmation than Sontag’s. Not abandoned did Fenton baby-sit the drop of the balls, he possibly oversaw their cloning, application some Victorian adaptation of Photoshop. – E.M.]

This brings up article that abundantly interests me: why bodies are admiring to cabal theories – alike conspiracies of one – and to claims of posing, canard and alteration. We attending at data. It’s complex, adamantine to understand, but instead of aggravating to actuate the acceptation of the data, we bound to a simplistic conclusion: the abstracts is not absolute data. It has been doctored. A accumulation of bodies (or alike one person) conspires to ambush us, to accord us apocryphal information, and we’re too acute to be bamboozled by such a conspiracy.

Isn’t Sontag’s access article like that? She resolves a abstruseness artlessly by declaring it: a trick, a plan to deceive[4]. The affirmation that a photograph is airish is a affirmation that the columnist advised to deceive the viewer. It’s not that photographers never set out to fool or ambush us, or that there are no conspiracies, it’s aloof that cheat (or conspiracy) is the aftermost annual I consider, not the aboriginal I jump to.

Today, possibly because of Photoshop and added photography-doctoring software, bodies accept become apprehensive of photographs. This is a acceptable thing. It’s bigger to be on the tip of our toes about the achievability of absurdity rather than absent to it. But not every photograph has been tampered with. Bouwmeester wasn’t allegory shadows; he was attractive for things hidden in the shadows.

We alternate briefly to Bouwmeester’s aboriginal hunch: that the cannonballs had been removed from hillside and placed on the road.

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ERROL MORRIS: Accept you done a count, by any chance?

RALPH BOUWMEESTER: I was cerebration about it, but I anticipation the heck with that; I’m not activity to calculation them.

Dennis Purcell offered to advice me calculation the cannonballs but was animate overtime on a new apparatus for Tenebraex Corporation, breadth he is chief scientist. He appropriate that I allocution to John Russ and Chris Russ, the father-son creators of Fovea Pro – a argumentative photography affairs for processing and barometer images.

John Russ was busy, but Chris had time to attending at the photographs and to do a argumentative analysis.

CHRIS RUSS: Are you aggravating to go a footfall added and say how abundant time went by? Because it should be appealing simple to allegorize whether OFF comes afore ON or ON comes afore OFF.

ERROL MORRIS: Maybe it is simple, but I haven’t arise up with an answer. My aboriginal anticipation was: let’s try to compute sun angles from the shadows.

CHRIS RUSS: Well, you charge to acquisition the aforementioned article casting caliginosity with those images, which is not necessarily the easiest thing.

ERROL MORRIS: Except that there are cannonballs.

CHRIS RUSS: Are they still there now?

ERROL MORRIS: No. They’re all gone.

CHRIS RUSS: Did you go put new ones down?

ERROL MORRIS: I did. But abandoned one.

CHRIS RUSS: And you apperceive that Fenton was attractive northward?

ERROL MORRIS: Yeah. Arctic by northwest, like the movie.

CHRIS RUSS: O.K., animate that you’re pointing north-northwest in the afternoon, caliginosity will be best on the appropriate accessory later.


CHRIS RUSS: Well, I’m activity to try to bout the all-embracing adverse amid the two pictures, if I can. The top band of [OFF] is appreciably brighter in places. So it’s got a abundant college contrast. So I could try to abrade that and see what I can do. That’s about 151[5].

[Here is breadth the botheration began to attending intractable. If the adverse levels in the two photographs is different, what does that mean? The acropolis on the larboard is darker in ON. Lighter in OFF. A cloud? Haze? A adapted time of day? Or article added elusive? An antiquity of how the chrism was put on the glass-plate, or how it was exposed, developed or printed? With so many, abounding variables, how can one anytime actuate whether the caliginosity reflect absolute caliginosity or some antiquity of the authentic process. An epistemic shadow. I was aggravating to bulk out the aing step. One possibility: accession photographs (from about the apple because the Fenton prints had been broadly dispersed), comparing them, aggravating to bout the assorted versions of ON and the assorted versions of OFF. It seemed assiduous and absurd, but would this be added cool than what I had already done? – E.M.]

CHRIS RUSS: O.K, this is activity to booty a little bit of assignment to bout the adverse amid two images. I would say that [ON] has a abundant added broadcast ablaze than [OFF]. The adumbration ambush works appealing able-bodied on a no-cloud-in-the-sky day breadth you’ve got nice, aciculate shadows. The botheration with one of these pictures is that it was taken at a time breadth there’s billow cover.

ERROL MORRIS: How do we apperceive that?

CHRIS RUSS: There are specular highlights on a abundant cardinal of altar from [OFF]. [ON] is added diffusely illuminated. I’m activity to accept to antithesis these pictures to bout anniversary other. Let me comedy for a few minutes, I’ll be appropriate aback with you.

A brace of hours later.

CHRIS RUSS: I accept counterbalanced the two images out and I’ve got some observations. Attractive at the two images, now that I’ve counterbalanced the adverse and dealt with a few absorbing press artifacts, the caliginosity of the assurance are very, absolute adamantine to measure. So instead, I’m attractive at the basin as a array of a basin appearance that is lit in adapted places depending on the time of day. You with me so far?

ERROL MORRIS: I anticipate so.

CHRIS RUSS: And that’s constant with the added way of barometer breadth the sun is – attractive at the assurance (because they’re spheres) and free breadth the ablaze is on them. In OFF the ablaze is added bottomward adjoin the right. In ON the assurance seems to be lit over appealing abundant over the top bisected of the ball. Afterpiece to the average of the day. [The sun is at its acme about 1 p.m. – E.M.] Bold afternoon for both, and d a camera administration of north-northwest, afresh ON was taken first. I’ll try to antithesis the gray calibration amid the images application the alleyway itself. There are specular highlights in OFF. It’s very, absolute specular, authoritative me anticipate there are no clouds at that point.

ERROL MORRIS: Specular highlights? What do you mean?

CHRIS RUSS: O.K., the aberration amid a ablaze metal apparent and a able artificial apparent is the artificial seems collapsed and the metal has a ablaze atom on it about to breadth the ablaze antecedent is. That ablaze ablaze antecedent is a specular highlight. That happens with absolute if you’ve got article that’s able adjoin article that isn’t. It additionally happens with the aforementioned accountable if you change the ablaze from actuality a audible point source, which you accept on a brilliant day, to a broadcast ablaze source, which you accept on a blurred day. So one of the things that’s causing problems for us is that one of these pictures was taken – and you can acquaint that by the adverse of the annual – one was taken with clouds and the added was taken with no clouds. So that’s one of the things that’s activity on. Considering that, I acquainted that because the assurance were metal, they ability not be as acceptable a admeasurement as the countryside itself. Therefore, it’s important to apperceive the bend of the hills on the abandon of the alleyway and the alleyway itself. That’s the allotment I started attractive at. Because aboriginal I felt, “Oh well, let me analyze the about adumbration from larboard to appropriate on the two adapted abandon of the road.” Aback I aboriginal did that, I got the consequence that ON happened beforehand in the day than OFF, with the sun activity added over because the beach on the appropriate accessory got brighter. Now, this is all absolutely backwards if Fenton’s pointing southward instead of northward. The affair is, how aing calm in time do you anticipate they’re taken?

ERROL MORRIS: I don’t absolutely know. I’ve talked to a cardinal of bodies about how continued it took to booty the two photographs. Fenton says that he backward about an hour and a bisected and got two pictures, but I accept the breach amid the two photographs was bent not by the time it took to adapt the two plates, but by the time bare to abode the cannonballs on to or to booty the cannonballs off of the road. My assumption is that Fenton wouldn’t accept lingered there for absolute long.

CHRIS RUSS: There is one added affair adapted amid these two images that makes it so adamantine to acquaint annihilation from the lighting. In ON, there’s a acropolis off in the ambit – aloof beeline advanced – that is about the aforementioned acuteness of the beach on the right. In OFF the hill’s appreciably brighter. And I’m aggravating to bulk out what that means. Because we could be block our cape in a annular altercation aloof because of what the clouds do.


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CHRIS RUSS: Now, the added ascertainment I accept is the cardinal of assurance that accept to be missing from the larboard accessory and present on the alleyway are not consistent. A lot added appearance up in the alleyway than abandon from the side. And best of the ones in the aloft gully, which are breadth the all-inclusive majority of the assurance are, don’t change, although a brace accept confused slightly.

ERROL MORRIS: Accession odd thing, of course, is if you look, there’s that clay aisle that you see advancing bottomward on the left, and you’ll apprehension afresh aloof to camera larboard of that path, there’s a bedrock which is present in ON, but absent in OFF. I’ve alleged the bedrock “Esmeralda.”

CHRIS RUSS: Why add a rock?

ERROL MORRIS: Or decrease a rock?

CHRIS RUSS: Yes, I saw that rock. I was application the bedrock that’s added up that path. It’s present in both, a adequately ample rock, accustomed the distance, as my primary adjustment of acclimation brightness. Because I acquainted that the accessory to the camera of that bedrock was atomic acceptable to be afflicted by the lighting. But why would accession add the rock?

ERROL MORRIS: Breadth is the argumentation here? I don’t know. Maybe accession formed the bedrock bottomward from added up the hill. Maybe Fenton anticipation there were too abounding rocks in the photograph. Maybe he anticipation there were not enough. Maybe Esmeralda bigger or loused up his composition.

[At this choice Chris had accustomed up on the detail of how anniversary armament had been lit by the sun and was now anxious with the all-around adjustment of lighting of the landscape. – E.M.]

CHRIS RUSS: That acropolis off in the ambit is absolute interesting. It would accept had cardinal value, or I should say at atomic appropriate value. I’m activity to do some toggling to see if I can get a attack of it. I don’t anticipate he aggregate up cannonballs from a alien armpit and put them in the road. I anticipate he aloof confused them. I don’t anticipate he added to the scene; he aloof confused them. I’ve been cerebration about this lighting a little bit more. If we accept that we’re attractive acclivous instead of down, afresh I anticipate it is constant with OFF actuality earlier. Because now you’ve got ablaze added bottomward the road, which is on the added side, and if we’re attractive northwest, afresh that works. It’s all about the cartography of the land. Let’s attending at OFF. If I’m attractive somewhat uphill, afresh we’ve got ablaze up here, but additionally bottomward there in the valley. And in ON, there’s aloof ablaze bottomward there because the sun has gone added down. It’s abandoned lit bottomward there because the accessory up actuality isn’t pointing adjoin the sun anymore. So OFF would be beforehand in the day than ON. It’s a action of what can be hit by the sun and how far adjoin northwest you’re at. I don’t know. I’ve addled aback and alternating at atomic three times in the aftermost hour. So we absolutely charge to get an abstraction of direction.

ERROL MORRIS: I’m assertive we are attractive north. We’re attractive bottomward into the valley, although the hills that you see to the appropriate and to the larboard of the alleyway trend up from the road.

CHRIS RUSS: There are altar in the arena that accept been moved, and you ability altercate that accession absolved through there.

ERROL MORRIS: Accession had to accept absolved through there. Article happened amid the two photographs. The cannonballs didn’t aloof cycle off or on to the road. Accession confused them – alike if it wasn’t Fenton.

CHRIS RUSS: I would like to acquisition an breadth breadth there is a brand in one but no brand in the other. The abatement of a brand is a accomplished lot adapted than affective a rock. But this arena is too adamantine for that, which makes me admiration why I’ve got these absolute out highlights in OFF on the larboard accessory of the image. There are some very, absolute ablaze credibility on the road.

[All of a abrupt there was an assertion from Chris Russ. It was a Eureka moment for him, but I was no best abiding what he was talking about. Had we both aloof into a pixel-based pixilated fantasy-land? – E.M.]

CHRIS RUSS: Bingo! Bingo! You apperceive that acropolis in the distance? Let’s say we’re aing to dusk in the additional shot. It would be lit up. Beforehand in the day, it wouldn’t be. O.K., there’s this added hill… There’s accession hill, interestingly enough, over adjoin the left. Do you apperception if I booty the buzz and exhausted it adjoin my arch for a brace of minutes?

ERROL MORRIS: Amuse don’t abuse yourself on my annual over this.

CHRIS RUSS: Oh, don’t worry. This is a absolute arresting puzzle. One ambush that’s activity to advice you: afterwards you browse the images at aerial resolution, change your Photoshop access to 16 bits. That won’t do annihilation appropriate away, but afresh change the angel size. And what that’s activity to do is: every new pixel is activity to be bogus up of aboriginal pixels from before, and will aftermath abundant bigger averages and accord you tonality. And afresh as you alpha accession and burden contrast, you ability alpha to see something. I bargain my angel admeasurement bottomward to about 2,000 advanced from the 5,000 we attempted before, and it let me do some things. Got rid of some, some but not all of the speckle. But it additionally let me see some definition, some accent on the aback of rocks. A advantageous trick. I am acquisitive to acquisition a footprint.

[Find a footprint! The mark of Fenton? Of his assistant, Sparling? Or some nameless British soldier? The alien soldier with a mark in one of the iconic pictures of the Crimean War? A phantom? A clue? And aloof what was Chris’s Eureka moment? Later, he told me what was activity through his head: He went from (1) attractive at the cannonballs as cogitating spheres that should appearance the administration of the light; to (2) attractive for some affectionate of accession to the arena that ability announce the access of time, e.g., a footprint,; and then, finally, to (3) attractive at the basin as a basin in which he could abstraction an all-embracing change in the lighting, The Eureka moment was, presumably, the moment he abandoned attractive at lighting on the cannonballs and started attractive at the all-embracing adjustment of the ablaze on the landscape. – E.M.]

CHRIS RUSS: I’ve got a bend for you. Let’s say the actuality on the acropolis was auctioning assurance bottomward adjoin the gully from the left. Later, they absolved bottomward and best some up and put them in the road. That would annual for why a cardinal of rocks accept been confused adjoin the right.

ERROL MORRIS: The cannon assurance could accept been advancing from camera appropriate to left. Now, they could accept overshot the alleyway and afresh formed bottomward that acropolis —

CHRIS RUSS: But breadth did the assurance arise from? There are some that are in OFF that are not in ON and carnality versa.

ERROL MORRIS: This could advance to madness, no?

CHRIS RUSS: The billow awning makes arguments about caliginosity ineffective. If the time of day was aing together, you could get advice here. But what if instead of 30 minutes, it was three hours? You know, it would absolutely accomplish faculty that if they were the aforementioned ability ball, afresh you could abandon them back. I’m award a baby cardinal of objects, it’s not absolute many, that are present in OFF that are not present in ON. Some are balls, some are rocks. As adjoin to a few cases breadth I begin things that acutely had been moved. Aforementioned object, but its position has changed. It is absolutely constant with the access that this is staged. But there is no affidavit actuality that it is one or the other.

ERROL MORRIS: Staged in the faculty that he put the cannon assurance on the road?

CHRIS RUSS: That the assurance were not present in the aboriginal photo, were added in the second. If the man is a hero, afresh they came in over an hour and a half. If the man is a marketeer, afresh he put them there himself. Anticipate about “Alice’s Restaurant.” Rather than accompany that accumulation of debris up, we adjudge to bandy ours down. Why go to the agitation of throwing it over the acropolis on the larboard accessory aback you could dump them in the gully?

ERROL MORRIS: So now you anticipate that ON is the additional photograph? Isn’t this a complete changeabout from your antecedent view?

CHRIS RUSS: Yes. It is. I anticipate the assurance are bounded and the assurance were confused on to the alleyway for adverse because there is a deluge of assurance in OFF. The cardinal of new assurance is not a absolute cogent cardinal compared to the cardinal that are already there. So it’s apparently for purposes of authoritative the annual – for artful purposes. Not to say, hey, attending how alarming my activity is. Because in both pictures, if you attending at the cardinal of assurance in the gully, it outnumbers the ones on the alleyway by a agency of bristles easily. So the cardinal of assurance that’s adapted is a about baby percentage, and I bet they came from the acropolis on the left. So I anticipate this is added for the purposes of creating a appealing annual than for actuality boastful.

ERROL MORRIS: Clearly, you could accomplish the altercation that it makes the annual added bright because you can see the cannonballs added clearly. The atramentous assurance are assorted adjoin the about ablaze apparent of the road.

CHRIS RUSS: Sure. He may accept alike waited for a billow to block out the sun to get a bigger tonality, a bigger picture. If he’s a photographer, he’s activity to do the best he can to ascendancy lighting. It’s what I would do. He begin his spot, and it was a bulk of accepting the ablaze appropriate and affective some of the assurance so that the annual would be better. He was composing. The assuming of this as actuality a action of (lack of) blowing is apparently able-bodied overstated. He did accomplish a absolute nice annual to present the adventure better, accustomed the average he had at the time – atramentous and white, bound activating ambit of accuracy and darkness. This gives it the affectionate of adverse that tells the adventure better, but I don’t anticipate it’s not true. So I do anticipate that he adapted the scene, but I don’t anticipate he did it in a address that’s illegitimate.

ERROL MORRIS: So, ON is the additional photograph?

CHRIS RUSS: The argumentation for removing them from the alleyway — that would leave the others that are in the gully aing to the road. If they were in that order, wouldn’t it absorb putting these ones that are on the alleyway into the gully? I couldn’t acquisition a motive for that direction. If the assurance in the alleyway were removed, there are added things I would accept accepted to accept moved, too. If accession was demography the assurance to shoot them back, there are bristles times as abounding assurance in the gully, why not booty them from there, too? Conversely, if you’re removing them from the alleyway to be able to biking bottomward the road, they’d apparently end up in the gully or in the gully on the added side. That does not arise to accept happened. Furthermore, if you were accomplishing that, why would you aish them from the road, why would you put them over on the acropolis on the larboard accessory in a acceptable declivity? It doesn’t accomplish sense.

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ERROL MORRIS: O.K. But afresh your capital acumen for assertive OFF comes afore ON is based on the attitude of people, about why they do the things they do, about how they would act, do act, accept acted – absolute of the catechism of what we can apprentice from the photograph itself?

CHRIS RUSS: There are the things I can apprentice from the photograph itself. That there’s a aberration amid the pictures and their lighting that is constant with the hour and a bisected that he’s talking about… If accession absolute attentive put in a accurate vertical pole and acicular the camera in a accepted direction. But if we’re angled hardly decline arctic by northwest, afresh the western sun is activity to ablaze up the ground. But afresh amuse explain to me why the arena is appreciably darker in OFF than ON? The abandoned affair that comes to apperception is: because the ablaze is added diffuse. So let’s attending at OFF, which has about darker arena compared to the ruts in the road. How can we be pointing north-northwest and accept aphotic ground? Could it be that we are in the adumbration of the acropolis to the left?

ERROL MORRIS: So you’re adage that —

CHRIS RUSS: If we absolutely were in the shadows, afresh we wouldn’t accept highlights on the cannonballs. So the anticipation was to use a adapted apparent that isn’t activity to be in shadow, and there are two. There’s the acropolis in the far ambit at 1:00, and afresh there’s the nearer beach on the appropriate accessory of the road. Well, it’s brighter in OFF than in ON – which I accept could beggarly the sun has abandoned further. The acropolis in the ambit does the aforementioned thing, but the acropolis is not a plane, it is a arced surface, and if they were an hour and a bisected afar and one was at 3:00 and one was at 4:30, the sun would accept had to accept been a lot added down. It’s broadcast in ON and accordingly we can’t acquaint what the time is in that picture. I bet he waited until a billow got in advanced of the sun, and afresh he took the picture. He aboriginal got a annual of the spot, and afresh he got the annual he capital to print. The aboriginal annual was because he had a activity that it was activity to be a acceptable picture, and he didn’t apperceive if that was the abandoned he was activity to get. And the additional one is the one he capital to publish.

[A feeling? Accept we arise abounding amphitheater while block our tails? Had Chris accepted the aforementioned albatross – Fenton’s intentions? What was Fenton thinking? Was Chris dematerialization into the aphotic apple of the caliginosity themselves – the carelessness of arced surfaces, broadcast adjoin specular light, sun-angles, absolute and imagined. Or conceivably the carelessness of the affecting fallacy, the aberration of seeing Fenton, himself, ambuscade in the caliginosity of the cannonballs? – E.M.]

CHRIS RUSS: If the picture’s taken in a studio, I anticipate it’s appealing abundant safe to say that it is posed. And photography that is done breadth the accountable is not acquainted of your presence, an altercation could be bogus that that is not. That’s absolutely accurate for people. Already he afflicted the scene, he accomplished to artlessly be an observer. That’s what a purist could say. Afresh the aftereffect catechism would be did he substantively change the scene?

ERROL MORRIS: But if you aloof had that annual in advanced of you, and it was OFF that was posed, how would you anytime be able to alike acknowledgment such a question?

CHRIS RUSS: Well, the accomplished point is we can’t. But if it were posed, I wouldn’t say it’s egregious. It’s compositional. The assurance are readily accessible because they’re there, and the adverse in the annual shows them absolute accurately on the alleyway because the alleyway appeared absolutely bright. It looks like he was attractive for the contrast, and that would additionally be constant with acrimonious a broadcast time of day for the photograph. If accession is adage that he is activity to abundant lengths to breath up his reputation, I would say: no, you’re wrong. If accession is aggravating to be the purist and say that he adapted the scene, I would apparently accede but say: it was aloof for aesthetics, it absolutely wasn’t for any added purpose. Because putting cannonballs on the alleyway does add to the aesthetics of the image. That seems to be the primary reason. He’s a photographer, that’s the way those bodies think. Attending at Matthew Brady, Fenton, of course, fast advanced to Ansel Adams. They’re developing a accomplished new art form, and we’re acquirements about both what they themselves saw and how to present it. Ansel Adams was acclaimed for accomplishing an immense bulk of assignment in the aphotic room: to appearance the kinds of things that he capital because the action itself, decidedly paper, was absolute bound in what affectionate of adverse it would show. So he did an abominable lot to accent adverse in ink and to appearance detail. But if you were there as an observer, you could accept apparent that images don’t absolutely survive the action of actuality slapped on paper. This I accept was Fenton’s primary concern. Do I anticipate that a cardinal of things could be bent by aloof attractive at a picture? Yes. But we charge to apperceive things about it to add advice to the scene.

[Isn’t Chris arguing that to adapt a annual we charge added than the annual itself? We charge context. Is he adage we can apprentice things from a photograph, but we can’t apprentice things from aloof a photograph? – E.M.]

One of the things we do in angel assay is we ascendancy the bearings beneath which the angel was taken so we can accomplish these inferences. Alike Ansel Adams did things in the darkroom. I don’t apperceive what the equivalents were in 1854. It would be absolute absorbing to apperceive what Fenton did. Clearly, about-face the date a little bit is able-bodied aural the branch of possibility, and cat-and-mouse for the appropriate affectionate of lighting is in the realm. I’ve done shoots that are at aurora or dusk because of the blush and the bend of the sun. I’m abiding he was acquainted of it. If you go aback to the 1700’s, they were acquainted of it in their paintings. The botheration with the accurate accessory of it is that the columnist was not a aloof observer. He best the best annual he could find. That’s the botheration aback you attending at a annual in a accurate account and beneath it there’s a little account that says, “Representative image.” It’s not a adumbrative image, that’s the abandoned one the guy anytime got. Or the prettiest one he anytime got.

ERROL MORRIS: Are you asked to do abundant bent argumentative work?

CHRIS RUSS: I do some, and a cardinal of my accoutrement go to bodies who do that. We’re consistently aggressive the “CSI” effect. I’m abiding you apperceive what that is.

ERROL MORRIS: Acquaint me.

CHRIS RUSS: It’s breadth bodies watch “CSI” on television and accept that we can do all sorts of things that we can’t. So they’ll accumulate zooming in on a annual and zooming in and ultimately they about-face a pixel into a face. That’s science fiction; that’s not real. But there are some things that we can do. For instance, aback the Hubble telescope went up, it was careless for three years. We had to use it anyway, so we were able to compute aloof how careless it was and do a algebraic transform alleged deconvolution on it, and with the 15 percent of the ablaze that it did administer to capture, we’d accomplish acceptable pictures out of. Already they anchored the optics, afresh we were capturing all the ablaze and the pictures were that abundant better. There are some things that are doable, and there are some things that aren’t. I could do amazing things if I could get my easily on this guy’s camera and amend his optics. I could do alike bigger if I could get my easily on his plates, but all we accept are these prints.

[The prints are broadcast in accessible and clandestine photography collections about the globe. There is article acutely abashing about the anticipation that all the affirmation ability depend on a print. Why one book over another? Which print? If all the prints are different, breadth is reality? How can the absolute apple be recovered from the simulacrum? Antonioni’s “Blow-Up” is generally taken as an article on the subjectivity of truth. But it is afterpiece to the opposite. Photographs advance things. David Hemmings, as the photographer, thinks he sees a gun in the caliginosity and a body in the park. The photographs advance a gun in the shadows, advance a body in the park. But Antonioni makes it bright they are absolutely there. The body is real. We watch as David Hemmings allotment to the esplanade and touches the corpse. We, the audience, as able-bodied as he, the photographer, apperceive that there is a body – there is a fact-of-the-matter. But breadth is the fact-of-the-matter here? – E.M.]

When Fenton got aback from the Crimea, there was a appearance in London of his photographs organized by Agnew, his publisher. But from the brochures of the show, it’s absurd to acquaint which of the basin pictures was exhibited. It’s absorbing that the aboriginal aloft album on Fenton, which was accounting in the 1950’s by Helmut Gernsheim, has dozens of Fenton photographs but lo and behold, OFF is in the album – not ON. Why? Why did Gernsheim aces that photograph? Did he not accept the pair? Was OFF the abandoned one he had? If artful considerations accomplish ON the bigger of the two photographs (as argued by Chris Russ), why appearance OFF in what was advised to be the absolute assignment on Fenton’s photography?

I contacted Roy Flukinger at the Harry Ransom Center. Flukinger who was the babysitter of the Gernsheim collection, including his accumulating of Fenton photographs:

ERROL MORRIS: One affair that has puzzled me – in the Gernsheim book [“Roger Fenton, Columnist of the Crimean War with an Article on his Activity and Work,” by Helmut and Alison Gernsheim], they carbon OFF. But added afresh and far added often, you see the added photograph reproduced – ON. I’m curious, afterwards Fenton’s acknowledgment from the Crimea, which photograph did he show? Or did he appearance both?

ROY FLUKINGER: I’m not assertive I could acquaint you. I do apperceive that apparently both were awash in the portfolio sets. But which one he apparent in his exhibition at the Authentic Society, I don’t know.

ERROL MORRIS: But aback Gernsheim angry over the accumulating to the University of Texas [now archived at the Harry Ransom Research Center for the Humanities at the University of Texas in Austin], did he accept both photographs? Or did he accept abandoned one photograph, namely OFF.

[I was absorbed in the “aesthetic” question. If Gernsheim had calm both photographs, why did he broadcast OFF rather than ON in his monograph? Did he adopt it? – E.M.]

“Neither camera, nor lens, nor blur actuate the affection of pictures; it is the beheld acumen of the man abaft the apparatus which brings them to life. Art contains the affiliated account of authoritative and begetting, of actuality adept of one’s ability and able to create. Afterwards these backdrop no art exists and no authentic art can arise into being.” — Helmut Gernsheim, 1942

ROY FLUKINGER: I’m abiding Gernsheim knew of the actuality of both photographs. I’m abiding he had both in the set, because Gernsheim’s accumulating came from Fenton’s own set of Crimean photographs. Now, why Gernsheim chose [OFF] over [ON], I accept never been able to acquisition out. I’m appropriate now in the average of researching and autograph a big book on how Gernsheim put his collections together. He absolute atrociously didn’t leave one article that said how the accumulating was formed. It’s all over Gernsheim’s manuscripts, and I’m activity through all that appropriate now. I don’t anticipate there’s annihilation but the absolute army prints that date the Fenton photographs in any way, appearance or form. I don’t anticipate there’s any advertence to aback one angel was bogus as adjoin to another. I’ve never apparent annihilation like that anyway. Now one can altercate that because of the slowness of the acceleration and exposures of everything, best of Fenton’s images were posed, in agreement of bodies and abstracts and groups – things like that. So that is, to that extent, a abetment of quote/unquote “the truth.” But I aloof can’t brainstorm him acquisition calm a agglomeration of bodies and rolling cannonballs out there in that basin to accomplish the picture.

[“I aloof can’t brainstorm him…” Of course, we can brainstorm Fenton “gathering calm a agglomeration of bodies and rolling cannonballs.” There are two abstracted issues actuality – the affair of d and the catechism of which came first. And yet, for best bodies the two issues accept inexplicably intertwined. Fenton took the aboriginal annual and afresh airish the second. But it doesn’t bulk in access whether OFF came afore ON or carnality versa, either or both could still be posed. Namely, Fenton could accept carefully set up either or both photographs absolute of the adjustment in which they were taken. – E.M.]

Meanwhile, Dennis Purcell was afresh analytical the photographs, counting rocks, analytical sun-angle. And it was he who ultimately put the affair to blow by isolating the capital detail from the abounding apocryphal trails that led nowhere. Dennis looked at the adamantine facts of the photographs themselves and arrives at a beautiful, absolutely acceptable solution, which already read, seems simple. But isn’t that the affection of abundant solutions. The alternation of contest are as follows: aboriginal no one can bulk out the problem, while trotting out abundant cryptic solutions. Afresh they apprehend the solution, which seems so absolutely simple and say: Now why didn’t I anticipate of that”?[6]

We were analytical abandoned rocks in the Fenton photographs. Dennis had accustomed them names. He, too, had acquainted the affecting cull of the affecting fallacy, but abnormally enough, he had additionally alleged rocks and boulders – not cannonballs. How odd what 150 years brings. For Kinglake, it was the cannonballs that were alive. For us, the rocks in the landscape. The cannonballs allege to the Victorians; the rocks, to us.

DENNIS PURCELL: This administration is downhill. So here’s bedrock Lionel in OFF and here’s bedrock Lionel in ON. These two added guys haven’t moved. They’re a bit embedded. Somebody kicked this rock, and it concluded up here. Here’s George. All it did was aloof go a abbreviate ambit like that, but it’s a little lower bottomward actuality than it is here. There are others. There are little tiny ones.

ERROL MORRIS: What are the two altar that you’re attractive at? Is this Lionel?

DENNIS PURCELL: Yeah. And this is George.

ERROL MORRIS: Oh, this is George.

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DENNIS PURCELL: It’s up there, and it aloof went like this. That’s all it did. These are baby movements. This is the Lionel allotment aloof actuality and that’s it over there. These three are all absolutely the same. Alike this one is the same. So if you abstract this little allotment and aloof go aback and forth.

ERROL MORRIS: It confused this way?

DENNIS PURCELL: It confused that way.

ERROL MORRIS: And there is no way to antithesis the adverse amid these two photographs.

DENNIS PURCELL: No. You can for baby patches, but not for the angel as a whole. Despite all the warping and actuality I did – I couldn’t absolutely accomplish the two accomplished pictures match. They’re absolute aing but abbreviating of the gelatin or whatever this affair was on – makes it impossible. But you can accomplish a baby breadth bout about precisely, and afresh as you cast amid one and the other, you aloof say, “What afflicted here?” If you’re attractive at a baby breadth – a lot is activity on because some assurance move and some don’t. How big are these cannonballs?

ERROL MORRIS: They’re not that big. About the admeasurement of a grapefruit. A 24-pounder is abate than you would think.

DENNIS PURCELL: And here’s a baby rock. You can array of see it’s got a point and two bumps on it. It’s the aforementioned one as that. And again, it’s confused decline as admitting accession accustomed article kicked it and it slid. Now it’s bottomward here. Aback you aloof cull out a abate section, you aloof get this activity of article that happened there. But attractive all-embracing you can’t do that because – the pictures absolutely aren’t the aforementioned in graininess or contrast, and there’s a amazing bulk of debris in these photos.

ERROL MORRIS: I should try to acquisition out added capacity on breadth these agenda files came from and which prints were involved. But accept you, now, arise to accept [along with Sontag and Keller] that ON was second?

[Dennis had started absorption the affair of randomness. Aloof how accidental was the adjustment of cannonballs on the road. Did they cycle there? Were they larboard to be harvested afterwards by British soldiers? Or was the adjustment of the cannonballs aesthetic, advised to be adorable to the eye? Could one see the duke of Fenton in their placement? And if not Fenton, the duke of accession else? – E.M.]

DENNIS PURCELL: The adjustment is too good.

ERROL MORRIS: The adjustment is too good…?

DENNIS PURCELL: Right, they’re aloof accurately placed in the frame. “Let’s aloof ample up this breadth and accomplish it attending good.” Cannonballs cycle into low places. There’s a gutter. This is accession gutter. It’s like a bowling alley. Best of the cannonballs end up in the gutter. They do not end up sitting on the road. If they’re rolling at all they’re activity to cycle into this gully at the accessory of the road.

ERROL MORRIS: Hold on a second. Here’s a annual of Olga Makarova, our Russian guide. I’ll try to get the added pictures for you.

DENNIS PURCELL: She looks like she could be a acceptable guide.

ERROL MORRIS: Accept I showed you my self-portrait in the Basin of the Adumbration of Death?


ERROL MORRIS: Let’s see if I can acquisition it.

DENNIS PURCELL: That’s nice. That’s a absolute Lee Friedlander.

ERROL MORRIS: Acknowledge you. And this is the annual that Bob Chappell took in the Basin of the Adumbration of Death.

DENNIS PURCELL: It’s the aforementioned road. Attending at this! There it is. Oh my god. There it is! That’s Marmaduke. The annual is appealing abuse good. It’s absolutely agnate – for 150 years. Decrease a few bushes, and you’re aback to breadth you were. How abounding things in the apple accept afflicted so little in 150 years? How in the world, breadth there’s so abundant information, can there be such a aerial akin of ignorance? Absolutely the added advice we get, the college the akin of benightedness seems to be.[A abeyance while we reflect on the college akin of benightedness – including our own. – E.M.]

ERROL MORRIS: So it’s based on those two guys, George and Lionel.

DENNIS PURCELL: Those two guys additional Marmaduke – or whatever we appetite to alarm him. Those two went down. These two went this way. There’s one over actuality and there are others up in here.

ERROL MORRIS: So the accomplished adumbration affair turns out to be a red herring?

DENNIS PURCELL: It doesn’t accord us the answers we’re attractive for. If you akin the adverse in the two photographs perfectly, there hardly seems to be any difference.

ERROL MORRIS: Yet, from the motion of rocks, you can actuate which photograph was taken first.

DENNIS PURCELL: Absolutely. The rocks move in the administration of gravity. Aboriginal attending at the motion of the rocks, afresh attending at the photographs. The rocks move from up to down.

[Here is the capital point. Aback the rocks are acclivous – afore they accept been dislodged – attending at the alleyway to see whether the assurance are on it or not. Aback the rocks are uphill, and you attending at the road, you see that the assurance are off the alleyway [OFF]. Then, you attending at the rocks afterwards they accept been dislodged – rocks that were kicked and afresh confused decline – the assurance are on the alleyway [ON]. In short, the aboriginal attack had to be taken aback the assurance were uphill. We can see: rocks up, assurance off the road. And, the additional shot, aback the assurance tumble bottomward a bit, rocks down, assurance on the road. It is the law of force that allows us to adjustment the photographs. Dennis continues. – E.M.]

DENNIS PURCELL: Booty the catechism of the moon landing. There are bodies who accept that it was bogus in a studio. The catechism is how do you absolutely apperceive they’re on the moon? It’s appealing simple. Because the dust that they kicked up fell beeline to the ground.


DENNIS PURCELL: It didn’t float. It dropped. It was absolute aberrant looking. The dust that they kicked up instantly plunged beeline bottomward in a way that no dust on Apple would.

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[Dust on apple is abeyant by the Brownian motion of molecules in the atmosphere, but there is no atmosphere on the moon. – E.M.]

So the catechism is: how could you affected this? There were bodies adage that they apish it. They never were on the moon. They aloof did it in their training affected in the Atramentous Hills or wherever it was they trained. But you can’t affected dust coast beeline down. There’s no way to do that.

The Dust-Plunging-Straight-Down Test. I had a aberrant intuition. What about a adapted affectionate of analysis – about the angle of “posing?” A gedanken experiment. Say, for the account of argument, Susan Sontag is right. Fenton airish one of the photographs, but she’s amiss about the order. They are in the about-face adjustment to the one claimed by Sontag, Keller and Haworth-Booth, and accustomed by Dennis Purcell. Accede this academic -story. Fenton came above the assurance on the alleyway and broadcast them on the hillside, thereby d the annual that he took of the alleyway afterwards the assurance on it [OFF]. (It doesn’t bulk why he did it – aloof that he advised to do it. It wasn’t inadvertent.) But if OFF is posed, it’s airish because of the absence of something. The cannonballs should have, could accept been there, but Fenton adapted the mural by removing them. Couldn’t you altercate that every photograph is airish because every photograph excludes something? In every photograph article is absent. Accession has bogus a accommodation about what time-slice to betrayal on the emulsion, what space-slice to betrayal on the emulsion. Fenton could accept had an albatross in the Basin of the Adumbration of Death, additional all the workers you ability brainstorm bouncing cannonballs about. The albatross could accept been walking through the anatomy of Fenton’s camera, and Fenton aloof waited until the albatross larboard the frame. Or told Sparling, his assistant: “Get rid of the elephant.” He airish the photograph, but how would you know? It’s airish not by the attendance of the albatross but by its absence. Isn’t article consistently excluded, albatross or otherwise?

I know. It is insane, but I would like to accomplish the affirmation that the acceptation of photography is absolute in these two images. By cerebration about the Fenton photographs we are about cerebration about some of the best afflictive issues in photography – about posing, about the intentions of the photographer, about the attributes of authentic affirmation – about the accord amid photographs and reality. We additionally accept the aboriginal motion annual because we accept two images in sequence. We aloof don’t apperceive (at first) what the adjustment is because they are not accessory in celluloid. One added point. Isn’t abundant of science the attack to ample in what happened amid two moments of time, t₀ and t₁? To explain how and why article changed?

DENNIS PURCELL: I feel the force altercation is absolute strong. If you stepped up to aces up something, you’d aloof bang a bean or two. The abate is the added cogent because no one would accept noticed that and no one would accept kicked it acclivous by accident. I acquisition that appealing strong. And I acquisition the sun-angle business cryptic and paradoxical. The caliginosity are not that different. If you add and decrease contrast, the adumbration position is about the same. You do it and you say, “Which one of these is adapted in which way?” You can’t acquaint because the aboriginal bulk of abacus or adding contrast, concealment this and abating this, moves the shadow. So there absolutely isn’t abundant aberration amid the caliginosity in ON and OFF. You can move that adumbration about the brawl aloof by abating and concealment it. I don’t get abundant out of the shadows, but I get a lot out of the little guys who were kicked aside. Some of those rocks, those capital boulders, they’re still there. The cannonballs are gone, but the rocks are still there. It would be nice to acquisition that funny one with the two bumps and the nose. The rocks accept absolute audible characters, admitting the cannonballs accept none.

Shortly afterwards our discussion, Dennis beatific me a note. It effectively summarizes his acumen on these issues.

Dear Errol:

I’ve formed some added on the images, and with warping and equalization accept brought them a bit added into sync, so that bound flipping amid the two pictures reveals added of the detail and beneath of the confusing all-embracing accuracy differences. Aback you do cast them, authoritative a two-image movie, you see of advance a lot of change in armament location. But you additionally see movement of non-cannonball features. And my case rests (quite firmly, I think) on the two close-up views. These appearance movement of camouflaged rocks that accept been kicked, jostled or vibrated. Anniversary one has concluded up lower bottomward the hill. I haven’t begin any that went the added way.

It is absolutely difficult to brainstorm a book in which all these objects, at some ambit from anniversary other, would spontaneously move uphill. So I aloof can’t see any way in which the cannonballs-on-the-road appearance comes first.

Some beneath absolute but acceptance evidence: a absolute accurate calculation shows that there are the aforementioned cardinal of assurance in both pictures (about 250, if I bethink correctly). So no one has gone about policing up the assurance for reclaim or any added reason. They accept been removed from the surrounding breadth and placed on the road. Accession point, and this is abandoned an impression, is that the adjustment of assurance on the alleyway is too accurately and analogously “random.” It’s array of like the absurdity that bodies accomplish aback they try to ad-lib a “random” adjustment of numbers: abundant too able-bodied broadcast and alienated runs and oddities. Here, the activating concrete armament and asperous area anatomy a active arrangement in which there will not acceptable be a nice adjustment advance out in accessible amplitude (and accurately in camera-range) but rather a able tropism for bounded minima – which we see in the aboriginal annual breadth best of the assurance are “in the gutter” or in depressions on the hillside.

As for the interview, I’m not abiding what access to booty in alteration it. Not actuality one of those abstruse types who can allocution in accomplished paragraphs (never apperception sentences), I anticipate my account reads as appealing coarse – and I was array of authoritative it up in the ambience of our conversation. Maybe it’s added absorbing that way; I don’t know. I anticipate the credibility I mentioned aloft are in there, but conceivably not bidding with the aplomb I now feel. Let me apperceive how I should proceed!


How to proceed? Dennis has apparent the problem. There is no way – at atomic as far as I can see – to jerk out of his argument. And so, it turns out that Keller, Haworth-Booth and Sontag are right. It is OFF afore ON. I approved adamantine to prove that Keller and Sontag were amiss – to prove that ON came afore OFF. I failed. I can’t abjure it. But I did prove that they were appropriate for the amiss reasons. It is not their appraisal of Fenton’s appearance or abridgement of appearance that establishes the adjustment of the pictures. Nor is it sun-angle and shadow. Rather it is the motion of accessory rocks – rocks that had been kicked, nudged, displaced amid the demography of one annual and the other. Rocks that no one cared about. “Those little guys that got kicked aside.” Their displacement was recorded on those wet collodion plates not because accession capital to almanac it. It happened inadvertently. Accessory rocks, accessory affirmation – capital information.

The one affair that we apperceive about the rocks — Marmaduke, George, Lionel, Oswald and Fred — is that they were not posed. No one noticed them, let abandoned airish them. But calm they helped alleviate the abstruse of how to adjustment the Fenton photographs.

Photographs bottle information. They almanac data. They present evidence. Not because of our intentions but generally in animosity of them. Sontag, Keller and Haworth-Booth could be appropriate about the adjustment of the photographs, but annihilation that they accept said shows that one photograph – either ON or OFF – or both photographs were posed. We apperceive annihilation about any such thing. Chris Russ had noticed that the rocks were affective appear the road, but he didn’t booty the aing step. He didn’t see how force provided an absolute aisle to absoluteness – a aisle abstracted from sun-angle. Dennis deeply defends Chris Russ. He makes a allegory amid a badge detective and a prosecutor. It was Chris’s job to bare the evidence, Dennis’s job to accomplish the case afore a jury.

At the absolute end of my altercation with Roy Flukinger, he angry to the abstruseness of photographs – the abstruseness of recording ablaze and adumbration afterwards cogent us what they mean.

ROY FLUKINGER: It’s one of the alluring things about photo history. It consistently gives us added questions than answers. Actual photographs may accord you the achievability of new facts, and may accord you the adventitious to ask new questions. The affair I like about old photographs is that they action me a adapted array of visual, and hopefully, therefore, affecting acquaintance to what I’m attractive at, that words can’t do, or that words can abandoned do allotment of.

ERROL MORRIS: Article above language?

ROY FLUKINGER: Definitely. There’s a accomplished added akin that alcove a actuality through the eyes. And I aloof acquisition that fascinating.

ERROL MORRIS: How would you call that “other level”?

ROY FLUKINGER: Photography has a assertive adjacency – not abandoned in the taking, but additionally at the end of the equation, the presenting of the angel to a viewer. There’s a able adventitious for baloney of actuality or for bare – no, not inadequate, shall we say, bound bulk of experience. But there’s consistently article that’s accessible to be appear and aggregate in the process. If you sit bottomward and absolutely lay out these portfolios of prints on a table, and attending at them for an afternoon – we’ve got a big bank board actuality so we can lay out a agglomeration of them – and you move them about and attending at them, you absolutely get a faculty of what it charge accept been like to be there – alike a akin of goose-bump experience. That’s the array of ability that photography can have. If you’re attractive at the aboriginal prints the way the columnist printed them, and capital to accomplish them known, that achievability is enhanced, alike above aloof what’s reproduced in a book.

ERROL MORRIS: The activity of actuality there?

ROY FLUKINGER: At atomic a bigger faculty of actuality there, a bigger faculty of the affecting acquaintance that went into the conception of the image. Fenton was there – freezing his base off and accepting in the mud and aggregate else. That’s article you acquaintance aback you attending at the acerbity of the prints and the detail of the adumbration – that is, aback you stop and attending at what’s there in the photographs.


POSTSCRIPT: History is consistently incomplete. There is consistently the achievability that new actual affirmation can be found. A safe awash with documents, photographs in a hatbox, a packet of belletrist angry with a achromatic yellow-ribbon. I batten with Dennis Purcell afresh and asked, “Do you anticipate these essays will put this affair – the affair of which came aboriginal – assuredly to rest.” Dennis replied, “No. I don’t anticipate so. There could be some guy who reads your essays, writes in, and says: ‘You know, there aren’t aloof two photographs. I begin another. There are absolutely three.’ ”

[Note: The diagrams of bedrock movement and armament position in OFF and ON accept been provided by Dennis Purcell. There are now added than 1,000 responses to Parts One and Two of this essay. At first, I thought: I don’t anticipate I will acknowledge to any of them. Afresh I thought: maybe I’ll acknowledge to one or two. And afresh came the epiphany: I should acknowledge to all 1,000 – in detail. Wish me luck. There are abounding bodies who I would like to acknowledge for advice with this essay, including Charles Silver, Julia Sheehan, Ann Petrone, John, Dennis and Rosamond Purcell, Robert Chappell, Eric Zimmerman, Amanda and Rosie Gill and of course, the abounding curators and photo experts who lent their time and ability to this endeavor.]


1. I was aboriginal apparent the book by Lydia Davis, a acquaintance of abundance from the Putney School. I acquainted that I was in the attendance of a affiliated spirit. Kluver was accession acutely bedeviled by application empiric methods to actuate capacity about photographs, decidedly their sequence.

2. I accept accounting about this absolute abnormality in a antecedent Times essay, “Will the Absolute Hooded Man Amuse Stand Up.”

3. I had ahead contacted Alastair Massie, the Director of the National Army Museum in London and the columnist of several books on the Crimean War. He beatific several accessible emails. One antiseptic the admeasurement of the cannonballs: “At Sevastopol the accoutrements in use for annoy operations were 68, 32, and 24 pounders. This is the weight of attack fired. These abundant accoutrements were mostly ones taken off ships; both abandon did this…” A additional email discussed the ambit of the guns: “The heaviest ammunition could blaze at a ambit of up to two miles: this is why the British had to armpit their affected added than that abroad from Sevastopol (but by supercharging their accoutrements the Russians could still ability the camp). We accept a Crimean War 68 pounder gun sitting alfresco the Museum and its bore is aloof over 10 inches, so the bore of the better armament you can see in the annual will be 10 inches.” – The armament I adopted from the Panorama Museum was a 24- pounder. I accept if I had been absolutely scrupulous, I would accept approved to lug a 32- and a 68-pounder up to the Basin of the Adumbration of Death as well. I accept an excuse, however. The 24-pounder was the abandoned armament they lent me.

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4. The affirmation that a photograph is airish is about a “conspiracy theory.” It is a affirmation that the columnist advised to deceive the viewer.

5. Adverse is calibrated on a calibration of 1:255. So 151 is about in the average of the scale.

6. Well, not exactly. Added generally than not they say, “Oh, I knew that already,” or “That’s obvious.” It’s a somewhat adapted use of the chat “obvious” – acclimated in this instance to aish an annual provided by others as so simple as to be self-evident.

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