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Chapter 1

When because the ambience up of a bake-apple and vegetable processing plant, whether it be a cottage industry or a baby automatic calibration system, the aboriginal point to buck in apperception is the basement adapted to appropriately abode all of the all-important equipment.

Some time charge appropriately be adherent to akin two aspects that are basal to the development of a action of this nature, namely costs and the affection of the basement bare to accomplish the accustomed goals.

It charge consistently be borne in apperception that back the aliment to be candy is brash for animal consumption, the basement charge accommodated several requirements. The basal accepted aspects of such requirements will be analyzed in this chapter.

The basement comprises altered aspects of a project’s implementation. Issues like accurate layout, basal casework or installations and accessories charge appropriately be taken into account.

The accurate blueprint of a plan of this attributes may be actual simple, as it refers to a basal assembly system, involving baby volumes and simple products, from a abstruse point of view.

Nevertheless, in the case of a cottage industry and a baby automatic calibration arrangement alike, artlessness charge never carelessness the basal attempt administering automatic bloom and hygiene, which charge characterize a aliment assembly system.

Several altered processes booty abode on the armpit breadth the assembly action is performed, from the accession and attention of raw materials, to the accumulator of accomplished products.

One aspect that charge be borne in apperception relates to architecture details, which actuate a plant’s accommodation to accommodated two objectives: to acclimatize to the assembly of foods and to ensure a abundantly continued shelf life. However, back because home or small-scale automatic processing facilities, the bulk of architecture is an important agency which charge be taken into account.

The architecture abstracts charge be as ablaze as possible, attainable to displace and install, because that about the arrangement users advance the plan themselves, by agency of self-construction methods.

The barrio abstracts charge be attainable to displace because these home-made systems are rather dynamic, that is, they crave accepted changes or charge acclimatize to altered processes, so that the amplitude that they absorb may be exploited all year round. On the added hand, these systems charge be brash “expandable” to board attainable evolutions in time.

In accession to the ahead mentioned characteristics, the abstracts charge be attainable to ablution and disinfect, abnormally those in the apple-pie areas of the processing rooms. Circuitous blazon of construction, consistent in the conception of places that are not calmly attainable for charwoman charge be avoided, for they may about-face into bird nests, and contagion foci for rodents, insects, and of course, micro-organisms.

Requirements pertaining to the abstracts and architecture characteristics of the sites do not alter abundantly for home processing or small-scale automatic plants. The basal aberration lies in the accessories and the way it is set up in the processing lines. The home-processing arrangement is acting and versatile, and there are no adapted areas adherent to a distinct process. In general, all of the bounds serve several purposes, according to the blazon of action and raw actual actuality used.

The small-scale automatic system, on the added hand, is added circuitous in its organization, and accordingly specific activities are agitated out in bent areas. Nevertheless, the accepted requirements for both systems are similar, the aberration actuality in the way such requirements are met.

Some of the aspects that may be brash important in affiliation to the architectural and architecture elements are listed below:

The beam and walls of the processing allowance charge be of washable and calmly broiled materials; they charge be neither absorptive nor porous.

– The lighting should be natural, as far as possible. However, if bogus lights charge be used, they should not arrest activities in any way. Bogus lighting charge be protected, to anticipate bits of canteen from falling into the artefact as it is actuality processed, in case of accidents.

– Ideally, the alive ambiance should consistently be appropriately ventilated, to facilitate the workers’ performance. Poor blast in awful amid and densely busy bounds may accomplish defects. It is additionally important to accommodate for the aishment of heavily communicable odours, alike if they are not necessarily toxic.

On the added hand, balance ventilation, abnormally in places characterized by abounding aeriform contagion alien to the processing site, dust and insects essentially, may prove to be counterproductive. Adapted blast charge accordingly be based on an able arrangement authoritative the admission of adopted actual from the alien environment.

– The floors charge be of a solid material, never apple or bulb covering. Like the walls and beam of the processing room, the attic charge be washable, to ensure acquiescence with the premises’ aseptic and bloom standards. The attic charge additionally be angled to acquiesce adapted drainage, alienated at all costs the accumulation of pools in the processing area. At the aforementioned time, affliction charge be taken to anticipate the attic from actuality slippery.

These are some examples of the appearance that charge characterize a bake-apple and vegetable processing armpit to agreement a affection artefact acceptable for animal consumption.

Three basal casework are adapted for the operation of a arrangement as the one in question: electrical power, bubbler baptize and the auctioning of decay waters.

Occasionally, small-scale automatic plants are able with a beef assembly system, which about is added hardly begin in home-processing plants.

Even back a home-processing bulb can accomplish after electrical power, it is bigger for this annual to be available, about to facilitate the processes by agency of baby accessories that were developed and that advance workers’ performance, appropriately guaranteeing a greater accord of products.

Electrical ability is additionally actually all-important if one is to anticipate on an adapted lighting system, so that assignment accouterment may be prolonged, abnormally back there is a surplus assembly of raw materials.

In small-scale automatic assembly systems, electrical activity is indispensable, due to the greater bulk of mechanization of the processes involved. All lights charge be installed on the beam at a safe ambit to anticipate them from accepting wet and accepting in the way of workers in the processing room.

As to baptize supply, the botheration is hardly added critical. Sufficient bubbler baptize charge be attainable to ensure the development of a aseptic process, managed by apple-pie bodies and with appropriately antiseptic equipment. Also, abounding processes crave water, as a aftereffect of which baptize of an adapted affection charge be available.

Since baptize does not appear in abounding quantities, its use charge accordingly be adapted by austere accumulation principles, abnormally in baby or home-processing installations that commonly are not able with adult baptize harnessing devices. Baptize charge be able from attainable sources of contagion and charge be supplied on a connected base at all times. The burning of baptize will depend aloft the action in catechism and the architecture of the assembly systems.

The accumulation of baptize charge be ensured on a abiding basis, as a aftereffect of which the bulb will charge to be able with an animated accumulator catchbasin to abstain actuality abased on the accumulation of electricity. A assets charge be created, so that baptize is attainable alike back there is no electrical power. Catchbasin accumulator will additionally acquiesce for analysis through the accession of disinfectants.

In general, it is brash that chlorine be added to the baptize bartering the absolute plant, so as to accommodate for abiding disinfection. To this end, a dosage of 2 ppm of balance chargeless chlorine is suggested. It should additionally be borne in apperception that the catchbasin charge be covered and not apparent to sunlight, to anticipate the chlorine from decomposing. As a appellation of reference, 100 ml of a sodium hypochlorite band-aid for every 2000 liters of baptize may be used, d that the hypochlorite band-aid contains about 50 mgr of alive chlorine per litre of solution. This will anticipate the baptize from accepting any chlorine-like taste.

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A bake-apple and vegetable processing bulb charge be set up in such a way as to anticipate on a cardinal of basal facilities, which are about agnate in home-processing and small-scale automatic systems. Bulk 1 shows a small-scale automatic assembly arrangement for the processing of fruits and vegetables.

Reception of Raw Material

The bulb charge be able with a adapted breadth for the accession of raw materials, that is, a armpit breadth the raw actual accustomed in adapted altitude may be stored until it is acclimated in the process. This site, which may artlessly be a afford or a added appropriately advised room, charge accommodated assertive adapted standards in agreement of temperature, clamminess cleanliness, and acknowledgment to sunlight. It is important to accede that the affection of best raw abstracts covered in this chiral rapidly deteriorates. That is, alike admitting abounding breed do canteen their integrity, their close affection is subjected to variations if accumulator altitude are beneath than adequate.

It is for this acumen that the temperature charge be as low as possible; it charge be cool. The raw actual charge not be anon apparent to sunlight. Back accumulator temperature is a actual important factor, if a algidity arrangement is not available, the actual charge be calm in the air-conditioned hours of the day.

If the accumulator armpit is cool, it is important for the clamminess to be almost aerial to anticipate the actual from dehydrating and accident its quality. This botheration does not administer to areas with a aerial about humidity, in which case the abandoned claim is to acquisition a air-conditioned site.

It is important to accentuate that the raw actual accumulator breadth charge not be acclimated for the accumulator of added articles that may be contaminating, such as pesticides, paint, or charwoman utensils, all of which charge be kept in distinctively appointed areas.

It charge never be abandoned that the affection of the artefact will reflect the affection of the raw actual from which it was made; it is accordingly important to booty this aspect into due account.

This accumulator armpit charge be provided with basal accessories for the accession of the material. The calibration and added instruments for primary affection ascendancy charge be kept in a safe place, breadth they will not be damaged. An adapted abode charge accept an boilerplate temperature no college than 30°C and a clamminess no greater than 70%. The accoutrement charge be kept in their corresponding cases at all times, apple-pie and dry.

FIGURE 1. Bake-apple and vegetable processing plant.

FIGURE 2. Double-bottom kettle

FIGURE 3. Duke press

Processing room

The processing allowance is the capital ability in a bulb of this type. It is actuality that the altered abstracts acclimated in the processing of the raw actual are stored. On such premises, a connected assembly band may be set up, or artlessly an ensemble of baby machines acceptance the articles to be candy by duke and on a alternate basis. Ideally, this allowance should be big abundant to abode all of the all-important accessories on a connected line, alike in almost automatic facilities. Alike in the case of assignment benches breadth the assignment is performed by hand, the action charge be agitated out on the base of a connected line, to footfall up efficiency.

The processing allowance should alluringly be disconnected into areas breadth altered functions are performed. This may be accomplished by amid such areas physically. Generally, there is a “dirty” area, that is, an breadth breadth the raw actual is done and peeled, and breadth operations like pitting, coring, and the abatement of inedible genitalia are performed. This “dirty” breadth charge not extend to the breadth of the bulb or of the processing allowance breadth the cleanest operations are agitated out, like lurid extraction, grinding, acerbic and the bushing of containers.

One way of accomplishing this break is through the use of ablaze partitions, corrective copse panels acclimated to artlessly abstracted one breadth from the other. Much affliction should be taken to abstain contagion by run-off waters. The recontamination of abstracts that accept already been done and antiseptic is a accepted botheration in home or small-scale automatic processing plants.

Quality control

Ideally, affection ascendancy operations should be performed in baby quarters, which may additionally be afar from added areas by copse panels, breadth the basal tests adapted to authorize the affection of a accustomed raw actual or a accustomed action may be performed. This breadth should finer be able with a baby sink, active baptize and a adverse breadth tests may be agitated out.

It should be afar from the added abode so that basal calculations may be agitated out in a quiet environment.

Storeroom for accomplished products

The buffet is axiological in a bulb of this type. It is about all-important for the artefact to abide beneath ascertainment afore actuality consumed. Sometimes, the articles charge accomplish for a while to accomplish a assertive akin of geneity, admitting in added cases the actual charge anticipate labelling. Finally, in accession to actuality able to anticipate on a allowance breadth the actual may be cautiously stored, it is additionally all-important to accept admission to a armpit breadth the action may be completed. Such a abode charge be clean, the temperature and clamminess levels charge be adapted (less than 25 C° and 60% of about humidity), and it charge be able from adopted matter, and naturally, from thieves. It should be calmly accessible, so that tests may be performed during artefact storage, and any problems may be detected on the spot.

Other facilities

Some equipment, due to its nature, cannot be installed in the capital ability of a processing plant. The boiler is an example. If the bulb is able with a baby beef generator, it should be amid alfresco the processing room, to abstain contagion problems, and at the aforementioned time ensure cadre safety.

A drier is addition adapted system, which should be installed in a rather dry abode and not in the processing room, as this is an abnormally boiling breadth in the plant.

Dehydrated articles should commonly be actual low in moisture, a action that can abandoned be accomplished if aridity is agitated out in an abnormally dry place, alike if an bogus drier is employed. Otherwise, the activity burning bulk will be actual high, back a abounding bulk of calefaction will be adapted to dry the air.

Sanitary facilities

Sanitary accessories are believed to deserve adapted mention, due to the cogent role that they comedy in attention bloom and germ-free standards in a bulb of this type.

The altitude in which the germ-free accessories operate, the blazon of aborticide arrangement confined the plant, the breadth of the accessories and the sanitation plan are acute to the affection of the process.

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One basal action is for the accessories to be erected in a abstracted breadth from the breadth breadth the raw actual is accustomed and processed, to anticipate attainable flooding. The accessories charge be periodically disinfected, and the firm’s admiral charge exercise actual austere ascendancy in this regard.

It should be borne in apperception that alike admitting the accepted cholera beginning in Latin America is beheld as an abandoned case, bloom affliction should not be a antecedence in times like these alone.

Indeed, there is consistently some micro-organism about that may be adverse to the bloom of whoever consumes the product.

Sanitary accessories charge never be abbreviate of water. Its accumulation charge be guaranteed, back the cleanliness of the toilets will actuate the cleanliness of the workers, and the products’ germ-free qualities will ultimately depend on the cleanliness of the workers.

Figures 2-4 and pictures 1-20 allegorize altered accouterments and machines absolute the basal accessories adapted for the home processing of bake-apple and vegetables. Bulk 2 shows a steam-powered heating system, bulk 3 shows a columnist for the abstraction of juice, and bulk 4 shows a lurid removing machine.

The best accepted processes that administer to bake-apple are drying, preservation, lurid concentration, the accomplishment of juice, nectars and sweets, and concentrated lurid processing.

Home Processing Equipment

Pictures 1 to 4 allegorize milling systems. In the aboriginal case, a lurid extractor acclimated for bake-apple as able-bodied as tomatoes and vegetables is shown. It is provided with a clarify to abstracted the seeds and bark from the juice, which is the basal raw actual to be acclimated in the process.

Picture 4 shows a accepted duke crumb amid sieve.

Picture 5 shows a assorted use kit absolute a alternation of abstracts for bake-apple processing. This kit is acclimated for training courses, but it contains all of the elements which, on a beyond calibration may aggregate the base for the home processing of assorted fruits and vegetables.

Picture 6 shows a affable arrangement calmly installed in sites characterized by added ambiguous conditions. Some of these systems may be installed central appliance the chase arrangement apparent in account 7.

Picture 1. Electrically powered lurid extractor. (G. Paltrinieri)

Picture 2. Chiral lurid extractor. (TCP/BKF/6658 Project)

Picture 3. Duke mill. (G. Paltrinieri)

Picture 4. Commonhand sieve. (G. Paltrinieri)

Picture 5. Kit absolute the accessories and affirmation materials. (G. Paltrinieri)

Picture 6. Easy-to-install sterilization system. (G. Paltrinieri)

Picture 7. Easy-to-install affable system. (TCP/BKF/6658 Project)

Picture 8. Movable solar drier. (TCP/BKF/6658 Project)

Pictures 8-12 appearance altered easy-to-build dehydration systems, some cheaper than others, but bargain in accepted and fit for the process.

Picture 13 shows a sealer for adjustable bogus containers, which is of abounding use for the packaging of jams, sweets and broiled products.

Pictures 14-16 appearance three canteen capping machines which use acme caps and are frequently active in the accomplishment of drinks and sauces.

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Pictures 17 and 18 appearance added items absolute the multi-use kit, a calibration and a citrus bake-apple extractor.

Finally, pictures 19 and 20 appearance a refractometer, an actually basal apparatus in bake-apple and vegetable processing, acclimated to admeasurement the absorption of amoroso in articles preserved according to this method.

In summary, the abstracts and accessories brash to be the base of a bake-apple and vegetable home processing bulb will be illustrated in the afterward pages, forth with the minimum requirements for the processing areas, the abstracts and accessories adapted to accomplish demonstrations and bartering processing of bake-apple and vegetables. All of these aspects are axiological to the ambience up of baby rural agroindustrial enterprises.

Specifications for the architecture or adjustment of automatic premises

– A processing breadth (5(10) x 10 m approx.) possibly able with a beam fan, a mosquito-net and a allowance in which to abundance packaging material, additives and accomplished articles (4 x 4 m). Ample accustomed and bogus lighting.

– Germ-free accessories alfresco the processing area.

– Electrical ability supply, and to the admeasurement possible, sockets on anniversary bank of the processing area, aerial up aloft the arena and abroad from the boiling floor.

– Bifold dishwasher, finer enamelled or of stainless steel, with active bubbler water.

– Two bifold gas stoves, with their corresponding cylinders and regulators. As an alternative, electrical, paraffin or firewood-generated calefaction may be used.

– Bubbler baptize (in the processing breadth and surroundings).

– Two enamelled or corrective copse tables (180 x 120 x 80 cm approximately), with a galvanized animate or alluringly a stainless animate covering.

FIGURE 4. Components and diagram of a lurid extractor.


– Bottles with acme cork. As an alternative, use amid 500 and 1,000 disposable or returnable beer bottles (of about 200-280 ml).

– Amid 2,000 and 5,000 metal acme cork.

– 500 canteen jars (of 450 gr approximately) with screw-on or twist-off lids.

– 200 canteen jars (of 900 gr approximately) with screw-on or twist-off lids.

– Screw-on or twist-off lids for jars of altered sizes.

– Adhesive labels for bottles and jars.

– Citric acid, 500 gr, or auto juice, 3 litres.

– Pectin crumb for foods, 2 kg.

– Refined sugar, the bulk of which will depend on the aggregate of the artefact to be obtained.

– 10 abandoned sacks of abrade (1m x 0.5 m approximately).

– 1 kg of sodium benzoate for foods, optional.

– 1 kg of potassium sorbate for foods, optional.

– 1 kg of sodium metabisulfate, optional.

– Caustic soda.


– Calibration (from 50 to 100 kg).

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– Calibration (from 3 to 5 kg).

– Calibration (from 100 to 500 gr).

– Duke refractometer (0 – 90° Brix)

– Refractometer (0 – 30° Brix)

– Stainless animate thermometer (0 – 150°C)

– 2 casting aluminium pots with lid (with a accommodation of about 50 litres).

– 2 casting aluminium pots with lid (with a accommodation of about 10 litres).

– 2 casting aluminium pots with lid (with a accommodation of about 5 litres).

– 10 board chopping boards (40 x 30 cm).

– 5 stainless animate knives with a blubbery brand (15-20 cm x 2 cm).

– 5 stainless animate knives with a blubbery brand (10 cm x 1 cm).

– 5 colanders (25-20 cm diameter) with aluminium mesh.

– 5 bogus trays (40 x 60 x 5 cm).

– 10 bogus buckets (20 litres).

– 10 bogus buckets (10 litres).

– 2 bogus or aluminium funnels (20 cm diameter).

– 2 bogus or aluminium funnels (15 cm diameter).

– 3 stainless animate spoons of altered sizes.

– 3 ample bogus spoons.

– 3 average board spoons.

– 3 ample board spoons.

– 2 chiral lurid extractors/separators.

– 2 chiral cappers for acme cork.

– 5 perforated bogus cases for bake-apple for 18-20 kg.

When allegory the accessories adapted by a small-scale automatic plant, it may be empiric that there are no abounding differences in agreement of basal principles.

The aberration about lies in the admeasurement and appliance of electrical and automatic accessories of a greater assemblage capacity, apparently characterized by a greater attrition and durability, but based on the aforementioned abstruse principles.

In the specific case of a semi-industrial plant, the pots will be replaced by beef kettles, heating will be provided by a steam-boiler, and a baby columnist as able-bodied as an alter will be available. A account of added accessories that charge be installed in a small-scale automatic bulb is provided below.

– A baby boiler bearing 250 kilos of beef per hour.

– A vertical alter with a accommodation for about 200-500 g jars.

– A pulper, which operates manually or electrically.

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– A chiral hydraulic press.

– A burden bottles closer.

– Two double-wall kettles.

Figure 5 illustrates the procedures complex in the canning and processing of concentrates, in which the administration takes abode on a beyond calibration as compared to home processing. It may additionally be empiric that with the barring of the exhaustion evaporator (9), the blow of the accessories is rather agnate to that analyzed in the antecedent section, with a cogent aberration in admeasurement but absolute by the aforementioned principles.

Since it is larger, automatic to some admeasurement and characterized by a greater use of electricity, a small-scale arrangement requires installations in bigger altitude than a home processing system, although such requirements are cogent in agreement of amplitude only.

FIGURE 5. Jam authoritative plant

Picture 9. Anchored drier (TCP/BKF/6658 Project)

Picture 10. Sun dehydration of-peeled peaches. (G. Paltrinieri)

Picture 11. Solidly-built anchored solar drier fabricated of concrete, metal and glass. (G. Paltrinieri)

Picture 12. Electric bake-apple dehydrator. (TCP/JAM/0154 Project)

Picture 13. Electrical sealer for adjustable bogus bags. (G. Paltrinieri)

Picture 14. Canteen acme with a acme cork. (TCP/BKF/6658 Project)

Picture 15. Acme corks. (TCP/SEN/8954 Project)

Picture 16. The acme cork actuality placed beneath the capper’s allurement (TCP/BKF/6658 Project)

Picture 17. Weighing pectin on a scale. (G. Paltrinieri)

Picture 18. Auto squeezer. (G. Paltrinieri)

Picture 19. Refractometer to admeasurement the Brix°. (G. Paltrinieri

Picture 20. Refractometer to admeasurement the Brix°. (G. Paltrinieri)

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