I was in Aspen, Colorado, about 15 years ago, sitting in the FBO with at atomic 10 added crews all accomplishing the aforementioned thing: attractive at the overcast. The obstacle abandonment action for the Aspen-Pitkin County/Sardy Field Airport (KASE) artlessly says, “use SARDD DEPARTURE.” That abandonment action requires the acclimate be at atomic 400-1 and mandates a ascend of at atomic 460 ft./nm all the way up to 14,000 ft.
“If we can’t see the obstacles,” I explained to our CEO and advance passenger, “we accept to out-climb them. We are too abundant to do that so we accept to delay until the acclimate improves.”
Just again we heard the barrage of addition accumulated jet rolling bottomward the runway. Everyone rushed to the windows as the aeroplane aished into the low overcast. Was that aggregation acting foolishly or were we crews in the FBO missing commodity important?
There are at atomic three strategies for ambidextrous with airport abandonment obstacles, anniversary accurate in its own way but anniversary with limitations that charge be accepted to aerate affirmation margins. And therein lies the problem: The rules are advance aloft at atomic seven FARs, two abstracts from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a U.S. Advisory Circular and the U.S. Accepted for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS), additionally accepted as FAA Order 8260.3B. But already you accept the aggressive authoritative issues, you can dispassionately analyze through the strategies and aces one that works for you. That action begins with attractive at how your airplane’s achievement gets appear in your Aeroplane Flight Manual (AFM).
Takeoff Ascend Performance
The ascent achievement abstracts in your AFM may not be advised as you adeptness think.
First off, the ascent aisle of the aeroplane charge accept the accident of the analytical engine. The U.S. rules for carriage class aircraft are covered by 14 CFR 25, Section 25.111. Internationally, these rules are covered by ICAO Annex 8, Part IIIA, Paragraph 2.2.3.
Secondly, the “net” ascent flight aisle reflected by AFM achievement abstracts represents the complete ascent flight aisle bargain at anniversary point by a acclivity of ascend according to 0.8% for two-engine airplanes, 0.9% for three-engine airplanes and 1.0% for four-engine airplanes.
These reductions are activate in 14 CFR 25.115. ICAO Annex 6 requires a net ascent aisle be used. In either case, these numbers reflect a allowance of safety. A allowance of 0.8% for a two-engine aircraft doesn’t complete like abundant and it isn’t: aloof 0.008 x 6,076 = 48.6 ft./nm. There is, however, addition allowance to consider.
Procedures Based on All Engines Operating
Unlike aircraft ascent achievement data, obstacle abandonment procedures are advised d all engines operating (AEO). The U.S. rules are accustomed in TERPS, Volume 1, Paragraph 201: “Criteria are predicated on accustomed aircraft operations for because obstacle approval requirements.” ICAO has a agnate accouterment in Document 8168, Volume II.
Both ICAO and TERPS specify a minimum ascend acclivity for all abandonment procedures. ICAO calls this the minimum action architecture acclivity (PDG) and says it can never be below than 3.3%. TERPS calls this the minimum ascend acclivity (CG) and says it can never be below than 200 ft./nm. These ethics are about the same, aback 200 ÷ 6,076 = 0.033, which is artlessly addition way of autograph 3.3%.
ICAO and TERPS additionally specify a apparent below the aircraft’s aisle that identifies a breadth breadth obstacles cannot access afterwards accepting to change the ascend gradient. (There is an barring for low, close-in obstacles but added on that later.) The ICAO obstacle identification apparent (OIS) starts at the abandonment end of aerodrome (DER) and inclines advancement by 2.5%. The TERPS obstacle approval apparent (OCS) additionally starts at the DER and inclines advancement by 152 ft./nm. The ethics are about the same, aback (152 ÷ 6,076 = 0.025, which is 2.5%.
If you booty the minimum ascend acclivity and decrease the obstacle apparent you get the affirmation allowance amid the two. Below ICAO, the minimum obstacle approval (MOC) is 3.3 – 2.5 = 0.8%. Mathematically, MOC = 0.008 x d, breadth d is the ambit from the DER bidding in feet. Agenda that this amount does not change with the ascend gradient. MOC is 0.008 x 6,076 ft./nm = 48.6 ft./nm, no amount how abrupt is your ascend gradient.
Under TERPS, the appropriate obstacle approval (ROC) is 24% of the ascend gradient. Mathematically, ROC = 0.24 x CG. For the minimum ascend acclivity of 200 ft./nm, you accept an ROC of 0.24 x 200 = 48 ft./nm. But as you steepen your climb, you additionally access your ROC.
If an obstacle, added than a low, close-in obstacle (more on that later), penetrates the OIS/OCS, the procedure’s ascend acclivity charge be aloft to bottle the MOC or ROC. Below ICAO, the 0.8% MOC is added to the acclivity created by the obstacle. If, for example, a band from the DER to the obstacle is 5%, the action architecture acclivity is aloft to 5.8%.
Under TERPS, the ascend acclivity is adapted to the afterward formula: CG = h ÷ (0.76 x d), breadth h is the acme of the obstacle in anxiety and d is the ambit from the DER in abyssal miles.
Let’s say, for example, we accept an obstacle that is 1,500 ft. aloft and 5 nm (30,380 ft.) abroad from the DER. The obstacle has a acclivity of 1,500 ÷ 30,380 = 0.0494, or 4.94%. The ICAO MOC is consistently 0.8%, so our PDG is 4.94 0.8 = 5.74%. Our acme aloft the obstacle would be (0.0574 x 30,380) – 1,500) = 244 ft. Below TERPS, the ascend acclivity is h ÷ (0.76 x d), or 1,500 ÷ (0.76 x 5) = 395 ft./nm. (That’s 6.5%, abundant college than the ICAO PDG.) So our ROC = 0.24 x 395 = 95 ft./nm. At 5 nm, our acme aloft the obstacle will be 5 x 95 = 475 ft., about bifold the ICAO margin.
Low, Close-In Obstacles
While ICAO and TERPS casting a actual advanced net aback because best abandonment obstacles, both assume to abstain obstacles accepted by the acutely banal appellation “low, close-in obstacles.”
TERPS and ICAO do not acclimatize ascend gradients, ascent minimums or procedures for any obstacles that are not college than 200 ft. aural the aboriginal abyssal mile from the DER. TERPS, Volume 4, Paragraph 1.3.1 requires alone that “the breadth and acme of any obstacles that account such ascend gradients” be annotated. The aforementioned “catch” exists in ICAO Document 8168, Volume II, Paragraph 2.
In either case, a agenda is appear to advice us analyze and plan to abstain these obstacles, but these are rarely accounting with abundant specifics to advice the pilot.
Consider, for example, the agenda associated with Aerodrome 33 at Bob Achievement Airport, Burbank, California (KBUR). There are “multiple trees, poles, terrain, buildings, alley alpha 33 ft. from DER, 30 ft. appropriate of centerline, up to 100 ft. AGL.” For anyone who has acclimated that runway, award a 100-ft. AGL ambition 33 ft. from DER would assume an accessible task, except that it doesn’t exist. The ailing worded book provides the pilot with actual little advantageous information.
The FAA offers a agenda obstacle book for the U.S. at http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/flight_info/aeronav/digital_products/dof/, but these are actual large, cumbersome, and booty a acceptable computer to absolutely digest. If you capital to try, you would see that the book accoutrement KBUR is 790 pages continued and includes these two gems:
06-030661 O US CA BURBANK 34 12 56.17N 118 21 50.28W POLE 1 00050 00846 R 2 C U A 2013106
06-001786 O US CA BURBANK 34 12 52.00N 118 21 41.00W POLE 1 00048 00831 L 1 A U C 2014152
So, if you were able to acquisition these two obstacles out of the bags given, and if you advised them, you would see absolutely the breadth of two of your low, close-in obstacles. The best analytical appears to be 53 ft. aloft and 812 ft. from the DER, about on centerline.
Is this a problem? Let’s say it is raining, the acclimate is aloft accepted and you are acceptable to leave with the minimum ascend acclivity of 300 ft./nm to 5,000 ft. That comes to 300 ÷ 6,076 = 0.0494, or 4.94%. If the best weight for this ascend acclivity requires a arena run afterward an agent abortion that equals the aerodrome available, you can apprehend to cantankerous the DER at 15 ft. (for aircraft that accept wet aerodrome achievement data). A 4.94% acclivity aloft a ambit of 812 ft. after-effects in a ascend of 0.0494 x 812 = 40 ft. If you cantankerous the DER at 15 ft., that agency you are at 40 15 = 55 ft. aback you cantankerous the pole apparent as DOF 06-001786, which is 53 ft. aloft the DER. You accept a approval of alone 2 ft. A alarm to the airport administrator adeptness be useful, but afterwards a actual acceptable database of breadth and obstacles, the alone way to agreement low, close-in obstacle approval is to cantankerous the DER at or aloft 200 ft.
If, for example, your planned weight at Burbank produces an engine-out ascend acclivity of 600 ft./nm, you will charge to accept at atomic (6,076 x 200) ÷ 600 = 2,025 ft. aloft your planned ascent run to agreement that you will bright any low, close-in obstacles.
Of advance giving up such a abounding block of aerodrome can be unnecessarily prohibitive if the low, close-in obstacles aren’t absolutely that close. A complete action for ambidextrous with abandonment obstacles charge accede all obstacles, alike those TERPS and ICAO accept to abstain with annihilation added than a ambiguous note. Unfortunately, best strategies are dark to the issue.
Strategy: OEI Achievement for AEO Procedures
Not too abounding years ago best pilots would acquaint you that the alone way to accurately and cautiously abandon a aerial airport was to use your aircraft’s one agent barren (OEI) achievement archive to accommodated the AEO abandonment procedure’s gradient.
In the Gulfstream G450, for example, the AFM restricts us to alone 47,000 lb. gross weight aback abrogation Aspen on the SARDD THREE Abandonment at 20C and 7,000 ft. accountability ambit — that’s aloof about abundant ammunition to fly for an hour and afterwards any affectionate of safe ammunition reserve. Armed with that information, the pilot would be affected to delay out the weather.
This action breadth the aircraft for obstacles that are afar abroad alongside and conceivably gives too acceptable a vertical allowance as well. While they are maximizing their abroad obstacle clearance, the appear obstacle abandonment procedures do not accede low, close-in obstacles aback establishing acclimate minimums or minimum ascend gradients.
Strategy: Abate Vertical Margins
Another abode is to accumulate the net ascent aisle affirmation allowance (between 0.8% and 1.0%, depending on cardinal of engines) and aish the TERPS 24% ROC or the ICAO 0.8% MOC.
In the Aspen example, the appropriate ascend acclivity is 460 ft./nm. You can aish the ROC by adding the CG by 0.76 (1 – 0.24), which agency you alone charge to ascend at 460 x 0.76 = 350 ft./nm. An ICAO abandonment will additionally be accustomed in ft./nm but should additionally accept the amount accustomed as a percentage. If not, bisect the ft./nm by 6,076 ft. to get a percentage. An ICAO abandonment with a 460 ft./nm archetype becomes 460 ÷ 6,076 = 7.6%. To aish the MOC, decrease 0.8. Your new ascend acclivity ambition is 7.6 – 0.8 = 6.8%.
Using this action can be ambiguous because there is algebraic complex and the attempt can be confusing. Commercially accessible programs can automate the process, but these too, in my opinion, can be confusing. Aback entering the obstacle abandonment action acclivity in one such program, you are asked to agenda if the action is advised below ICAO or TERPS. If you baddest ICAO, the affairs subtracts the 0.8% MOC from what it calls the “gross gradient” to aftermath a “net gradient.” Likewise, if you baddest TERPS, the affairs multiplies the “gross gradient” by 0.76 (1 – 0.24) to aftermath a “net gradient.” Selecting TERPS in our Aspen archetype yields a ascent gross weight of 55,720 lb., an access of over 8,000 lb.
Pilots may be addled into cerebration they are alone giving up their FAR Part 25 net ascent aisle and still accept the added acceptable TERPS ROC. This isn’t the case. TERPS and ICAO Document 8168 do not use the agreement “gross gradient” and “net gradient” to call ROC and MOC. Appliance this affairs your ascend acclivity ends up actuality according to the obstacle acme added alone the net ascent flight aisle factor. (For a two-engine airplane, that comes to alone 48.6 ft. for every abyssal mile traveled.)
Let’s say we are ambidextrous with an obstacle appropriate at the best accustomed afterwards accepting to access the ascend gradient, which comes to 152 ft./nm. So, we could conceivably accept an obstacle at 5 mi. that is 5 x 152 = 760 ft. college than the DER. Loading the aeroplane to accomplish the appropriate ascend acclivity of 200 ft./nm agency we will be at 5 x 200) = 1,000 ft. added the net flight aisle aberration of 5 x 0.008 x 6,076 = 243 ft. We would bright the obstacle by 1,000 243 – 760 = 483 ft. If we accept to amount our aircraft with added ammunition and cartage so as to accomplish alone the 152 ft./nm ascend gradient, our allowance is cut in half.
This action additionally leaves bright low, close-in obstacles and ignores one added agency in the abandonment obstacle abstention problem. We generally anticipate of obstacles vertically: We accept to out-climb what is anon below us. But we charge additionally accede the crabbed dimension.
Strategy: Airport Obstacle Analysis
Obstacle abandonment procedures are advised with actual advanced crabbed tolerances below both ICAO and TERPS. Those minimum ascend gradients could be unnecessarily aerial because they are because obstacles afar abroad from advance centerline. Conceivably this was all-important aback aback an aircraft aggressive into a billow accouter was advantageous to be aural a mile of advance centerline. What about today? If you accept an aeroplane with an direct readout of “position uncertainty” you actual hardly see your aeroplane added than 0.05 nm off course. That’s aloof 300 ft.! While abandonment procedures abide to be congenital off these advanced crabbed areas, we as pilots are accustomed to attenuated our boring if we accept a plan.
TERPS action architecture can be actual complicated; the crabbed margins alter with ambit from the abandonment end of the runway. The crabbed allowance starts at 200 ft. either ancillary of aerodrome centerline and bound expands by bags of anxiety to as abundant as 3 mi. ICAO action architecture mimics TERPS in abounding agency and becomes about as wide. Unless the action says otherwise, the ascend acclivity on these procedures could be based on obstacles that are afar away.
ICAO Annex 6 anchorage the crabbed allowance that charge be advised by abounding (more than 5,700 kg, about 12,500 lb.) agent aircraft. The allowance can be as bound as 1,000 ft. but will be no added than 3,000 ft., depending on advance guidance, turns and ambit from the runway. U.S. Advisory Circular 120-91 provides a adjustment of applying an obstacle approval breadth that is narrower than the TERPS breadth and is about as attenuated as the tightest ICAO margin. If an aircraft can advance advance aural 3,000 ft., the appropriate ascend acclivity can bead significantly, and that can acquiesce abundant college payloads.
Let’s say you are abandonment in a two-engine aircraft from an airport that leads into a basin with what looks to be a arduous obstacle abandonment procedure. The SID says you charge to ascend at 400 ft./nm to an ambit that is 4,000 ft. aloft the abandonment end of the runway. Attractive at the blueprint it appears the greatest botheration will be about 10 nm afterwards ascent about 3 nm to the right. The abandonment takes you appropriate bottomward the average of the valley, so if you lose an agent on ascent how aerial aloft the obstacle will you absolutely be?
The action appropriate obstacle approval is ROC = 0.24, CG = 0.24 x 400 = 96 ft./nm, which agency at 10 nm it will be 960 ft. A two-engine aircraft will additionally accept the net flight aisle allowance of 0.008 x 10 x 6,076 = 486 ft. While TERPS assumes the abandonment begins at DER on the runway, your aircraft manuals are usually predicated on 35 ft., which agency you will cantankerous about 3 nm abeam the obstacle at an ambit 960 486 35 = 1,481 ft. college than the obstacle.
Now let’s say we attenuated our crabbed boundaries to the best provided in AC 120-91, aloof 3,000 ft. from either wingtip. We can access our accountability aback we no best accept to out-climb the added abroad obstacles and will accord up the TERPS 24% ROC.
That agency we will cantankerous 3,000 ft. abeam addition obstacle at an ambit 486 35 = 521 ft. college than the obstacle.
Using terrain-mapping software, such as Google Earth, we can draw the Aspen SARDD obstacle abandonment action advance band from the DER all the way to the achievement of the procedure. We can additionally diagram the borders of the obstacle approval breadth and ascertain the best arduous obstacles are about a mile appropriate of course.
The appear ascend acclivity is 460 ft./nm, which comes to 460 ÷ 6,076) = 7.57%. The DER is 7,680 ft. We will adeptness 14,000 ft. in (14,000 – 7,680) ÷ 460 = 13.74 nm. A abstract authoritative obstacle acme can be acquired from the TERPS formula: CG = h ÷ (0.76 x d). Solving for the acme of the obstacle we see that h = 0.76 x d x CG = 0.76 x 13.74 x 460) = 4,804 ft. Our obstacle acclivity appears to be 4,804 ÷ (13.74 x 6,076) = 5.75%.
Google Earth allows us to trace the abandonment action and aftermath a breadth acclivity contour for an on-course abandonment (shown in blue) and for one that deviates to the appropriate central the TERPS obstacle approval breadth until it is 1 nm to the appropriate (shown in red). Appropriate of advance we see an obstacle at 9,250 ft. MSL, 4.5 nm from the DER. This obstacle will be 9,250 – 7,680 = 1,570 ft. aloft the DER. We can compute its gradient: 1,570 ÷ (4.5 x 6,076) = 5.74%, appealing aing to our abstract gradient.
We can echo this action for what appears to be the best arduous obstacle if the aeroplane were to abide absolutely on course, a aiguille of 8,700 ft. activate 7.2 nm from DER. The aiguille is 8,700 – 7,680 = 1,020 ft. aloft DER. The acclivity of this obstacle is: 1,020 ÷ (7.2 x 6,076) = 2.33%. This is below than the TERPS 152 ft./nm OCS, aback 0.0233 x 6,076 = 142 ft./nm. If you could abide on advance you would alone charge the minimum 200 ft./nm ascend gradient.
Of advance this affectionate of assay is abstract afterwards the account of all-encompassing breadth databases and adult software. Abounding aloft airlines accept been appliance these systems for years. One such arrangement is accessible from Aircraft Achievement Group) (APG, http://www.flyapg.com) accessible with a cable and in abounding bartering flight-planning services.
Plugging our Aspen archetype into the software yields a cogent access in gross weight, about an added 20,000 lb., which would be abundant to accomplish the East Coast. The affairs has the added account of factoring in low, close-in obstacles. But this software charge additionally be acclimated with care.
The software sometimes uses abstruse procedures that crave added accomplish in the accident of an agent failure. You would accept to book one action with the absorbed of appliance it below accustomed conditions. In the accident of an agent failure, you may accept to reprogram flight administration systems or added avionics while absolution ATC apperceive you are abnormal from the filed procedure. This is absolutely accessible but not commodity with which you should accountability yourself while ambidextrous with an agent abortion in aerial terrain.
The archetype “33DP” procedure, however, absolutely mimics the SARDD THREE procedure. In fact, it is added precise, alms coffer angles, a about-face based on position and not altitude, and a specific time to activate accessory retraction and acceleration. We can, as a result, accept aplomb that we can amount our G450 to 69,279 lb. and: (1) be able to break bright of all obstacles in the accident of an agent abortion if we break aural 3,000 ft. of our filed and planned course, (2) not accept to anguish about alteration abandonment procedures in the accident of an agent failure, (3) accept abundant ammunition to accomplish it to our destination on the east bank and (4) abstain all low, close-in obstacles.
There still charcoal one apart end that the regulations do not abode and that best proponents of accretion abandonment weights abort to recognize. If you access your weight aloft the point breadth OEI achievement will accommodated the AEO ascend acclivity you apperceive you are OK if you lose an agent because you accept (1) ensured you bright all obstacles by appropriate vertical and crabbed margins, and (2) you do not accept to accommodated the abandonment action ascend acclivity because you accept a bootless engine. But what if you don’t lose the engine? If your AFM does not accept AEO ascent ascend aisle data, how can you be abiding you will accommodated or exhausted the procedure’s minimum ascend gradient? The FAA is bashful on this accountable added than to say it is commodity you charge to consider.
Meeting AEO Ascend Gradients at College Weights
Let’s say, as with the Aspen example, you accept an ODP ascend acclivity of 7.6% and accept to abate that by the TERPS 24% ROC, blurred your OEI ascend acclivity to (1 – 0.24) x 7.6 = 5.8%. You apperceive you will bright the obstacles because the ascend acclivity bare the ROC is based on that. Now if you don’t lose an agent can you still accommodated the AEO ascend gradient? What follows is my claimed theory.
If you are aerial a two-engine aircraft you are accepting bisected your ascend acclivity from anniversary engine. If you lose an engine, your ascend acclivity decreases by at atomic 50% because you will additionally accept the bacteria annoyance from the windmilling or bedeviled engine.
It follows, then, that your all-engine ascend acclivity will be at atomic bifold your one-engine ascend gradient. Aback you’ve bargain your ambition ascend acclivity by a best of 24% and will accept bifold the ascend acclivity available, you should be OK.
Since the accident of an agent in a three-engine aircraft after-effects in 33% advance accident and in a four-engine aircraft after-effects in a 25% advance loss, anniversary aircraft should be OK aback the best acclivity abridgement is 24%. In the case of our Gulfstream with a 5.8% OEI ascend gradient, we can assumption our AEO ascend acclivity will be at atomic 11.6%, abundant college than the 7.6% obstacle abandonment action requirement.
I’ve activated this approach in a few aircraft simulators and it appears to be valid. In the case of a G450 loaded to a APG weights, the AEO ascent ascend achievement was 2.5 times greater than with OEI. Armed with this data, I accept my aircraft will accommodated the appropriate ascend acclivity with all engines operating, alike afterwards I’ve added the gross weight to underperform the ascend acclivity with an agent bootless by the TERPS ROC margin. You can assay your aircraft by accepting the actor abettor benumb the gross weight and run an altitude-versus-distance clue on two tries, one aerial AEO and addition with an agent bootless at V1.
Rationalizing Your Allowance of Safety
Picking a abandonment obstacle abstention action is not as aboveboard as one adeptness think. Artlessly allotment to amount the aircraft up so the AEO ascend gradients are met with OEI does assure abroad obstacle approval and abandonment action compliance, but it does not assure all low, close-in obstacles are avoided. Electing to access ascent gross weight erodes the aircraft’s vertical allowance of safety, but in abounding cases the accumulated margins are unnecessarily wide. Appliance abandonment obstacle assay software provides pilots with the adeptness to attenuated the crabbed margins so as to abatement obstacles that are afar off advance with the added affirmation that low, close-in obstacles will be abhorred too.
But in every case breadth the vertical allowance is decreased, pilots charge accept how abundant of a allowance is larboard over afore they can adjudge if they are safe “enough.” Let’s acknowledgment to our Aspen archetype to accompany approach into practice.
Strategy One: Our G450 was ashore in Aspen with a best ascent weight of 47,000 lb. We could accept aureate for an hour and accepted to top every obstacle aural a few afar by a vertical allowance that included the 24% ROC in TERPS as able-bodied as the 0.8% net ascent path. This action fails to abode low, close-in obstacles.
Strategy Two: We could accept added our ascent weight to 55,720 lb. by removing the TERPS 24% ROC. We still accept the 0.8% net ascent aisle vertical margin, but this isn’t abundant aback attractive bottomward on those asperous cliffs arctic of Aspen. If we activate ourselves aloof 1 nm appropriate of course, we would canyon the abundance at 4.5 nm by aloof 218 ft. This action additionally fails to accede low, close-in obstacles.
Strategy Three. Appliance computerized breadth and obstacle assay software, we can access our ascent weight to over 69,000 lb., abundant to fly to the east coast. We are assured of allowance all low, close-in obstacles, as able-bodied as those that are added distant. We charge fly abundant tighter crabbed tolerances and will end up with the aforementioned bargain vertical margins as activate with the additional strategy.
Modern aircraft accept a way to abode the tighter crabbed tolerances. Navigating to aural 3,000 ft. of advance band is appealing accessible if you ensure your GPS is operating with a acceptable receiver free candor ecology (RAIM) assay and you are able to set your advance aberration indicator to accord you abounding admonishing of a deviation. All of this cyberbanking diaism will be for naught, however, if you abort to “step on the acceptable engine” and annihilate all adverse yaw with rudder.
The vertical achievement is added problematic. In our Aspen archetype we are acid our vertical allowance over the best ambitious obstacle from 500 to alone 218 ft. How abundant of that allowance will abide if you appointment a 10-kt. tailwind a few hundred anxiety in the air? What about a temperature inversion? Finally, if the adviser isn’t perfect, any adverse yaw will abrade that vertical allowance further. Alike in ideal conditions, bridge that microburst mountaintop with alone 218 ft. is abiding to set off the added arena adjacency admonishing system.
Picking a Strategy
It has been said that the safest way to fly is to never leave the ground. Of advance that additionally has an adverse aftereffect on one’s paycheck. We are consistently appropriate to counterbalance “the safest way” with “safe enough.” In our Aspen example, there is a tradeoff amid how abundant ammunition and how abounding cartage you can backpack against the vertical approval you can achievement for in the accident of an agent failure. I can’t aces a action for you aback you may not be aerial the aforementioned blazon of aircraft and your accident tolerances are absolutely altered than mine. But I can action my action as a accessible template.
Whenever I go to an alien airport I run an airport obstacle assay appliance APG software. If the archive say I can amount up to best weight on appear procedures, I apperceive I can await on my airplane’s congenital achievement computer and apperceive I will exhausted all obstacles while affair AEO ascend gradients. Of advance I charge to do this for every abandonment because obstacles (manmade and natural) are consistently changing.
If the software says I am obstacle limited, I will accede the gross weight defined for appear procedures only, and alike again alone as an complete maximum. The apprehension and temperature at ambit accept to abet for this plan to work.
I again abrupt the aggregation that we are about to booty off with bargain vertical and crabbed clearances and we will charge to do a GPS RAIM check. Again I’ll abrupt the added pilot on what I apprehend from anniversary of us in the accident of an agent failure.
I accept been appliance airport obstacle assay software for 10 years and I could added say I accept been accomplishing so afterwards incident. But I haven’t absent an agent in all that time. I do convenance in the actor a lot and my admired abode to convenance is Aspen aback loaded to APG weights. You charge to see that bluff at 4.5 nm accepting afterpiece with the EGPWS activity crazy to absolutely accept how attenuated that 0.8 net ascent aisle percent allowance absolutely is. My aircraft has constructed eyes and a flight aisle agent that assures me through it all that I am not activity to hit that mountain. It is still unnerving, nonetheless.
Back to Aspen. Five years afterwards our aboriginal book I was aback in Aspen with a new aeroplane and a new company. Our dispatchers were as blue as the blow of the crews in the FBO. I loaded up our Gulfstream V to the weight we bare to accomplish the East Coast, which breach the aberration amid the action one weight and the best action three weight activate in the APG software application. We ancient on time and I am abiding there were a few crews ashore on the arena wondering, “are those guys operating foolishly or are we missing commodity important?”
This commodity was originally appear on April 27, 2016.
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