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The Enigma machine, aboriginal patented in 1919, was afterwards assorted improvements adopted by the German Navy in 1926, the Army in 1928, and the Air Force in 1935. It was additionally acclimated by the Abwehr, the Sicherheitsdienst, the railways, and added government departments. From afresh until 1939, and absolutely throughout the war, alternating refinements were introduced, capricious from account to service, and there were abundant changes in operating action until 1945. The afterward abbreviate description can appropriately abridge abandoned its capital appearance and acknowledgment abandoned a few of the Enigma variations.

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The Enigma looks almost like a typewriter, but it is consistently added complex, with absolutely 17,576 arena settings for anniversary of 60 accessible caster orders—and that is aloof to set it up for use. Enlarge Photo credit: Corbis/Dorling Kindersley Limited, London

The Enigma was acclimated abandoned to encipher and analyze messages. In its accepted anatomy it could not blazon a bulletin out, let abandoned address or accept it. From the blank operator’s point of view, it consisted of aboriginal a keyboard of 26 belletrist in the arrangement of the accustomed German typewriter, with no keys for numerals or punctuation. (See diagram below.) Behind this keyboard was a “lampboard” of 26 baby annular windows, anniversary address a letter in the aforementioned QWERTZU pattern, which could ablaze up, one at a time, from bulbs underneath. (The archetypal with an A-Z keyboard, apparent in several books on the Enigma, is a Polish-French replica, not an absolute Enigma machine.) It abstinent about 13.5″ x 11″ x 6″, and advised about 26 lbs.

Behind the lampboard is the scrambler unit, consisting of a anchored caster at anniversary end, and a axial amplitude for three alternating wheels. The caster to the appropriate of this amplitude is the anchored access or bowl (Eintrittwalze) accustomed 26 contacts annular its larboard side, ultimately affiliated to the keys of the keyboard in accustomed alphabetical order. To the larboard of the amplitude is the abandoning caster (Umkehrwalze), which scrambles the accepted it receives and sends it aback by a adapted avenue from that by which it came. This caster too has a amphitheater of 26 contacts.

This simplified diagram shows a archetypal three-wheeled German Army Enigma machine, with plugboard leads bare for clarity. Enlarge Photo credit: © WGBH Educational Foundation

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The three axial auto were alleged from a box of five. Monthly orders defined a new best every day, as able-bodied as their about adjustment in the machine, e.g., V-I-III or II-IV-I, etc. Anniversary of these alternating auto has a amphitheater of 26 spring-loaded terminals on its appropriate ancillary and 26 collapsed annular terminals on its left, so as to accommodate an ever-changing alternation of access as it revolves. Anniversary contains a adapted centralized base and carries the belletrist A-Z or the numbers 01-26 annular its close ring, which can be angry and bound in any ambience afore the auto defined for a accustomed day are amid into the apparatus in the assigned order, admitting they can still be angry actual through slits in the close lid, and the belletrist A-Z can be apprehend one at a time in the window beside anniversary slit. The defined ambience of arena adjoin caster was alleged the Ringstellung.

Each time a letter key is pressed, the appropriate caster moves on one of its 26 places. Already during every 26 moves, at the “turnover position” on the appropriate wheel, the average caster will additionally move on one place; and aback the average caster alcove its own about-face position it moves on afresh aback the aing letter is keyed, calm with the larboard wheel.

Finally, the vertical avant-garde of the Enigmas acclimated by the Armed Services independent a “plugboard” with 26 pairs of sockets, afresh in the QWERTZU pattern. These could be affiliated by twin-cable leads—for example, coupling C to P, M to Z, J to S, and so on; but some sockets, usually six, were larboard unconnected. They were said to be “self-steckered.” Stecker is a plug; Steckerbrett (usually alleged “steckerboard” at Bletchley) is a plugboard.

The plugboard (steckerbrett) on the avant-garde face of the Enigma Enlarge Photo credit: © WGBH Educational Foundation

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Each time the blank agent keyed a letter, the appropriate caster confused on mechanically one abode and, as explained above, from time to time the centermost and larboard auto additionally moved. As anniversary new letter (e.g., P) was keyed, the current, commonly provided by an centralized 4.5 volt battery—although an alfresco ability antecedent could be used—flowed from a terminal beneath that key to a atrium (e.g., P) on the plugboard. From there it travelled via a advance to accession atrium (e.g., L), or, if the aboriginal atrium was self-steckered, it backward as P. Either way, it ran to the access wheel, which did not adapt it, through the pairs of terminals on all axial wheels—each of which commonly adapted it again—to the Umkehrwalze or abandoning caster (with accession alteration) and aback through adapted circuits in all three auto (hence still added alterations), out changeless through the access wheel, and aback to the plugboard. Here its advance afresh depended on whether that atrium was self-steckered or cross-steckered; either way, it assuredly accomplished the lampboard and lit a ball (e.g., W). Although the process, involving up to nine changes on the accepted three-wheel machine, has taken some time to describe, it artlessly took abode around instantaneously. And it charge be remembered that the affective on of at atomic one wheel, for every new letter keyed, alien a new set of circuits for anniversary new letter.

The aflame letter (in this case, y) never akin the letter of the key apprenticed on the keyboard. Enlarge Photo credit: © WGBH Educational Foundation

It is important to agenda that, if you columnist any key (e.g., B), any added letter may ablaze up (e.g., T); but if you abide to key letter B, the lampboard may give, say, P, F, O, J, C…, but never B. The arrangement will echo abandoned afterwards 16,900 (26 x 25 x 26) keyings, aback the close apparatus allotment to the aforementioned position. Belletrist were bound to a best of 250 belletrist to abstain this recurrence, which ability accept contrarily helped us.

In allotment a basal accoutrement for the machine, there was a best from the 60 accessible caster orders, the 17,576 ring-settings for anniversary caster order, and over 150 actor actor stecker-pairings (allowing for six self-steckered letters). So the absolute cardinal of circadian accessible keys was about 159 actor actor million. In anniversary of these configurations, the apparatus had a aeon of 16,900 (26 x 25 x 26) keyings afore the apparatus alternate to its aboriginal position. But there were anemic points. The Enigma is artlessly a swapping apparatus of an avant-garde type. All Enigmas of the aforementioned model, set up in the aforementioned way, will aftermath identical swaps. In any position area keying B gives T, keying T will accord B. And keying B can never accord B.

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The windows for account belletrist of the encrypted messages Enlarge Photo credit: © WGBH Educational Foundation

Although it was accessible for one blank agent to backpack out all the tasks of the enciphering action himself, this would accept been a diffuse and ambagious process; commonly it alleged for a aggregation of two. The blank agent would attending at his arresting text, which ability activate Panzer (“tank(s)”). Typing P ability accord M on the lampboard; his Cardinal Two would apprehend this and address it down—and so on through the message. The radio abettor would afresh address the consistent enciphered signal. But aboriginal the apparatus had to be appropriately set up.

Every ages the operating instructions defined circadian or added common changes to several variables. A archetypal circadian “key” gave the agent instructions for the aboriginal three accomplish of the enciphering procedure.

The blank agent would set up his apparatus accordingly. Until the end of April 1940, he afresh connected as follows:

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The bulletin as transmitted included four elements, as follows:

Once the arresting had been transmitted in this form, and the argument handed to the accepting blank clerk—whose auto would already accede with the aforementioned circadian instructions Nos. 1-3—he would appropriately move his auto to JCM (No. 4 above), key TNUFDQ (No. 6), and apprehend the accordingly enciphered aftereffect BGZBGZ (No. 5.) He afresh angry his auto to BGZ and deciphered the argument by keying it out, with his Cardinal Two acquainted anniversary letter in turn.

After 1 May 1940 this action was changed. Presumably the German cryptographic authorities had belatedly accustomed that the bifold encipherment of the text-setting represented a aegis accident which far outweighed the advantage of the double-check it provided. From that date the accidental best of text-setting (e.g., BGZ as in No. 5) was keyed abandoned once, giving TNU instead of TNUFDQ.

A after archetypal than this one added a fourth wheel. Enlarge Photo credit: © WGBH Educational Foundation

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The clairvoyant should additionally buck in apperception that the above description of apparatus and action applies abandoned to the accepted Enigma acclimated by the German Army and Air Force. The Navy provided three appropriate auto in accession to the bristles Army-Air Force wheels, and appropriately had a set of eight to accept from. On 1 February 1942 they added an added settable wheel, aing to the Umkehrwalze, consistent in the M4 model, generally alleged the “4-wheel” Enigma. The railways, police, and column appointment acclimated earlier Enigma models, while the Abwehr acclimated an avant-garde but unsteckered one, and a adapted enciphering procedure, with a Grundstellung defined for anniversary day’s settings, instead of acceptance a accidental choice. Certain added abnormal models had a 28-letter keyboard and caster system. It seems bright that the “29-contact rotor” (wheel) appropriate for this apparatus could not accept existed (see C. A. Deavours and L. Kruh, Apparatus Cryptography and Modern Cryptanalysis. Norwood, Mass.: Artech House, 1985, 96-7.) The Enigma was about a abandoning apparatus with an alike cardinal of caster contacts, and although í„ and íœ accept been added, there is no í–. The 29-letter keyboard of this apparatus is anticipation to accept had one letter, X, which bypassed the auto and consistently gave the letter X.

This affection originally appeared on the armpit for the NOVA affairs Decoding Nazi Secrets.

Excerpted with permission from Codebreakers: The Inside Story of Bletchley Park, edited by F. H. Hinsley and Alan Stripp (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997). At the time of publication, Stripp was Director of Cambridge University Summer Schools on British Secret Services.

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