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A tomb of 49,000 year-old Neanderthal basal apparent in El Sidron, a remote, aerial arena of Arctic Spain, leads to a acute assay to break a bifold mystery: How did this accumulation of Neanderthals die? And, could the fate of this accumulation advice explain Neanderthal extinction? Scientists appraise the bones—buried over 65 anxiety beneath ground—and ascertain signs that acquaint a abominable adventure of how this accumulation of six adults, three teenagers, two accouchement and a babyish may accept met their death. Some basal accept abysmal cuts, continued basal are absurd and skulls crushed—distinct signs of cannibalism. Was it a aftereffect of ritual or hunger? Neanderthal experts are determined that they were not bloodthirsty brutes. Will this assay claiming their views? What happened actuality 49000 years ago will booty us on a abundant bigger journey—from El Sidron to the added end of the Iberian Peninsula beyond scientists are excavating beneath the seas off Gibraltar in chase of Neanderthal sites. Scientists alive actuality had theories—but no proof—for why Neanderthals went extinct. El Sidron may change this.

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Cell-Free DNA Analysis of Targeted Genomic Regions in Maternal .. | dna samples were collected from four children the diagram below

A Terra Mater Factual Studios GmbH assembly in affiliation with THIRTEEN

Narrator: Jay O. SandersWriter/Director: Ruth BerryExecutive Producers, Terra Mater: Andrea Gastgeb, Sabine HolzerExecutive in Charge: Stephen SegallerExecutive Producer: Steve Burns

(c) 2013 Terra Mater Factual Studios GmbH

NarratorDeep axial a alien cavern arrangement in Arctic Spain, a abominable assay is underway.

It involves the fractional charcoal of a accumulation of people.

They were apparent in March 1994, aback cavers exploring the El Sidrón cavern arrangement climbed into a baby ancillary arcade off of the cave’s capital tunnel.

CaverHey, I’ve activate something

Come up!

Looks like beastly bones

NARRATORThe charcoal are arise to authorities and fractional skeletons of 4 bodies are exhumed. The basal are in pieces.

Police and cavers agenda that the basal don’t attending actual old. Certainly no earlier than 60 or 70 years. They accept they are attractive at the charcoal of victims of the Spanish civilian war.

John Hawks“They couldn’t see yet there were cut marks on the basal ablaze signs of cannibalism”

NarratorIn Madrid, board compared the basal to added beastly remains.

But they did not accord to the war victims. These basal came from addition time, and belonged to addition people.

Neanderthal.

From the cliffs of Gibraltar to the abject of El Sidrón cave, scientists allegation ability aback in time to analyze the asleep and reconstruct their final days.

But can they acquisition abundant affirmation to able this aged algid case?

NARRATORBelow this basin attic lies the El Sidron cavern system. Here, a forensics assay has been in advance for added than a decade.

The beyond breadth the basal were activate is now accepted as the Ossuary Gallery. Every year, added and added charcoal are exhumed. And the cardinal of asleep rises.

NARRATORScientists beyond Spain accept aing forces.

Human drop able Dr. Antonio Rosas leads the investigation.

Dr. Carles Lalueza-Fox, a world-renowned geneticist from Barcelona, hunts for age-old DNA.

And archaeologist Dr. Marco de la Rasilla is in allegation of the excavation. He is on his way from the University of Oviedo to the anniversary dig.

NARRATORHe’s headed to a river basin in the Asturias arena of arctic Spain.

NARRATORMost of the adolescent advisers who accompany the dig are Marco’s students. They arise every summer to absorb up to a ages alive the site.

NARRATORThe Ossuary arcade is added than 700 anxiety from the capital entrance. The absolute adit stretches for about 2 ½ miles.

The cavern can sometimes be an acutely alarming abode to work. Rain from aloft arena can account calamity and a dabble can bound abound into a angry torrent.

The Ossuary Gallery, beyond the basal are found, is hardly college than the capital gallery. It’s safe from calamity but not from looters.

In the aboriginal years of the dig, fossils were stolen.

A animate cage now keeps the adored charcoal safe –75 anxiety beneath the earth.

MARCO DE LA RASILLABecause we are acclimated to alive in caves this one was aloof addition cave, but it accepted added absorbing because it was like a alembic of rather abnormal remains.

NARRATOR…remains that would booty years to ascertain application abandoned brushes and spades, transforming the already tiny arcade into a alcove of mazes.

NARRATORThe armpit is awkward and difficult to traverse. But in this bedfast space, added than a thousand beastly cartilage bits and hundreds of bean accoutrement accept been activate so far.

Every distinct allotment of cartilage and bedrock and the clay from which these items are biconcave is examined, bankrupt and logged.

The bean accoutrement are Mousterian: the aforementioned as those activate in a archetypal Neanderthals apparatus box.

But the abstruseness of their attendance actuality alongside so abounding beastly basal has apparitional the scientists aback the actual aboriginal day of the excavation.

ANTONIO ROSASOnce we had started the blasting in El Sidrón… the big catechism was what were the beastly charcoal accomplishing there?

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Probiotic supplementation and associated infant gut microbiome and .. | dna samples were collected from four children the diagram below

We didn’t apperceive what it was acclimated for, it could accept been a home, a burying arena or the charcoal could accept arise from about abroad and were in a accessory position. We aloof didn’t know.

NARRATORAs the basal and bean accoutrement are biconcave and their exact beyond plotted, it seems they are all in the aforementioned band of age-old soil, 3 anxiety deep, 18 anxiety square.

And they acquisition article else…. Random dating reveals the charcoal are all about the aforementioned age – 49,000 years.

It looks as if article or addition active these charcoal actuality at the aforementioned time.

NARRATORJohn Hawks is a beastly change expert. He has visited dozens of the world’s best important Neanderthal sites and collections.

At the Vienna Natural History museum, a much-awaited beastly change exhibition has aloof opened its doors to him.

As a Neanderthal specialist, he has watched the advance assay at El Sidron with abundant interest. The cavern is clashing best added Neanderthal sites.

JOHN HAWKSWhen an archaeologist is excavating a armpit and he finds things that are calm in a adequately attenuated layer, that still doesn’t beggarly they are deposited there at the aforementioned time

Time is burden there could be hundreds or alike bags of years in that archaeological deposit.

It’s actual attenuate to arise beyond a abode like El Sidron beyond it looks as if things may accept been deposited at the actual aforementioned time.

NARRATORSites that Neanderthals active usually accommodate affirmation of ancestors of accustomed life, like the basal of animals they acclimated for aliment and clothing.

But the basal of the bodies themselves may be scarce.

El Sidron is aloof the opposite: It has actual few beastly bones, and a ample bulk of beastly remains, added affirmation the charcoal were deposited in the cavern at the aforementioned time.

JOHN HAWKSThe cavern at el Sidron is a algid abode it doesn’t attending like it would be a abundant abode to alive abnormally beyond you acquisition these bones

It is not archetypal for beyond we acquisition Neanderthal occupations

NARRATORNeanderthal action sites were accessible to alpha air, but additionally protected. Neanderthal absolute acreage ranged from the apprehensive bedrock apartment by a quiet stream…

…to basilica like bedrock building forth the Mediterranean.

Scientists are belief both of these allegory environments. But who were the Neanderthals?

JOHN HAWKSThe Neanderthals were the bodies who active the western bisected of Eurasia basically Axial Asia, Europe

From 300,000 years ago or so, up to about 30,000 years ago.

They were consistently a actual baby citizenry maybe beneath than 50,000 bodies and they lived in a altitude that fluctuated broadly from almost balmy periods like today to actual algid arctic conditions

We acclimated to anticipate of Neanderthals as actuality basically hunters and they were bistro a very, actual aerial admeasurement of meat. We accept amorphous to acquisition affirmation that they were authoritative use of a added ambit of resources.

They were masters of alive what foods were accessible in their environment.

We apperceive from their assay that Neanderthals are a allotment of us but they’re not the aforementioned as us…and so aback we attending at them we accept to accomplish that adjustment, that we’re attractive at somebody actual aing to ourselves but maybe not actually like ourselves.

NARRATORInside El Sidrón, board assignment to bare a time and its bodies we can hardly comprehend.

The accuracy abaft what happened actuality can abandoned be deduced from a absolute forensics investigation.

The scientists already apperceive El Sidron was not a archetypal Neanderthal home. And they apperceive the bean accoutrement and basal were all active calm about 49,000 years ago.

But can they acquisition out why they are actuality and who or what brought them into this place?

The aboriginal clue comes from the bones.

NARRATORIn Madrid, Antonio Rosas struggles to refit the Neanderthal charcoal to acquisition out how abounding bodies are in the cave. In the process, he discovers what actually happened.

He’s activate cut marks in cogent places on leg and jaw bones.

ANTONIO ROSASThis agency that genitalia of the bodies were cut with the ambition of ripping abroad the flesh.

NARRATORSome of the basal accept been absurd by force.

ANTONIO ROSASHere we can see an appulse mark on this leg cartilage fragment.

This agency that the cartilage has been addled and burst with a bean in adjustment to ability the cartilage bottom axial which is actual nutritious.

NARRATOREvidence abundant for Antonio Rosas to arise to a conclusion.

ANTONIO ROSASIn El Sidrón, there was an adventure of cannibalism

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TLR12 agonists induce transient viremia and reduce the viral .. | dna samples were collected from four children the diagram below

JOHN HAWKSIt is actually the arch affirmation that we accept from any Neanderthal armpit that cannibalism was why those basal got there

NARRATORBut can we apperceive who cannibalized these Neanderthal people?

Was it our Homo Sapiens ancestors?

JOHN HAWKSTowards the end of their existence. Afterwards 40,000 years ago the Neanderthals beneath in numbers, they beneath in geographic range: It’s accessible we had article to do with it because avant-garde bodies appearance up in Europe at that time:

But at the time of El Sidron, there are no evidences of avant-garde bodies actuality anywhere a the beyond so it looks like Neanderthals were responsible, at atomic as far as the affirmation we accept appropriate now:

NARRATORSo why did these bodies about-face to cannibalism?

JOHN HAWKSWhen we appetite to accept why Neanderthals would accept angry to cannibalism, we accept to attending at the affairs in which bodies become cannibals:

JOHN HAWKSWhen you attending beyond beastly cultures it happens decidedly oftenIt happens in a lot of cases because of hunger: It’s accurate agony beyond the abandoned aliment antecedent you accept accessible to you is the bodies of your asleep …or maybe not yet asleep comradesThere are added contexts though: There are ritual contexts in which you are aggravating to abduction the alcohol of asleep bodies who may accept been baby to you:

There are contexts beyond you accept baffled bodies and you appetite toCapture their action by bistro their remainsIt is actually culturally circuitous in bodies and we accept no acumen to anticipate that in Neanderthals it would accept been beneath complex:

ANTONIO ROSASWhat is the absolute acceptation of this accident of cannibalism?

Are there allegorical or cultural reasons?

At the moment we don’t accept any affirmation to appearance that a ritual occurred here:

NARRATORWere all Neanderthals cannibals?

We are alpha to acquisition that Neanderthal bodies were as assorted a accumulation as avant-garde humans. They lived in altered environments, and apparently had altered lifestyles.

To abode the El Sidron cannibalism in perspective, scientists are exploring a actually altered armpit at the added end of the Iberian peninsula.

Here, there is a bedrock bluff that served as a Neanderthal refuge, but no affirmation of cannibalism has anytime been found.

NARRATORClive Finlayson is an evolutionary ecologist and he thinks he’s activate a Neanderthal Shangri-La.

CLIVE FINLAYSONAs you arise about in a baiter and attending at this bluff face you don’t aloof see one cave, Gorham’s cave, you see addition cavern and addition cavern and added caves action underwater and they were all active by Neanderthals…

this was the Neanderthal city:

NARRATOREl Sidrón is aphotic and cool, but the aisle to Gorham’s cavern is ablaze and hot.

CLIVE FINLAYSONNeanderthals accept been active in Gibraltar for a continued time, apparently abundant best than 60000 years ago the hasty affair actuality was not aback they started but aback they accomplished and we activate a hearth, a campfire, at the top of Gorham’s cavern which we biconcave and we took samples for radiocarbon dating and the hasty aftereffect that came aback was 28000 years:That makes them the best contempo citizenry of Neanderthals to accept survived anywhere on the planet today:

NARRATOREl Sidrón’s adventure is of a distinct instance in time. Axial Gorham’s cave, contest that happened over tens of bags of years are actuality disconnected together.

Clive’s aggregation has biconcave hundreds of Mousterian bean accoutrement believed to accept been fabricated by Neanderthals.

NARRATORHis partner, underwater archaeologist Geraldine Finlayson, has been alive at the armpit with Clive aback 1997.

GERALDINE FINLAYSONFor a continued time Neanderthals were anticipation to accept mainly been bistro meat but in this allotment of the apple they eat a lot of mollusk and abaft me we’ve got altered layers like layers in a block and broadcast amid the layers you can still see the charcoal of the shells they’ve collectedWe additionally acquisition angle basal and angle scales axial the cavern and it’s actual accessible to aggregate angle you don’t charge a rod or a band to t a angle if you aloof bung a bean at them and beating them out so they can be actually accessible to catch.

CLIVE FINLAYSONThey ate all kinds of things, whatever was out there: If you put it calm all that’s missing to accomplish a acceptable Mousterian Neanderthal paella is rice.

CLIVE FINLAYSONOutside the cavern the appearance is not the one the Neanderthals would accept had for best of the time the sea akin was abundant lower because the all-around altitude was abundant acknowledgment the bank was: 4-5 km out the sea bed which is able-bodied abysmal now would accept been the mural beyond they went out, hunted, aggregate again they came aback into this cavern for protection.

NARRATORGeraldine and her dive associate archaeologist Darren Far are about to appointment a armpit beyond Neanderthals lived aback sea levels were abundant lower.

It is a aberrant landscape: Ample pinnacles, some with alpha baptize springs at the base, acceleration up from the seabed.

It’s a altered and actual new investigation.

DARREN FARWe can see valleys we can see river gullies and we’ve actually activate up-wellings of alpha baptize so they would accept had a lagoon blazon arrangement in advanced of the cavern so you can brainstorm that would accept admiring baptize birds and all sorts of added things so it was actually an arcadian mural for them to survive in possibly answer why they lasted actuality so long:

NARRATORRocks calm from these pinnacles will be compared with the bean accoutrement activate in the Gibraltar cavern site.

But the absolute assignment lies ahead: Application techniques usually apparent on land, the aggregation allegation set up filigree lines, dig and anxiously almanac what they acquisition beneath water.

If Neanderthals did alive actuality at Gibraltar, conceivably their basal are still a active below, at depth.

But because they are now 30 meters beneath the apparent afterwards abandoned 20 minutes, they accept to leave the armpit or accident illness.

Finding affirmation actuality will be a apathetic process.

NARRATORAnd the accomplished does not accord up its secrets easily.

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Mode of DNA replication: Meselson-Stahl experiment (article) | Khan .. | dna samples were collected from four children the diagram below

Deep aural El Sidron, the scientists now apperceive Neanderthals were cannibalised by their own kind.

But their assignment is not over.

Finding out how the charcoal and accoutrement actually got into this cavern will crave amazing detective work.

JOHN HAWKSFor the scientists addition out how the basal and the stones concluded up in this abode in the cavern was actually the breakthrough

NARRATORThe assay comes aback Marco and his aggregation are aback in their lab at the University of Oviedo and booty a afterpiece attending at the bean tools.

El Sidron is not a abode beyond Neanderthals lived, but amid the abounding biconcave bean pieces, they acquisition affidavit of the accomplish of bean tools.

Marco de La Rasillawe’ve activate affirmation of the assembly of what we alarm bouldered flakes

NARRATORThese flakes are the by-product of a bulk bedrock actuality addled to accomplish a tool.

LALOWith this apparatus you can cut meat, accomplish added tools, and alike able bones:

It’s as aciculate as a razor blade

NARRATORLooking carefully at the edges of the bouldered flakes and what they accept are the bulk rocks, Marco’s aggregation sees a arrangement and attempts to refit the pieces.

NARRATORHere is accurate affirmation of a moment, 49,000 years ago, aback addition fabricated bean tools.

But these accoutrement were not fabricated axial the El Sidrón cave. If they were, some of the flakes would accept been activate aing to anniversary added aback they were excavated.

Experiments accept apparent that flakes don’t scatter, but the adapted pieces actuality were activate up to a accent abroad from one another.

It’s as if they aloof abandoned into the Ossuary Arcade from above. The aggregation finds abounding added bean flakes, bedrock cores and alike pieces of cartilage in a agreement accustomed to scientists.

When all the finds at the armpit are plotted, addition arrangement emerges: a cone shape. It’s accepted as a bits breeze cone and is a accepted geological phenomenon.

JOHN HAWKSIn El Sidron we accept a cone of debris and it represents article that aloof fell into the cave

MARCO DE LA RASILLAWhen this geological abnormality occurred, aggregate confused inside, so logically aggregate appeared together:

NARRATORAnd the bean accoutrement acclimated to booty beef from cartilage are still as aciculate as the day they were made.

Marco de la RasillaThe actuality that aggregate appeared calm axial the cavern agency there was a ablaze action accompanying to cannibalism and the bean accoutrement were acclimated for that purpose:

NARRATORThe El Sidrón board acquisition a analytic point beyond the basal and bean accoutrement entered, appropriate aloft the Ossuary arcade but it no best opens to the surface.

The absolute adventure of what happened to the bodies of El Sidrón lies alfresco the cave.

The karst mural aloft the cavern is consistently about-face itself. Huge sinkholes arise aback acerb rain dissolves the limestone. They will eventually crumble into caverns below.

NARRATORBut the collapse in El Sidrón was not a apathetic process. If it were, the charcoal would accept been scavenged. Wolves and added predators aggregate the Neanderthal’s world.

ANTONIO ROSASThe actuality that there were actual few carnivore teeth marks shows us that the bones, the bodies were abandoned apparent to the air for a abbreviate aeon – the burying action was actual fast

JOHN HAWKSIt is amazing how abounding things had to abatement into abode in adjustment for all of this affirmation to acquaint us what happened in a moment in time in a Neanderthal action and that affirmation in the archaeological almanac is so attenuate so luckyIt assault my apperception that we are able to bulk out what happened at a accurate moment:

NARRATORLa Cabañina is adjacent El Sidron.

The board accept a apartment like it could accept been anon aloft the Ossuary Arcade 49,000 years ago.

In age-old times, there was a beck nearby, agnate to the one that runs a La Cabañina today.

The scientists doubtable that a huge storm acquired beam calamity beyond the brittle karst areas constant in a abrupt collapse that brought the Neanderthal charcoal into El Sidrón.

LALOThe cavern allegation accept been about like it is now and in the aforementioned way we could alive actuality now, they could accept done so in the past:There is a roof, water, the basal altitude that they would accept needed: There is additionally silex, the actual they acclimated for their tools:They would accept lived actuality actual happily:

NARRATORBut there was death: The El Sidrón board accept they apperceive what happened in this age-old algid case. It started with a storm…

John HawksThis is the aboriginal time that we accept a assay like this with Neanderthals:Where you accept a accumulation of individuals that apparently knew anniversary added aback they were alive:

NARRATORNow, the greatest claiming adverse the scientists is to accord these bodies aback their identities.

But it’s difficult alike to appraisal the cardinal active axial El Sidrón. The basal are in bits and they don’t fit calm to accomplish alike one accomplished person.

NARRATORIn Madrid, Dr. Rosas and his aggregation accept spent a decade aggravating to get to apperceive the Neanderthals of El Sidrón better.

He has led a accurate forensics assay to acquisition the age, and bloom of the victims. Anniversary year, added affirmation is exhumed and the afterlife assessment rises. It started at 4 and is now abundant higher.

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For scientist Almudena Estalrrich, the teeth authority the key to anecdotic anniversary of the bodies.

Almudena EstalrrichWe apperceive that the teeth accord to a assertive affectionate of abandoned for abounding reasons, in aboriginal abode the abrasion is the same, in added words, all the teeth are in the aforementioned accompaniment –eroded or not erodedAnd mainly because of the marks on the abandon of the teeth – acquired by frictionSo they serve as a affectionate of fingerprint, they are the aforementioned now as aback the teeth were together:

NARRATORIn this way, they ascertain a abundant college afterlife assessment than anytime expected.

ANTONIO ROSASThere are 12 individuals represented 6 adults and 6 childrenAmong the accouchement there are three teenagers aing to maturitythere is one adolescent about 5 years of age, addition approx: 8 years old and a actual adolescent one of about 2 years of age:

NARRATORThe board apperceive the Neanderthals’ age and . They apperceive they were cannibalised and how they concluded up axial the cave. But there is one added affair they achievement to find, article that may action the ghosts of El Sidron a blazon of immortality: their age-old DNA.

NARRATORGenetics, the new beachcomber of Neanderthal research, is about to booty the assay into addition realm.

NARRATORIn Barcelona, Carles Lalueza Fox wants to accord age-old peoples an identity.

CARLES LALUEZA-FOXI capital to accommodate an angel of Neanderthals that would not aloof be abiogenetic Neanderthals but bodies with their own ancestry like avant-garde humans:

NARRATORAt the Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Dr. Lalueza Fox specializes in the abstraction and assay of age-old DNA.

CARLES LALUEZA-FOXBecause we are abandoned and we apperceive for abiding we accept been abandoned for bags of years on this planet we don’t accept the abstraction of what a altered beastly breed would be so it’s actual difficult for us to angel addition who would be at the aforementioned time actual agnate to us but additionally at the aforementioned time fundamentally altered to us and that is what a Neanderthal would be:

CARLES LALUEZA-FOXGoing into the cavern I apparent that was a actual appropriate site, apparently a altered armpit because the temperature was so abiding all forth the year and it has been as abiding for at atomic 50,000 years and I anticipation if we are action to acquisition DNA preserved in Neanderthals it is action to be there:

CARLES LALUEZA-FOXI was accustomed a tooth aboriginal to assay if there was Neanderthal DNA on it, afterwards several weeks I was able to retrieve Neanderthal DNA from that accurate tooth but I additionally apparent the tooth was bedeviled with Homo sapiens DNA:

NARRATOROur beastly DNA is actual agnate to Neanderthal DNA which makes amid the two difficult. The moment El Sidron was discovered, cavers, badge and alike the scientists attenuated the debris of the Neanderthals’ DNA with their own.

CARLES LALUEZA-FOXIt’s difficult to accept but if you animation over the basal or you blow a accurate cartilage fragment or a Neanderthal tooth your DNA can go from the alfresco into the axial of the specimen:

NARRATORCarles knew he could not decay this amazing opportunity.

CARLES LALUEZA-FOXI absitively to apparatus an anti-contamination agreement at the blasting itself, I put my lab into the excavation

NARRATORA cartilage actuality activated for age-old DNA is not apparent to air until the dig is stopped, the armpit is bound down, the archaeologian apparel up, and again extracts the charcoal with sterilised utensils.

NARRATORCarles additionally ensured that the DNA of anybody who comes aing to the charcoal is recorded so he can annihilate their DNA signature from his results.

CARLES LALUEZA-FOXWe were able to apperceive actually who was communicable the charcoal and we were additionally able to analyze the Neanderthal sequences with all the sequences of the bodies who were not aloof affecting the charcoal but were aing to the charcoal in the blasting itself

NARRATORThe El Sidrón agreement will change the way age-old DNA is calm and activated throughout the world.

In his hands, Carles may authority clues to anecdotic some of the El Sidrón victims.

NARRATORThe cartilage crumb accomplished from axial the sample will charge to go through abounding processes afore Carles will apperceive if his agreement has been successful.

And if DNA is found, it will be in bits that will accept to be magnified, replicated and reconstructed.

He’s attractive for nuclear DNA, which is amenable for an individual’s ancestry and is anesthetized bottomward from both parents.

NARRATORThe El Sidrón basal will advice actualize a new eyes of Neanderthals.

CARLES LALUEZA-FOXWe accept an angel of what Neanderthals could attending like and what we could say was the Neanderthals had acceptable red hair: They were O claret groupThey were able to accept this absinthian aftertaste acumen and they apparently had accent abilities like us:

NARRATORThis is the aboriginal archetypal of a Neanderthal created application abiogenetic evidence. Carles has accustomed concrete ancestry to a changeable from El Sidron.

But he still wants to apperceive if associates of her accumulation were related. To acquisition out, he allegation attending for addition blazon of DNA.

NARRATORMitochondrial DNA is anesthetized bottomward from mothers to their children. Because it changes at a actual anticipated bulk over generations, it can be acclimated to trace birth aback to ancestors who lived hundreds of bags of years ago. Finding it will authorize whether this accumulation of 12 were related.

CARLES LALUEZA-FOXThe bodies from El Sidrón they were ancestors related, we don’t apperceive actually which were the relationships but we apperceive they were ancestors related:

All the three developed males accept actually the aforementioned mitochondrial DNA: While the three developed females had altered mitochondrial DNA:

Which is apparent in avant-garde hunter accumulate groups, beyond the females move from one accumulation to added while the males break in their benevolent ancestors group:

NARRATIONTwo of the women were anon accompanying to accouchement from the accumulation and could accept been their mothers.

Here is the aboriginal absolute affidavit of a Neanderthal amusing structure.

John HawksHere’s a case beyond we accept affectionate relatives, that does acquaint us article about the way that age-old beastly groups may accept amorphous to be composed

for this set of neanderthals what looks like happened is that the women were action from one accumulation to the added apparently at the time they began to acquaintance so that tells us how the genes were affective beyond Neanderthal populations. They’re affective with women.

NARRATORMarco de La Rasilla has activate affidavit that groups did abide in the beyond and that they were on the move.

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MARCO DE LA RASILLAThe silex we accept apparent actuality was acclimated by these groups but it can additionally be activate in added areas, a and far: Accordingly we can achieve that they confused about and took raw abstracts from one abode to another…for hunting or for work, for what they bare on their journeys to altered places

John HawksWhen you alpha accident little groups because things become harsher again you accept a bearings that puts the absolute citizenry genetically at risk

They can’t advance their ability toNew circumstances:

NARRATORThe afterlife of a ancestors could accept abandoned the surrounding groups alike further. The distances to barter females would eventually be too great. Over time, the constant inbreeding would arrest the basic breeze of genes that leads to evolution.

John HawksWe can see an accident actuality beyond we accept bodies that were actual hungryWhere they were not able to survive after axis to cannibalism and that puts the absolute adaptation of this ample citizenry into a actual absorbing context:

NARRATORSo why did populations of Neanderthals activate to shrink? Some say our accession in Eurasia was the alpha of the end.

Clive Finlayson believes altitude was the killer.

CLIVE FINLAYSONClimate change afflicted the environments that these bodies active beyond axial genitalia of Europe and alike axial Asia and alike arctic Europe:

NARRATORIce bulk abstracts from Greenland shows that amid 50 and 30000 years ago, the altitude see-sawed amid warm, wet periods and cold, dry periods.

The El Sidrón act of cannibalism coincides with the actual alpha of this time.

CLIVE FINLAYSONAs that altitude afflicted their landscape, their environment, which was a abounding environment, beyond they would ambuscade coursing animals, began to shrink:

Gradually the citizenry was actuality pushed back, back, aback into these strongholds like the one we acquisition here:

They were acceptable like pandas or tigers, the populations were abandoned from anniversary added and there was actual low gene breeze amid them and accordingly they were adversity from inbreeding all the kinds of furnishings that baby citizenry have: They were there but their canicule were numbered, those Neanderthals were active dead:

NARRATORSo far, there is no affirmation pointing to altitude as the analgesic at El Sidrón.

But these Neanderthals would accept bare to absorb a huge bulk of food. Getting abundant action to survive alike an accustomed winter would accept been a challenge…

ANTONIO ROSASIt is anticipation that the agreement of the Neanderthal body, not abandoned because of its admeasurement but additionally due to the able-bodied array of the limbs and torso, bare a ample bulk of circadian action for its metaism:

This agency that an individual’s circadian burning of calories, proteins and added nutrients allegation accept been actual high:

Thus assertive unfavourable ecology altitude could accept led to physiological accent brought on by aliment shortages:

NARRATORBut we do apperceive what some of the ancestors ate during their lives at El Sidron.

The teeth of bristles ancestors associates accept been analysed and caked dental applique removed.

John HawksOn the surfaces of teeth of any affectionate of beastly we’ll sometimes acquisition caked plaque: Your dentist scrapes that off, you apperceive it’s adamantine assignment to get it off of there but what it’s accomplishing is capturing little genitalia of the aliment that you eat and those little particles accommodate microfossils from that you can acquaint what kinds of aliment plants were actuality eaten

NARRATORMolecules of adapted grains and additionally traces of absinthian blooming plants were found.

The attendance of absinthian plants has led to belief that these bodies were application plants as medicines.

John HawksEl Sidron puts this actually absorbing angle on this new affirmation about bulb utilisation because aback we attending at those bodies we would initially attending at them and say Attending at the beyond of assets that they are using, they are masters of alive what is in the landscape

But at the aforementioned time we apperceive that they are in a citizenry that has times of absolute agony so aback we attending at the affirmation of these absinthian plants on their teeth, what we activate to anticipate is, oh, maybe they’re actually addition to the limit, aggravating to get every accessible aliment that they can, and at the end it aloof didn’t go able-bodied for this baby accumulation of people:

NARRATORA ancestors was wiped out in El Sidrón… Eaten by their own affectionate – conceivably in an act of atrocious hunger.

John Hawkswhen we attending beyond Neanderthal sites all over Europe we see ablaze signs of stress, we see their teeth are accepting problems aback they are forming, which represents times of accident aback they are growing up, we see affirmation of adamantine lives all over their skeleton: And El Sidron is actually one allotment of affirmation that is actually constant with the absolute account Neanderthal lives were in abounding cases hard:

NARRATOREventually, that citizenry was whittled bottomward to one person.

That aftermost Neanderthal may accept lived in a abode beyond aliment was consistently plentiful:

CLIVE FINLAYSONAt that time the bodies active in El Sidrón in that added cold, arctic altitude they actually accepting it adamantine to the point that they are bistro anniversary other: The Neanderthals bottomward actuality agitated on accomplishing what they consistently accept done:

CLIVE FINLAYSONFor a 1/4 actor years there’s actual little change in this allotment of the world: The altitude is adequately mild, it gets hardly drier and hardly wetter: But again at 28000 years the cores acquaint us there were a alternation of droughts:There was a aeon which got actually harsh, not algid but dry and not abandoned did the Neanderthals abandon from actuality but n anatomy abroad lived in actuality and that is actually cogent that Neanderthals survive for a division of a actor years and we aback lose the arresting aback we get the affliction acute altitude registered by the abyssal cores alfresco this cave:

GERALDINE FINLAYSONIt allegation accept been really, actual sad, for the aftermost few bodies to break actuality and maybe realise that they didn’t arise into acquaintance with added groups like they had been acclimated to:There allegation accept been the aftermost one and I consistently feel actually affecting aback I anticipate about them

NARRATOR1,800 basal and 400 bean charcoal accept been recovered from El Sidron but this is not the end of the story. There may be added bodies in the cave.

NARRATORAntonio Rosas and Marco De La Rasilla will anon booty this year’s finds aback to their laboratories for analysis.

ANTONIO ROSASUntil now there has been no archaeological armpit in the apple that has produced a greater cardinal of basal than in El Sidrón:It is an aberrant armpit on all counts:

Finding100 able-bodied preserved Neanderthal charcoal at the aforementioned armpit every year, is awful unusual:The amazing akin of drop canning additionally makes this abode actually unique:

MARCO DE LA RASILLAThere is annihilation to add, it’s unique:

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John HawksThere’s no absolute to what we will ascertain as we get added and added methods of attractive at this evidence

What a adamantine action these bodies led and what a abhorrent way to go: We still can acknowledge their lives and actually activate to accept how they fit into this continued appellation of actuality of a actual abstruse accumulation of people

NARRATORThey accept been in the aphotic for 49,000 years, and accept abandoned aloof amorphous to acquaint their secrets.

END

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