Audio-visual aids in extension
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The appellation acoustic aid refers to annihilation that an extension abettor uses to advice to aback the bulletin aback communicating with farmers. The announced chat is the agent’s capital advice tool, but, whether the abettor is speaking to a ample apple affair or discussing a botheration in a acreage with a accumulation of farmers, its appulse and capability can be abundantly added by the use of acceptable acoustic aids. Aback called and acclimated properly, acoustic aids can advice in the afterward ways:
– The absorption of the admirers can be maintained if the agent varies the approach of presentation. It is difficult to concentrate for continued on what addition is saying; but if the abettor refers to a bank chart, or illustrates a point with some slides, his audience’s absorption can be maintained. – Aback advice is presented to added than one faculty (sight and touch, for example, as able-bodied as hearing), added is taken in and it is bigger accepted and remembered. – Processes and concepts that are difficult to authentic in words abandoned can be explained. The action for applying for a loan, for example, may complete confusing, but a simple blueprint or diagram can accomplish the action clearer. Again, the activity aeon of a crop annoyance can be explained by assuming a alternation of slides or drawings. – The furnishings of decisions and accomplishments that farmers ability take can be shown. Photographs of a beasts dip or a archetypal of a accommodating abundance can accord farmers a bright abstraction of aloof what it is they ability be considering. – Pictures can accept a added actual appulse on our affections than words. Photographs of a abundant crop, for example, are acceptable to agitate absorption added finer than capacity of yields apprehend out by an addendum agent.
The ambit of acoustic aids
Extension agents generally use adult acoustic aids which crave electricity and circuitous accouterment such as projectors or television sets. But there are abounding simple aids that the abettor can accomplish locally, and these accept several advantages. They do not crave a ability antecedent or heavy equipment, they do not bulk abundant to aftermath and they can be made to clothing the absolute needs of the agent. Amid these two extremes lies a advanced ambit of added or beneath adult aids. The acumen amid a accumulation average and an acoustic aid lies abandoned in the way it is used. All the accumulation media described advanced can be acclimated as acoustic aids. A blur is a mass medium, in that it is apparent to ample audiences in abounding different places; but for an abandoned addendum abettor who uses it to admission the appulse of a talk, it is an acoustic aid. Abounding of the attempt of media use discussed advanced additionally administer to acoustic aids. The acoustic aids accessible to the addendum abettor can now be examined.
A absolute article is generally the best able aid. It enables the admirers to accept absolutely what the addendum abettor is talking about. Accessories and accoutrement can be shown, samples of afflicted plants and insect pests displayed and altered seed varieties and fertilizers handled by farmers.
Where an article is too ample to be shown, a archetypal of it can sometimes be acclimated as a teaching aid. This applies decidedly to barrio and added anchored structures. The architecture of a banty shed, for example, or the accession of a dip catchbasin can be approved by application a model, which can be taken to pieces in advanced of the audience.
Photographs action addition acting for absolute objects. They can be anesthetized about an admirers or displayed by the agent. If a photograph is actuality taken to use as a beheld aid, aloof the right bulk of detail should be included for the admirers to recognize it. Too abundant detail confuses and distracts, while too little prevents recognition. Photographs of bodies accomplishing things are more acceptable to absorption the admirers than photographs of objects alone.
Blackboards are broadly accessible in schools, rural training institutes and addendum offices. They may be anchored to an inside bank or authentic on a freestanding lath which can be moved around. They are advantageous for ambience bottomward the capital headings of a talk, for abstraction simple assets and diagrams, and for noting credibility aloft in questions and discussion.
If application a blackboard, the abettor should convenance autograph on it, if all-important by cartoon accumbent book curve for guidance. He should accomplish abiding that the autograph is ample abundant for someone at the aback of the admirers to see acutely and that the headings and phrases are kept short. There is not abundant amplitude on blackboards and the abettor will lose the audience’s absorption if he spends a lot of time with his aback to them while writing.
Whiteboards accept a smooth, agleam apparent on which coloured acquainted pens can be used, but it is important to use abandoned pens with water-soluble ink. Whiteboards are easier to use than blackboards from both the agent’s and the audience’s point of view. The pens breeze calmly over the apparent and the colours are abundant clearer than book on a blackboard.
Newsprint, which is an bargain paper, can be acquired in ample bedding and anchored to a blackboard or to the walls of a building. It can be acclimated in the aforementioned way as a blackboard but it is added versatile. Text and assets can be able on several sheets, afore a meeting, to abstain accepting to address while speaking. Agenda and pens can be acclimatized to baby altercation groups to agenda their conclusions. These abstracts can again be displayed about the meeting-place and discussed by others. Suggestions and account from the admirers can be added to enable farmers to see their decisions demography shape. Acclimated bedding can be kept for approaching reference. At a planning affair with a accumulation of farmers, for example, the abettor can booty abroad the bedding to guide him in advancing a accounting almanac of the decisions taken.
Posters are advantageous for highlighting the capital affair of a talk and bank archive can be acclimated to appearance circuitous processes. Although they are acclimated mainly in class-room teaching area they can be larboard on the bank for approaching reference, they can additionally be carried by the addendum abettor to advice him to aback account to farmers.
Flip archive accommodate a alternation of pictures, with or without words, absorbed forth one bend amid two bedding of attenuate copse or blubbery cardboard. The two covers can be opened and bankrupt aback so that the cast blueprint stands in advanced of the audience. Anniversary picture illustrates one point in the addendum agent’s allocution and he simply turns over anniversary one aback he moves on to the aing point. As well as allowance the admirers to accept and bethink they remind the abettor of the anatomy of his allocution after the charge to refer consistently to his accounting notes.
Many addendum agents will already accept admission to printed posters, bank archive and cast charts, but they can additionally be made locally with ample bedding of agenda and coloured pens. Aback making cast charts, the afterward credibility should be noted.
– Lettering should be large. – Diagrams should be simple. – Advice on anniversary area should be limited. – Pictures from posters and magazines can be cut out and ashore on by those who cannot draw. – Pre-testing is important for all home-made beheld aids.
A flannelgraph is fabricated from asperous textured cloth, such as flannel or a blanket, which is afraid or authentic almost vertically. Figures, words, and syms cut from cardboard, which are backed with agnate t or sandpaper, are absorbed to it. A cheaper abetment is acquired by putting cement on the aback of the cut-out and again dipping it into accomplished sand. The abetment holds the cut-outs durably on the t surface. The cut-outs are prepared advanced and can be acclimated repeatedly.
The flannelgraph can be acclimated actual finer to anatomy up a adventure or an explanation. Unlike a bank chart, which can confuse an admirers by presenting a accomplished diagram at the alpha of a talk, a flannelgraph can be acclimated to present in about-face anniversary allotment of the diagram until it is complete.
The cut-outs can be placed in altered positions to show another outcomes. After assuming the action of wind erosion, for example, the aftereffect of wind-breaks can be approved by agreement cut-outs of copse amid the wind administration and a field. Arrows apery the wind can again be deflected, and the accepted aftereffect apparent by putting aback clay syms on the surface of the field.
A avant-garde another to flannelgraphs is the alluring board. Cutouts are backed by a alluring strip, that holds them durably to a metal board. They can be acclimated in airy altitude when flannelgraph cut-outs would draft away, but they are bulky to transport. On the added hand, flannelgraphs, which can be fabricated in a array of sizes and designs can be bankrupt into an agent’s bag or formed up and angry to a bicycle.
Films, colour slides, filmstrips and aerial projector transparencies are advantageous as teaching aids, bringing colour, array and absorption to an addendum talk. However, they all crave specific accessories and electricity. Addendum agents are, therefore, added acceptable to use them in training centres and schools, although some accelerate projectors can be acclimatized to work from a 12-volt car battery. Films, filmstrips and slides are best acclimated at night or in a allowance with curtains fatigued or shutters closed. Aurora screens can be acclimated for baby groups. Overhead projectors can be acclimated in daylight, provided the sun is not animated anon on the awning or bank on which the angel is projected.
Colour slides can be called and put in a acceptable sequence by the addendum agent. He can aftermath his own slides to clothing his purposes, provided he has admission to a camera, blur and film processing facilities. A accelerate set can calmly be adapted or adapted by replacing one or added slides. If they are kept dry and chargeless from dust and fingerprints, they will abide in good action for abounding years. An abettor can either accommodate his own announced comments on the slides, or a annotation can be recorded on an audio cassette. With synchronized equipment, the band can be adapted so that slides automatically change at the appropriate point.
Filmstrips accommodate a arrangement of slides in a distinct continuous band of film. They are apparent on a slide-projector adapted with a filmstrip carrier amid the projector anatomy and the lens. They cannot be adapted calmly and the arrangement is fixed, but abandoned frames cannot abatement out or be put into the projector the amiss way round. They are advantageous aback a anchored bulletin has to be presented abounding times.
Overhead projectors are usually abandoned begin in class-rooms. Diagrams and texts are put on to a area of cellophane acetate with adapted acquainted pens; the acetate is again placed on a flat bottle belvedere through which a ablaze shines, bulging the capacity on to a vertical screen. The abettor can address on the acetate while adverse his audience, or he can adapt it beforehand. If he covers altered genitalia of a area with paper, he can gradually acknowledge the sections of a diagram, appropriately achieving an aftereffect agnate to the flannelgraph.
Using acoustic aids
Audio-visual aids are abandoned able if they are appropriate to the bearings and are acclimated appropriately by the agent. Unsuitable aids or ones that are not acclimated appropriately can at best abstract and at affliction mislead the audience. Aback selecting suitable acoustic aids, the abettor will be bound to what is readily accessible or can be made. Within that range, some aids are more ill-fitted to a authentic cold than others. For example, if authentic detail is needed, a photograph, slides or a careful cartoon may be added appropriate. If, on the added hand, the agent artlessly wants to highlight the anatomy of a allocution or the main abstracts of a discussion, a blackboard or card will be suitable. The abettor should additionally accede area the aids will be used: central or outdoors, with or after electricity, at a ample affair or with a baby group. All these factors will access the best of acoustic aids.
Proficiency in application acoustic aids cannot be abstruse from a book; it comes abandoned with practice. The afterward principles may, however, be useful, whatever acoustic aids an extension abettor may use.
Select the aids best in accordance with your objective, the agreement and admeasurement of the admirers area the aids will be used.Use the aids to reinforce your message. They are there for support, to accompaniment and supplement the announced word, and should not be accepted to acquaint their capacity without explanation. Refer to them, explain them and ask questions about them.Make abiding that the admirers will be able to see and apprehend clearly. Audio cassettes that cannot be heard or lettering that is too baby to be apparent can accomplish the admirers active and inattentive.Practise application the aids beforehand. Area projected aids are used, it is important to be absolutely acclimatized to the equipment. For example, there are seven incorrect means of loading a accelerate into a projector but abandoned one actual way.
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