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In the antecedent post, x64 ABI: Intro to the Windows x64 Calling Convention, I explained the rules of the Windows x64 calling convention. Now we’ll booty a attending at what makes up a assemblage frame.

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RICH 12 quartz window frame assembly | window frame diagram

I’ve apparent 2012 abundance non-volatile registers in action prologues and booty advantages of appendage calls added often, but these are simple examples and aftereffect in the aforementioned disassembly so continued as you use the aforementioned compiler options.

This agency a action will accept to admission the anamnesis beneath its own assemblage anatomy to get at its home amplitude and ambit numbers 5 and up (read the aftermost column for a refresher on what the home amplitude is all about).

In the anatomy of a function, RSP will usually be 16 byte aligned. The affiance that needs to be kept is that the alignment of RSP will be accepted aback you access a function. If you don’t alarm addition function, there’s no acumen to accumulate that affiance and the compiler can put RSP on whatever alignment it wants.

RSP won’t be on 16 byte alignment afterwards the alarm into a action because calling a action pushes an 8 byte acknowledgment abode on the stack. But aback it was accumbent afore the call, its bulk is still deterministic. RSP will consistently accept a bulk catastrophe in 0×8 in the prologue. Aforementioned goes for the coda aback it restores RSP aback to that bulk afore abiding (ret ancestor the 8 byte acknowledgment abode off of the stack). I like to alarm this a 16 8 byte alignment. There adeptness be an official adorned appellation for it that already exists, but I don’t apperceive it.

To summarize: functions that alarm added functions charge consistently accept a 16 byte accumbent assemblage arrow in their body. Functions that don’t alarm any added functions don’t accept to accumulate the assemblage arrow on any specific alignment.

Alloca makes 16 byte accumbent allocations. The top of the bounded capricious block is additionally accumbent to 16 bytes. 16 is the cardinal admitting shalt adjust to, and the cardinal for the alignment shall be 16. That’s the acumen for those orange blocks, the added to accumulate these blocks of anamnesis aligned.

The one college on the assemblage alone exists if the best cardinal of ambit anesthetized to functions is greater than 4 and is an odd number. The actuality of the one lower on the assemblage depends on the admeasurement of the non-volatile annals save block (including the anatomy pointer) and the admeasurement of the bounded variables block. Its home is amid those two blocks.

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Sometimes that lower orange block is 16 bytes, and I don’t apperceive why. The cases breadth I’ve apparent it happen, no adored registers with 24 bytes of bounded variables is the simplest, the compiler could accept had a 24 byte bounded capricious block with the top accumbent to 16 bytes and no added at all (the aftermost 8 bytes would be taken affliction of by the acknowledgment abode pushed on the stack). Maybe there is no purpose, and this is allowance for advance for the compiler.

Aligning all of these pieces adeptness be the best affair aback broken silicon! It lets the compiler calmly adjust bounded variables. It can additionally calmly actuate if accumbent SSE load/store instructions can be acclimated or not. If RSP wasn’t aligned, the compiler would accept to consistently use the aloof instructions or add alignment cipher to the prologue of assertive functions.

Aligning every assemblage anatomy is an affected solution, and I anticipate the added few bytes of added is a small, advantageous bulk to pay for the adeptness to use optimal SSE instructions. Those instructions can handle abstracts in any format, not aloof amphibian point numbers. You adeptness see the compiler use them to move 16 bytes of abstracts quickly. Aback the SSE registers are abiding to abide and assemblage abstracts can be aligned, there’s no acumen to use the x87 FPU instructions (unless you REALLY appetite that precision). For x87 the alarm tolls. Time marches on.

I’ve additionally apparent MSVC use a anatomy arrow for affidavit that I am absolutely ambiguous of. From what I can tell, the anatomy arrow will be acclimated if a action needs to canyon abundant struct ambit by-value and the bulk of assemblage amplitude bare for the acting altar is aural a assertive ambit (the structs breadth of the aftermost column explains those acting objects).

I anticipate there’s a appropriate arrangement amid the cardinal of params and their size. IE: 6 structs of 8 bytes, but not 3 structs of 16 bytes. This abracadabra is interesting, but the specifics about how it works are not important for this post. The assignment to booty abroad actuality is that MSVC may adjudge a anatomy arrow is all-important for affidavit added than the use of alloca.

Predicting breadth the anatomy arrow will point to is a bit tricky. It generally credibility to the top of the bounded capricious block, but it can be anywhere aural that block. If that block doesn’t exist, it would be pointing to the top of the adored non-volatile annals block (which I assumption you could altercate is the top of the 0 sized bounded capricious block). There’s no alignment claim for the anatomy pointer, so don’t be afraid if you see it with a low byte of, say, 0×9.

Some association may use the appellation abject arrow instead of anatomy pointer, and aback EBP adeptness point about in the average of the assemblage anatomy I’d say the aloft appellation is added applicable for x64. I’m activity to abide calling it a anatomy arrow though, because that’s what I’ve consistently alleged in and that’s what the MSDN calls it. That’s the way it is, and that’s the way I brand it, dagnabit!

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Window Rough Opening Diagram – Enthusiast Wiring Diagrams • – window frame diagram | window frame diagram

Since the anatomy arrow isn’t consistently used, the affiliated annual of anatomy arrow and acknowledgment abode pairs activity up the callstack doesn’t abide like it did on x86. It arrangement of exists if every action acclimated the anatomy pointer, but it still wouldn’t be as accessible to chase aback there’s a capricious bulk of amplitude amid the abode it credibility to and the abode breadth the aftermost anatomy arrow is stored (if you accept no bounded variables and alone RBP is saved, you’ll get advantageous and accept the aforementioned bureaucracy as x86).

It’s still accessible to chase the callstack yourself with or afterwards a anatomy pointer, though. Already you acquisition the prologue or coda for a function, you should be able to annual breadth the acknowledgment abode is as able-bodied as the bound of the assemblage frame. With the assemblage anatomy diagram in your duke and the song of debugging in your heart, you should be able to acquisition aggregate on the stack.

The accumulation non-volatile registers are usually stored on the assemblage with a advance apprenticeship that happens afore the assemblage grows (sometimes they’re abashed the home amplitude instead, and that can appear afore or afterwards the assemblage grows). If RBP is acclimated as the anatomy pointer, it will consistently be pushed and it will consistently appear afore the others. That’s a accessible aphorism to accept because it keeps the old anatomy arrow appropriate aing to the acknowledgment address. I’ve consistently apparent these registers pushed in a accurate order: RBP, RBX, RSI, RDI, again R12-15 sequentially.

The SSE registers can’t be pushed, so they will consistently get abashed to this block afterwards the assemblage grows. I’ve noticed that the adjustment in which they’re abashed follows the annals calculation adjustment as well.

You can anticipate of these acting altar as bounded variables that the compiler stuffs in there for you, which is one acumen why there isn’t a abstracted block in the diagram for them. The aforementioned affair happens for acting acknowledgment altar that are greater than 8 bytes.

There can be alignment added brindled throughout this area, too. Abstracts types that are beneath than 8 bytes abstracts types can be arranged deeply calm by the compiler, so added should be put to acceptable use aback able. Don’t apprehend the adjustment you acknowledge your variables to behest breadth they are on the stack. That’s addition acumen why there’s no “temp object” block. There would be a capricious cardinal of acting and bounded capricious blocks weaved amid anniversary other, and that makes for a actual blowzy picture.

I’ve yet to see a action bottle airy registers afore authoritative a action call. If it bare to, my gut tells me that there would be amplitude in this bounded variables block for extenuative those registers. Aloof like the ambush for ample pass-by-value abstracts types, it’s addition acting capricious added by the compiler.

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Plastic window frame profile infographic Vector Image – window frame diagram | window frame diagram

In my experience, the compiler has consistently been able to use one of the non-volatile registers to bottle ethics beyond a action call. It absolutely could abundance airy registers afore a alarm if it capital to. But in adjustment to force that situation, there would charge to be an apprenticeship that operated on added than the cardinal of non-volatile registers at already (forcing the use of a airy annals to abundance one of the appropriate values).

So continued as such an apprenticeship doesn’t exist, it’s accessible for the compiler to abstain the bearings entirely. The MSDN doesn’t explain how these registers are saved, which gives me added aplomb that the bearings won’t appear up.

They’re added to the assemblage anatomy in the action prologue, and consistently abide at the top of the assemblage frame. So if alloca is acclimated aural a action they wind up moving. That agency that the abode of these blocks for one alleged action will be altered from the abode for addition alleged action if there’s an alloca alarm in between. This isn’t a cool important actuality to bethink about the assemblage frame, but it may advice you on your debugging adventures.

Brief aside: The analogue for a blade action aloft is the analogue you’ll acquisition in the MSDN and GNU documentation. This abashed me at first, because I ample a blade action would alone accept the aspect of not calling any added functions. I anticipate the analogue these compilers use is silly, but I will accommodate to their analogue to be consistent.

The admeasurement of the assemblage anatomy varies, but it will alone be fabricated up of the genitalia in the diagram at the alpha of this post. Aback RSP doesn’t generally move in the anatomy of a function, you can usually attending at the prologue to see how abundant it adds to RSP and calculation the cardinal of pushes afore it to get the assemblage anatomy size. If you use alloca, add up the sizes and don’t balloon to annual for alignment padding.

The amplitude for ambit cardinal 5 and up for alleged functions, the lighter dejected block in the diagram, is allocated up advanced in a calling function’s prologue. The compiler goes through a function, looks at all the action calls made, and takes the one with the best parameters. That’s the cardinal it will use aback free how big this block should be. The home amplitude charge abide in a function’s assemblage anatomy if it calls addition function. Otherwise, it can be removed absolutely alike in unoptimized builds.

If you recall, I had said that every action alarm requires at atomic 48 bytes on the stack. Let’s attending at a action that does annihilation but alarm addition action with no parameters:



__int64 g = 0;void NoParams(){ g;}

int main(){ NoParams();return 0;}

main:sub rsp,28hcall NoParamsxor eax,eaxadd rsp,28hret

Add all that up and you get our abracadabra number: 8 bytes of added to adjust RSP 32 bytes home amplitude an 8 byte acknowledgment abode = 48 bytes. Afterwards the alarm into NoParams, RSP will be 48 bytes added up the assemblage than it was in the alpha of main. NoParams is a blade function, so it doesn’t alike bother creating a assemblage frame.

Please avoid the actuality that the arrangement is not initialized. I’ve alone done that to abate the disassembly we charge to attending through.

__int64 g = 0;void NoParams(){ g; printf( “%I64d”, g );}

void Shim(){volatile __int64 space[5]; g = space[4]; NoParams();}

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int main(){ Shim();return 0;}

Shim:sub rsp,58hmov rax,qword ptr [rsp 40h]inc qword ptr [g],eaxadd rsp,58hjmp NoParams

main:sub rsp,28hcall Shimxor eax,eaxadd rsp,28hret

NoParams takes this “I wasn’t here” ambush to the aing level. Not alone does it jump to printf, it forgoes conception of its own assemblage anatomy entirely. I’ve alone apparent this appear aback appendage alarm aishment is used. For example: if you move the ” g” afterwards the alarm to printf, appendage alarm aishment cannot appear and NoParams will actualize a assemblage frame.

So continued as the cardinal of ambit for the appendage alarm are beneath than or according to the calling function’s, again this access can be used. Destructors don’t blend this up either, admitting the appendage alarm will wind up actuality one of the destructors rather than the action you typed at the end. The compiler needs to accumulate action adjustment the same, and the destructors are affirmed to appear last.

Tail alarm aishment is a admirable optimization! The downside is that action that makes the appendage alarm won’t appearance up in the callstack. Aback there’s no acknowledgment abode into it, a debugger has no abstraction it was called. If you see a missing call, don’t doubtable the callstack is corrupt. Double analysis your calls and you’ll apparently acquisition a alarm to the action that isn’t assuming up in your callstack.

Stepping through optimized x64 disassembly is about abatement compared to accomplishing the aforementioned with x86 disassembly. Abstracts flows from the assemblage to registers and aback so smoothly, and it’s consistently accessible to acquisition your basement with a stable, anchored RSP register. If you acquisition any decidedly cases breadth the compiler does some absorbing things, let me know!

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Aluminum Window Parts Diagram Surprising Aluminum Window Frame Parts .. | window frame diagram

[This allotment was reprinted from #AltDevBlogADay, a aggregate blog action started by @mike_acton adherent to giving d developers of all disciplines a abode to actuate anniversary added to address consistently about their claimed d development passions.]

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