“Nature is adamant and unchangeable, and it is aloof as to whether its hidden affidavit and accomplishments are barefaced to man or not.” –Galileo Galilei
All of science is abiding in the abstraction that accustomed phenomena can be explained naturally, and that if we appetite to apperceive how annihilation in the Universe works, all we charge to do is ask the Universe the appropriate questions, and the answers will appear.
So what about the catechism of the night sky, and why it appears to rotate the way it does?
There are two aboveboard explanations for this, and from this ascertainment alone, they’re duplicate from one another.
These two scenarios, although they would both abundantly explain this phenomenon, are awfully altered from one another.
But the stars actualization to amphitheater about the angelic pole is not the only observation we have. By authoritative added observations and interpreting them in the ambience of these two actual altered models, we can advice actuate whether one is aloft to the other.
So what can we see that can accord us a clue to whether it’s the Earth or the sky that’s moving? Although the stars consistently arise to accomplish this rotational motion throughout the night, the stars that are arresting in the night sky — as able-bodied as their locations — alter abundantly throughout the year.
Given that we’ve got the absolute sky to consider, this has to do with the position of the Sun. Back the Sun appears during the day in the Summer, the winter constellations are blocked by the sunlight bathing our atmosphere, and back night falls, the summer constellations are visible. Conversely, the summer constellations are blocked by the Sun during canicule in Winter, while the winter constellations are arresting at night.
Again, both models can accomodate this, but they attending actual different.
If the Earth is absolutely stationary, afresh the Sun would accept to move to altered locations about to the night sky throughout the year. In accession to its once-a-day apogee about the Earth, it would accept to drift in one added amphitheater about to the accomplishments stars anniversary year, in adjustment to explain why the arresting constellations alter throughout the seasons.
On the added hand, if the Earth is accustomed to move, afresh it can additionally move about the Sun, answer why altered constellations arise in the night sky at altered times of the year.
We additionally charge to explain what the Sun does.
From the point-of-view of us actuality on Earth, decidedly those of us who alive abroad from close latitudes (outside of the tropics), the Sun’s aisle through the sky varies decidedly throughout the year.
The everyman the Sun anytime appears — at acme — aloft the border occurs during the winter solstice, while its accomplished point occurs during the summer solstice.
In the Earth-is-stationary model, the Sun needs to change its area in the sky decidedly throughout the year: in accession to its once-a-day adventure about the Earth, it needs to change its area about to the angelic apple by a whopping 47 degrees every six months. Why the Sun moves in this aisle so boring about to the angelic apple but so bound about to Earth is not explained in this model.
On the added hand, if the Earth is accustomed to move, this would aftereffect artlessly from the Earth affective about the Sun while it rotates on its agee axis. If the Earth is the affective thing, its circling and its anarchy are accustomed to be abstracted quantities, which could explain the awfully altered timescales for canicule (the aeon of Earth’s rotation) and years (the aeon of Earth’s revolution).
Again, both models are still allowed, but the complication and ability of anniversary account is different. Let’s bandy in aloof one added object: the Moon.
Much like the Sun, the Moon follows a actual agnate aisle throughout the sky: it rises appear the East, sets in the West, and rises and sets already per day. It additionally appears to drift about to the stars, commutual an added amphitheater about already every 29-to-30 days.
The big aberration amid the Moon and the Sun is credible back there’s a Full Moon.
While the Moon never varies by added than 5 degrees from the Sun in agreement of its affection to Earth, there’s a huge seasonal difference amid the Full Moon and the Sun. Back the Sun alcove its best acme aloft the horizon, during the summer solstice, the Full Moon achieves its minimum height aloft the horizon. And back the Sun is at its minimum acme during the winter solstice, the Full Moon alcove its maximum height aloft the horizon!
If the Earth charge abide absolutely stationary, we charge afresh put the Moon’s apogee in, authoritative an added amphitheater about to the angelic apple every lunar month, and absorbed at about the aforementioned (but not quite) the aforementioned bulk about to the angelic apple as the Sun.
We charge this, of course, to explain the empiric Lunar and Solar eclipses, which can calmly be deduced to be to the coaction of caliginosity amid the Sun, Moon and Earth.
But if you acquiesce the Earth to move, you can not alone explain the circadian motion of the stars, Moon, and Sun about to the Earth’s sky by the Earth’s rotation, you can explain the lunar and solar motions about to the blow of the sky as advocate orbits due to the force of gravity.
If you assert that the Earth abide anchored and the angelic apple rotates, you can accomplish a alive archetypal for the Earth, Sun, Moon and stars, but it requires you to put the motions of the Sun (an added anarchy agee at 23 degrees about to the angelic apple per year) and the Moon (an added anarchy agee at 5 degrees about to the Sun per lunar month) by hand, with no concrete account for these motions.
That was absolutely what the Ptolemaic Model did, which abundantly described these motions after explaining them. This is why we bare the approach of force (and why we charge accurate theories in general): to explain why the altar in the sky accomplish the credible motions that they do, and to explain why the aisle of the Full Moon aing the Summer Acme is — to aural that 5 amount altruism — is identical to the aisle of the Sun at the Winter Solstice.
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